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happiness in another world; are the blessings which we gentiles desire from the Messiah. And all who feel their need of them, and desire them, know that they can be found in no other. Millions, very many millions, have already received these blessings, by faith in Jesus Christ; and increasing numbers shall receive them, till "all nations shall "be blessed in him." Having this salvation, the spiritual mind desires no more: but "the carnal "mind," (which prefers, and values as the best things, those temporal advantages which are enumerated in the questions under consideration,) "is death," and "enmity against God." Were we satisfied to enjoy these blessings ourselves, and did we care nothing about the eternal salvation of the Jews; did we not "count it more "blessed to give than to receive;" and long to communicate our good things, infinitely good things, to them, rather than to share their transient imaginary good things; (which most of the present generation must, at any rate, come short of:) we should leave the Jews to their dream of kings, of lands, of nobles, and riches, and glory; and should never think of advancing a claim, or entering into a competition about them. For we are not only fully convinced, that such a Messiah, bringing a redemption of this kind, will never come; but also that, if such a one did come, the satisfaction arising from his coming would be "as "the dream of a night-vision. It shall even be "as when a hungry man dreameth that he eateth; "but he awaketh, and his soul is empty; or as "when a thirsty man dreameth, and behold he "drinketh; but he awaketh, and behold he is


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faint, and his soul hath appetite.") "Vanity of "vanities, saith the preacher, vanity of vanities, "all is vanity."?

If the Jews wanted a Messiah only for such purposes as are stated in these questions; it would be comparatively a small matter, should all future generations of Israel live and die, as all former generations have lived and died, without a Messiah. But we " sinners of the gentiles," being the race of fallen Adam, ourselves also being disposed to imitate him, having in numberless instances actually copied his example of ingratitude, apostacy, and rebellion; and being thus involved in his condemnation: we, knowing that "it is appointed to men once to die, and after "death the judgment;" and that" in the sight " of God shall no man living be justified;"3 need a Redeemer and Saviour from the wrath of God, from the curse of his violated law, from the power of the devil, from our own sinful propensities and habits," and from this evil world." We want an atonement, which can satisfy the Divine justice, and render it honourable to an infinitely holy and just God to pardon our sins; and one "to bring " in an everlasting righteousness,” “for our jus"tification." We stand in urgent need of an Advocate and Mediator to "appear in the presence "of God for us," to render our prayers and services acceptable to him. We want a mercy-seat, and a High Priest before that mercy-seat; “a priest upon his throne," who, being "Lord of "all," may render, by his power, the sacrifice of


1 Is. xxix. 7, 8.

2 Eccl. i. 2.

* Psalm exliii.“ 2.

his death, and his intercession, as risen and ascended, effectual "to redeem us from all ini"quity," and to "save us from our sins." We need a Saviour who can " pour upon us the


Holy Spirit" to renew us unto holiness, and make us, who are in ourselves "vessels of wrath "fitted for destruction," to become "vessels of mercy prepared for eternal glory." In short we need a Messiah, who "is able to save to the "uttermost all who come to God through him; to receive our souls at death, to raise our bodies, incorruptible and glorious, at the resurrection; to silence all accusers at the day of judgment; and to put us in full possession of everlasting glory and felicity.

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We are also deeply convinced that the Jews equally want such a Messiah. "The whole, "indeed, need not a physician:" the wise, strong, righteous, and holy, the perfectly righteous and holy, need not such a Redeemer. Yet there is vast danger of deception in this matter, through the excessive self-flattery of the human heart ; which is "deceitful above all things," as well as "desperately wicked." "There is a way, that "seemeth right unto a man, but the end thereof "are the ways of death." And we consider the words of our Lord to the Laodiceans fairly applicable to this case: "Because thou sayest, I am "rich and increased with goods, and have need "of nothing; and knowest not that thou art "wretched, and miserable, and poor, and blind, " and naked; I counsel thee to buy of me gold

'Prov. xvi. 25. Jer. xvii. 9.

"tried in the fire, that thou mayest be rich, and "white raiment, that thou mayest be clothed, and "that the shame of thy nakedness do not appear; ❝ and anoint thine eyes with eye-salve, that thou mayest see." But we have no occasion to refer to the New Testament: the ancient prophets often give similar warnings and counsels. 2



P. 117. 1. 26. The punishment,' &c.—I do not think that all these quotations from the prophets bear upon the case of Israel, as a nation: but I shall not contest that matter: especially as the main argument, about Jesus of Nazareth being the Messiah, is not much concerned. I agree with the writer, that God hath severely punished the heathen who have injured offending Israel; that he will do the same to their future oppressors; and that he will execute dreadful judgments on those who combine to oppose Israel, when he shall restore that people. But I contend that all, both nations and individuals, who repent of former injuries, and concur in God's purposes of mercy to Israel; and all who, at length renouncing their enmity, shall be cordially reconciled to converted Israel, and disposed to love and honour them, will share Israel's blessedness; and thus that their restoration "shall be as life from "the dead" to the whole earth. This I suppose will be the case of all nations during the Millennium.


P. 119. 1. 15. By Ezekiel.' Chapter xxxii.This chapter seems to be wholly unconnected with the subject. Nothing is said in it of the fate

' Rev. iii. 17, 18.

2 Jer. ii. 23-35. Hos. xiv. 1, 2.

of all nations,' but merely of several nations mentioned by name: as Ashur, Elam, Meshech, Tubal, Edom, and the Zidonians. This emphatical word all, which Mr. C. so severely blames the apostle and our translators for adding, is here introduced by him without any warrant.

P. 120. 1. 10.—Mr. C. explains several of these prophecies nearly as some modern Christian writers have done. The outline of the plan is indeed probable; though the wonderful changes which perpetually take place, during these eventful times, blot and deface, from time to time, every attempt to fill up that outline. I do not, however, mean to commit myself as attempting to prophesy from the prophecies: it suffices to observe, that the Messiah is not once mentioned in any one of them. Indeed it seems throughout taken for granted that he is already come, but that neither Israel, nor the nations at large, have hitherto received him and submitted to him: and that very much violent opposition will yet be made to the establishment of his kingdom throughout the earth; but that all opposition shall be eventually overcome and terminated.

P. 121. 1. 13. Circumcised.'-The word, circumcised, does not occur, in any of the prophecies quoted, or referred to, in the whole passage: though" uncircumcised" does in the thirtysecond of Ezekiel. This inaccuracy is, however, of no consequence, except as it leads to an acknowledgment that the Mohammedans are circumcised. As these are computed to be more numerous than Christians; and as circumcision is the GREAT SEAL' of Israel; there are very many



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