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Christ's that the body of Christ is present in them that worthily re
the godly ceive the sacrament, lest any man should mistake my words,
and think that I mean, that although Christ be not corporally in the outward visible signs, yet he is corporally in the persons that duly receive them, this is to advertise the reader, that I mean no such thing, but my meaning is, that the force, the grace, the virtue, and benefit of Christ's body that was crucified for us and of his blood that was shed for us, be really and effectually present with all them that duly receive the sacraments, but all this I understand of his spiritual presence, of the which he saith, I will be with you until the world's end. And, Wheresoever two or three be Matt. xviii. gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them. And, He that eateth my flesh and drinketh my blood, dwelleth in me, and I in him. Nor no more is truly he corporally or really present in the due ministration of the Lord's Supper, than he is in the due ministration of Baptism; that is to say, in both spiritually by grace. And wheresoever in the Scripture it is said, that Christ, God, or the Holy Ghost is in any man, the same is understand spiritually by grace a.
The nam- The third thing to admonish the reader of is this, that ing of the late Bishop when I name Doctor Stephen Gardyner, Bishop of Wynof Wynchester, I mean not that he is so now, but forasmuch as he was Bishop of Wynchester at the time when he wrote his book against me, therefore I answer his book as written by the Bishop of Wynchester, which else needed greatly none answer for any great learning or substance of matter that is in it.
The real presence of
The last admonition to the reader is this, where the said
["That is to say
-understand spiritually by grace." This clause is taken from the edition of 1580; it does not exist in that of 1551.]
of the bread
late Bishop thinketh, that he hath sufficiently proved tran- of Christ substantiation, that is to say, that the substance of bread prove no and wine cannot be in the sacrament, if the body and blood stantiation of Christ were there, because two bodies cannot be together and wine. in one place; although the truth be, that in the sacrament of Christ's body, there is corporally but the substance of bread only, and in the sacrament of the blood, the substance of wine only; yet how far he is deceived, and doth vary from the doctrine of other papists, and also from the principles of philosophy, (which he taketh for the foundation of his doctrine in this point,) the reader hereby may easily perceive. For if we speak of God's power, the papists affirm, that by God's power two bodies may be together in one place, and then why may not Christ's blood be with the wine in the cup, and his flesh in the same place where the substance of the bread is? And if we consider the cause wherefore two bodies cannot be together in one place by the rules of nature, it shall evidently appear, that the body of Christ may rather be in one place with the substance of the bread, than with the accidents thereof, and so likewise his blood with the wine. For the natural cause wherefore two bodies cannot be together in one place, as the philosophers say, is their accidents, their bigness and thickness, and not their substances. And then by the very order of nature it repugneth more, that the body of Christ should be present with the accidents of bread, and his blood with the accidents of wine, than with the substances either of bread or wine. This shall suffice for the admonition to the reader, joining thereto the Preface in my first book, which is thisb:
b [See vol. ii. p. 287.]
A CRAFTY AND SOPHISTICAL CAVILLATION DEVISED BY
The title of the book of Steven Gardiner, late Bishop of
AN EXPLICATION AND ASSERTION OF THE TRUE CATHOLIC FAITH,
ALTAR, WITH CONFUTATION OF A BOOK
WRITTEN AGAINST THE SAME.
The Answer of Thomas, Archbishop of Canterbury, &c.
HERE before the beginning of your book, you have pre- BOOK ferred a goodly title, but it agreeth with the argument and matter thereof as water agreeth with the fire. For your book is so far from an explication and assertion of the true catholic faith in the matter of the sacrament, that it is but a
[To this title is added in the original edition of the Explication: "Made by Steven Byshop of Wynchester, and exhibited by his owne "hande for his defence to the Kynge's Majestie's Commissioners at "Lambeth." This public presentation took place on the 26th of January, 1551, and is thus described by Foxe. "The said Bishop.... for part "of his proof of his matter justificatory, did exhibit and leave among "the articles of this cause, a certain book written and made by him, "as he said, concerning his opinion and true belief of the sacrament of "the altar, and of the true catholic faith therein, for confutation, as he "affirmed, of my Lord of Canterbury's book, lately set forth upon the "said matter, and not provoking, as he said, the said judges presently "to dispute thereupon, offered himself to be ready at the will and plea"sure of the judges, at any time and place convenient, and before a "due audience, by learning to defend the said book, which book he re"quired to be inserted among the articles of this cause, and a copy "thereof to be granted to him." Foxe, Acts and Monuments, p. 799. (edit. 1563.)]
BOOK crafty cavillation and subtle sophistication to obscure the truth thereof, and to hide the same, that it should not appear. And in your whole book, the reader, if he mark it well, shall easily perceive how little learning is showed therein, and how few authors you have alleged other than such as I brought forth in my book, and made answer unto: but there is showed what may be done by fine wit and new devices, to deceive the reader, and by false interpretations to avoid the plain words of Scripture and of the old authors.
Wherefore inasmuch as I purpose, God willing, in this defence of my former book, not only to answer you, but by the way also to touch Doctor Smythe, two things I would wish in you both; the one is, truth with simplicity; the other is, that either of you both had so much learning as you think you have, or else that you thought of yourselves no more than you have in deed. But to answer both your books in few words: the one showeth nothing else, but what railing without reason or learning, the other, what frowardness armed with wit and eloquence, be able to do against the truth. And Smythe, because he would be vehement, and show his heat in the manner of speech, where the matter is cold, hath framed in a manner all his sentences throughout his whole book by interrogations. But if the reader of both your books do no more, but diligently read over my book once again, he shall find the same not so slenderly made, but that I have foreseen all that could be said to the contrary; and that I have fully answered beforehand all that you both have said, or is able to say.
FORASMUCH as amongst other mine allegations for defence of 1 myself in this matter, moved against me by occasion of my Ser
b [Cranmer might well make this assertion, for most of the authorities alleged against him are to be found in his own common-place book still preserved in the British Museum, having been extracted by him, as is evident from some marginal notes, while he was still a believer in the Corporal Presence. Royal MSS. 7 B. xi. xii.]
[This Sermon was preached on the 29th of June, 1548, by command of the Council. The chief grounds of complaint against it were, that Gar