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tive to the king's journey to the North, upon the march of the rebels; but this we must decline to insert, on account of its length, and that of the preceding quotation.

However apparent might be the expediency of the king's journey to the North, at this important juncture, he seems to have been no better prepared than the rebels, for the exigence of the occasion. Of this there needs no other evidence than the minutes of the council of peers at York, which occupy ninety pages of this volume, and are therefore too long to be detailed. The impoverished state of the royal finances is farther confirmed by the dispatches from secretary Vane, who accompanied the king, to his colleague Windebank, which also afford a number of other interesting anecdotes, too tedious to mention.

Number V. contains two papers, from the Harleian manu. scripts, relating to Monmouth's rebellion ; one is an account of the battle of Sedgemoor, by king James; and the other, farther information, respecting the same subject, by Mr. Wade. Our readers will observe, that the noble editor has passed over the reign of Charles II. this period of the British history having been lately so much elucidated, in consequence of the documents which have been published by fir John Dalrymple and Mr. Macpherson.

The next Number comprehends extracts from king William's Letters relative to the Partition Treaty.

Number VII. contains the Somers Papers in the poffeffion of the earl of Hardwicke. The valuable manuscripts of lord Somers filled upwards of fixty volumes in quarto, but so many of them were consumed by a fire which broke out at Lincoln's-Inn, in 1752, that the honourable Charles Yorke, in whose poffeffion they were, could rescue from the flames no more than what he afterwards bound in a folio volume. The firft of those Papers, with which we are presented, contains notes of what pafled in the convention upon the day the question was moved in the house of commons, concerning the abdication of king James; but being much too extensive for insertion, we must refer our readers to the work.

Almost all the other papers in this number are letters, chiefly to or from lord Somers, whose authority as a lawyer and a statesman, was held in the greatest esteem.

Number VIII. contains Papers relative to lord Oxford's ad. ministration, and the treaty of Utrecht, copied from the ori. ginals in the Paper-office. In the prefatory introduction to this Number, an anecdote is related of queen Anne, which it would be improper to with hold from our readers.

• Quee

! Queen Anne frequently attended her cabinets ; and lord Boling broke assured a late great minifter, from whom the editor had it, that she herself proposed the famous reftraining orders to the duke of Ormond, which his lordship folemnly declared he had not been apprized of; and in the first emotion, was going to have objected to them; but after the queen had delivered her pleasure to the lords, the made a sign with her fan at her mouth, which lord Bolingbroke knew he never did, but when she was determined on a measure; he, therefore, unhappily for himself and his country, acquiesced ; and infinuated, when he told the story, that the advice was solely suggested by his rival lord Oxford. Sir William Temple observes very truly in his Memoirs, on a similar occasion, that when princes call their counsellors together, it should be with a resolution to hear what they have to say, before a measure is determined ; and that to have counsellors, who do not give counsel, is a solecism in government."

Number IX. includes various papers in the poffeffion of the earl of Hardwicke, relative to lord Stair's embassy in France. In this correspondence we meet with the first movements towards the pardon of lord Boling broke, which seems to have originated in the favourable representations of lord Stair.

Number X. contains two letters, copied from the originals in the Paper-office, as a sequel to lord Stair's embaffy.

The last article in the volume comprises four letters from the Paper-office, the first three from Mr. Robinson (afterwards lord Grantham) to Mr. Delafaye, and the remaining one from Mr. Keen to Mr. Robinson.

Having now finished the general account of those Papers, it remains to acknowledge the great judgement displayed in their publication by the noble editor, who has every where elucidated them with such observations as evince his extensive acquaintance with history.

Should we ascribe the masterly execution of the editorial office, in part, to the rev. Dr. Douglas, residentiary of St.

aul's, we have lord H's authority for such a declaration, in the Preface, where the useful assistance, and eminent qualities of that gentleman, are mentioned in the warmest terms.The following note, relative to a letter in the Appendix to the first volume of those Papers, has been communicated to the authors of the Critical Review.

The editor of this collection wishes for an opportunity of acknowledge « ing his mistake in giving the letter about Jane Shore, as printed for the first time, when it had been already communicated to the public by Mr. Walpole, in his Hiftorical Doubts. Should these Papers come to a second edition, the error shall be fet right, by omitting this Letter, and "inferting some other."



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Tbe History and Antiquities of the Counties of Westmorland and

Cumberland. By Joseph Nicolson, Esq. and Richard Burn,
LL. D. 2 Vols. 410. 21. 2s. Cadell. [Concluded, from vol.

xlv. p. 265.]
*HIS volume is compiled upon the same plan as the first :

it contains a minute investigation of every stone and every foot of land, a tiresome enquiry into the families of every parish and corner; in the county of which it treats.-Readers, who are not natives of Westmorland and Cumberland, may not be very curious to know whether a private family in those counties can trace its pedigree through ten a dozen reigns; or whether a particular chapel was founded before the Conquest or since : nor will readers who do not live immediately in, or very near to, the parish of Afpatria, or Apatrick, which is in the barony of Allerdale' below Derwent, be much obliged to Mr. Nicholson and Dr. Burn for informing them that the parish in question was fo first named from Gospatric, earl of Dunbar, father of Waldieve, first lord of Allerdale;' nor will they acknowledge any great obligations to the historians, who kindly instruct them that this parish is bounded by Elne river from the foot of Elne bridge, close to the ring dike that parts Allerby and Crosby fields, and so, along that ring hedge northwards to the division between Hayton and Canonby fields, then turning eastward between Hayton and Allanby meadows, and fo as the division parts between Newton demesne and Aspatria's north riding, fo direly eaftward along the common to the middle of Broodhead, and so into Crumbock, and then up that beck to Priest croft, so turning westward by the ring hedge of Leefrigg to Kinggate, and then to Baggray lane end, and so along the hedge which fevers Bray1on demesne from Baggray field to Elubrig close, and go to the foot thereof,' and so to Mr. Nicholson and Dr, Burn alone know where; till at last we find ourselves, just where we set out, viz, in a little parish in a corner of Cumberland, of which few have ever heard, but its inhabitants.

This volume, however, as well as the former, contains much to please enquiry, and much to gratify curiosity. The antiquarian discovers himself in something more than phraseology; and we every where trace a genius equally laborious and indefatigable, whether the tafk be to investigate a controverted point in history, or to adjust the opposite claims of different parishes to a particular family or a flip of land. To this volume, as to the firft, is prefixed a large, and, as it appears, an' accurate map of the county, of which it contains the history, di, vided into its wards. Here too we find an appendix, which contains, among other curious matter, an alphabetical catalogue of rare and curious plants growing wild about Kendal, and other places in the county of Westmorland. The authorg have subjoined a glossary of the antiquated words that occur in the work; which might have included certain words and ex: preffions fufficiently obsolete and antiquated, to be found only in this history, and in our tranllation of the Bible, or in books written about that period.

A few of the most curious paffages we shall transcribe, from this volume, for the entertainment of those of our readers, who would think themselves perhaps but ill paid, if they were obliged to pick them out from a load of less interesting and amusing matter.

A charter of certain lands given by king Athelstan, is a beautiful specimen of the artless fimplicity of former days, in the manner of conveyancing

• I king Athelstan, gives to Pallan,

Odcham and Rodcham ;
Als quid, and als fayre,
Als ever they myne weare :
And yar to witness Maulde


wife.' For this we are referred to Drake's Historia Anglo-Scotica, p. 160. It affords a striking contrast to the prolixity of a modern conveyance; and nothing can mark more pointedly the unsuspicious confidence of former days than the circumstance of naming his wife as the only witness. Much is continually said about the present corruption of manners--Point out any nation which abounds in laws and lawyers, and whose law proceedings are verbose and prolix; and the manners of that nation will appear to be corrupt.

The subsequent paragraph contains something wonderful. ** In the river Irt the inhabitants at low water gather pearls, and the jewellers buy them of the poor people for a trifle, but sell them at a good price. And it is said, that Mr. Thomas Patrick fon, late of How in this county, having employed divers poor inhabitants to gather these pears, obtained such a quantity as he fold to the jewellers in London for above 8ool.'

In another passage we find something not less curious

• The town of Egremont was an ancient burgh, and sent burgesses to parliament ; until the burghers becoming poor and unable (at least unwilling) to pay their burgesses their wages, they to free themselves from that future burden did petition the king and parliament that they might be exempted from that charge.


We also have petitions; but not from towns, that they may not send burgeffes to parliament, not from burgeffes, that they

may nor fit.

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Speaking of the collieries at Whitehaven, our historians mention soine curious circumstances.

• The late Mr. Spedaing, who was the great engineer of these works, having observed that the fulminating damp could only be kindled by Aame, and that it was not liable to be set on fire by red hot iron, nor by the sparks produced by the collision of Aint and steel, invented a machine, in which while a steel wheel is turned round with a very rapid motion; and Aints are applied thereto, great plenty of fiery sparks are emitted, that afford the miners lach a light as enables them to carry on their work in close places, where the flame of a candle, or lamp, would occasion dreadful explosions. Without some invention of this fort, the working of these mines, so greatly annoyed with these infiammable damps, would long ago have been impracticable.

• But not so many mines have been ruined by fire as by in. ondations. And here that noble invention the fire-engine difplays its beneficial effects. It appears,


pretty exact calcu. sations, that it would require about 550 men, or a power equal to that of 110 horses, to work the pumps of one of the largest fre-engines now in use (the diameter of whose cylinder is seventy inches), and thrice that number of men to keep an engine of this Gize constantly at work: and that as much water may be raised by an engine of this fize kept constantly at work, as can be drawn up by 2520 men with rollers and buckets, after the manner now daily practised in many mines ; or as much as can be borne up on the shoulders of twice that number of men, as it is said to be done in some of the mines of Peru.-So great is the power of the elafic steam of the boiling water in those engines, and of the outward atmosphere, which by their alternate actions give force and motion to the beam of this engine, and by it to the pump rods, which elevate the water through tubes, and discharge it out of the mine.

• There are four fire engines belonging to this colliery ; which, when all at work, discharge from it about 1228 gallons every minate, at thirteen strokes; and after the fame rate 1,768, 320 gallons every twenty-four hours. By the four engines here employed, nearly twice the above-mentioned quantity of water might be discharged from mines that are not above sixty or feventy fathoms deep, which depth is rarely exceeded in the New. castle collieries, or in any of the English collieries, those of Whitehaven excepted *.'

• For these observations on the coal mines at Whitehaven, we are obliged to the very ingenious Dr. Brownrigg's notes on a beautiful little poem of Dr. Dalton's, on the return of two young ladies from viewing those inines.'


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