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• On Tiber's banks, Tiber, whofe waters glide
When a strong tempeft rifing from the main,
There is that bold and romantic imagery in this piece, which is one of the principal characteristics of the true poet. It is called an African Eclogue: but we have no idea of the place where the author lays the fcene. It cannot be in Africa, as he makes the Tiber run through Arabia. The defcription of the river seems to be taken from the account which Strabo, Pliny, Lucan, Justin, and other writers have given us of the Tigris. That river, fays Pliny, rifes in the Greater Armenia, in the midst of a plain called Elongofine. Where it flows with an easy current, it is called Diglito; but where it runs with rapidity, it has the name of Tigris, which, in the language of the Medes, fignifies an arrow. This river enters into the lake Arethufa, and continues its course without altering the colour of its waters. Afterwards it meets with mount Taurus, where it plunges into a cave, paffes under the mountain, and comes out again on the other fide. The place, at which it enters, is called Zoroanda. And as proof, that it is the fame river, it throws out, as it iffues from the earth, what is caft into it, at its entrance into the cave.' Plin. Nat. Hift. vi. 27.
Some of the pieces, included in this volume, are of little importance, and bear the marks of hafte and puerility; but to those who properly confider the author's age and education, they will appear very extraordinary productions; not only on account of their poetical merit, but the very remarkable characteristics of antiquity, by which they are diftinguished. If they are forgeries, the author has conducted his project with as much artifice, as either the noted Pfalmanazar, or Annius of Viterbo *.
* Pfalmanazar wrote a fictitious hiftory of Formofa, and fabri cated a new language, which he pretended was the language of that country. Pfalmanazar died in 1763. Annius of Viterbo was a Dominican friar, and a good linguit and antiquarian; but a notorious impoftor. We have the treatifes, which he forged, in one volume, published at Antwerp, in 1545, &c. containing Berofus's Antiquities in five books, Manethon's Supplement to Berofus, Xenophon's Equivoca, one book of Fabius Pictor on the Golden Age and the Origin of Rome, one book of Myrfilus on the Pelafgic War,
There are several pieces in this volume, which the author pofitively afcribes to Rowlie. We should be glad to fee his veracity confirmed, and the authenticity of Rowlie's MSS, fully authenticated; not only because genuine productions are more valuable than forgeries; but because there is something scandalous and deteftable in fuch literary frauds. Cheats and knaves have disgraced the republic of letters by their spurious publications. He therefore deferves to be branded as the worst of impoftors, WHO OBTRUDES ANY THING UPON THE WORLD, UNDER THE VENERABLE NAME OF ANTIQUITY, WHICH HAS NOT AN HONEST TITLE TO THAT CHARACTER.
The Ayin Akbary, or the Inftitutes of the Emperor Akbar. Translated from the original Perfian. 4to. 55. in boards. Longman. THE emperor Akbar was defcended in a direct line from Timur Lung, known in Europe by the name of Tamerlane, who conquered Hindoftan in the year 1398. Akbar began his reign in 1556. He was a man of curiofity and learning; and his fecretary Abul Fâzel, who had the immediate fuperintendence of this work, has been univerfally confidered as an ornament of the age and nation in which he lived.
The Ayin Akbary, befides a particular defcription of each province in the Moghol dominions, under the title of the hiftory of the fubahs, contains a full account of the emperor's army (in 1596); the wages, falary, and duty of each particular fervant or officer about him; the attendants, and the daily expences of the haram: the different forts of weights, measures, and coins throughout the empire; the method of refining gold and filver in the royal mint; a description of all the herbs, fruits, flowers, and grains at the different feasons of the year; the ceremonies of marrying in the royal family, their feaftings, &c. the emperor's manner of holding a divan, and receiving his people; the honours they pay him, and his method of employing his time. Thefe, with a variety of other curious
Cato's Origines, an Itinerary of Antoninus Pius, one book by C. Sempronius on the Divifion of Italy, a chronological tract by Archilochus, Metalthenes on the Affyrian and Perfian Annals, and an Epitome of History by Philo. To thefe pieces Annius has fubjoined his own comments. He died in 1500.
* Subah is frequently, but improperly, ufed for fubahdar by European authors: fubah is properly the vice-royalty, and fubahdar the viceroy.
particulars, form the first and second part. The third contains a full account of the Gentoo religion, their books, feds, worfhip, purifications, eating, drinking, marrying, &c.
The author informs us, that his attention was firft turned to the Ayin Akbary by the high encomiums which are beftowed upon it by the learned Mr. Jones, in his Perfian Grammar; and that his own examination convinced him, that Mr. Jones's praises did not exceed its merits. He adds, that be has already made a very confiderable progrefs in his tranflation; and that he defigns to illuftrate his performance by drawings of the most remarkable men, animals, cities, fruits, and flowers; and by reprefentations of the principal ceremonies defcribed in this work.
The prefent publication is intended as a fpecimen of the Ayin Akbary, and of the explanatory notes which the learned tranflator propofes to fubjoin.
The following extract may not be unacceptable to the reader. We have omitted the names of places, which are printed in the oriental character,
To the northward of Tiprah is the province of Coch *, the chief of which commands a thousand horfe and one hundred thousand foor: Kaumroop (which is alfo called Kaumvrou) and Kaumnâh make a part of his dominions. The inhabitants of Kaumvrou are faid to be extremely handfome; and they are reported to be very skilful in magic. Many incredible stories are told of the natural productions of this place, fuch as flowers that retain their colour and smell many months after being gathered; trees that being cut fend forth ftreams of delicious liquor, and others having branches with fruit without the appearance of any trunk to fupport them.
• The dominions of the rajah of Afhâm join to Kaumvrou: he is a very powerful prince, lives in vaft ftate, and when he dies his nearest relations, both male and female, are voluntarily buried alive with his corpfe t.
* This province, if its fituation is rightly described, must now be a part of Affam, and Tavernier accordingly calls Kaumroop a city of Affam; but as our author wrote fome time before Tavernier travelled into India, it is not improbable that, when the Ayin Akbary was compofed, Coch might be an independent sovereignty,"
In Tavernier's time this ceremony was faid to be observed in Arakan. Very little was known of Aflam till the reign of Aurungzebe, when it was conquered by one of his generals, Emir Jemla: a very circumstantial account of the expedition, with a particular defcription of the country of Affam, is given by that intel ligent traveller, in the 2nd part of Travels in Indiaopage 18%, London Edit.'
Adjoining to Afhâm is Tibbut bordering upon Khata thro which is the road to Mânâ Chein *, generally called Mâ Cheen. The capital city of Khata is Cawn Baleeg † forty days journey from the fea, to which there is a large artificial canal lined with ftone. Alexander is reported to have left India from this I quarter §; and it is faid, that through this artificial channel you may reach the fea in four days and four nights.
To the fouth-east of Bengal is a large country called Arkhung, to which the Bunder of Chittagong properly belongs: here are plenty of elephants, but great fcarcity of horses, allo camels and affes are very high priced: neither covs nor buffaloes are found in this country; but there are animals of a middle fpecies between thefe, whofe milk the people drink; they are pied and of various colours. Their religion has no kind of agreement either with the Mahomedan or Hindoo: twin brothers and fifters may intermarry, and only mother and fon are prohibited from it: they pay implicit obedience to the will of their priests. The women are the foldiers of this country, to whom the men are fubfervient. The complexion of these people is dark, and the men are beardless,
Near to this tribe is Peigoo which former writers called Cheen, accounting that to be the capital city of Pegu ¶. Their military force confifts of elephants and infantry; fome of their
* Mâhâ, in the Shanfcrit language, fignifies the Greater.'
In the Aijaibul Buldân it is written Khân Bâleek, where it is alfo defcribed as the capital city of Khata, and the high road to Cheen or China. This author says, that the whole of the road from Khân Báleek to Cheen, which is reckoned to be forty days journey, is paved with ftone, and planted with trees whofe fhade affords great refreshment to travellers, and that no perfon of what ever degree is permitted to destroy a single leaf. He defcribes the artificial channel as thirty guz (i. e. fixty English feet) in breadth, and says that it is cut through the middle of the town. Thofe who want to fee a very particular and curious defcription of this city, will find it in Dr. Campbell's Collection of Voyages in the manner of Harris, vol. I. p. 606, taken from Marco Polo's Travels. It is generally imagined, fays Dr. Campbell in his note on the abovementioned page, that Khân Bâleck is the city of Peking, the prefent metropolis of China. Cathay (which Abul Fazel means by Khata) was formerly thought to be a diftinét kingdom from China, and it is probable that it comprised Chinese Tartary and the northern provinces of the Chinese empire.'
- Secunder Roomee.'
The Afiatic historians all affert that Alexander carried his conqueft to the borders of China. In the following article is an account of female foldiers, for which probably there may be as much foundation as for the hiftory of the Amazons.'
"Most people (fays Tavernier) have been of opinion till now that the kingdom of Pegu lies upon the frontiers of China; and I thought fo myself, till the merchants of Tiprah undeceived me." Tavernier's India Travels, part II. p. 186.'