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the prophecy of Daniel exclusively, if it be done at all; nay, he speaks as if Christians were ready to concede this! The prediction in Daniel, indeed, when fully and impartially examined, approaches as near to demonstration as the nature of the case can admit: but, before I enter on the consideration of it, or of Mr. C.'s remarks on it; I must prepare the way by examining some other prophecies concerning the Messiah.

Jacob, immediately before his death, pronounced blessings on his sons, evidently by the inspiration of the Holy Spirit. In blessing Judah he says, "The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a 'lawgiver from between his feet, till Shiloh come; "and to him shall the gathering of the people be." 1

signifies a rod or staff, a sceptre, a tribe. When Jacob spoke, his posterity was no more divided into tribes, than formed into a kingdom. But he foretold that the sceptre, or rod of authority, (like the rod of Moses,) would devolve on Judah. Accordingly it did so, as soon as Israel was numbered and marshalled in the wilderness and the tribe of Judah was the ruling and reigning tribe, in general, from that time, till the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans. The word cannot here signify tribe: for " the tribe shall not depart from Judah," that is, from the tribe of Judah, gives no tolerable meaning. It is used for a sceptre in two Psalms prophetic of the Messiah ; 2 and in Ezekiel, where it is distinguished from an

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ordinary rod; and by Amos, 2" The sceptre "shall not depart."- A king who is of Judah, ' and a legislator, shall not both at the same time depart. The sceptre departed in Zedekiah, but 'the legislator departed not: except when Christ ' erected his kingdom over the nations, and took 6 away the authority from the former shepherds.' 'The sceptre shall not be removed from Judah ; (dux, dominus, dominator, rex) a leader, lord, 'ruler, king, so called, says R. E. because he used to 'bear a sceptre in his hand.-Kings and the royal authority, according to the threefold Targum, ' and the ancient Hebrew Talmudists, and many



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even more modern; so that they are employed ' in vain who interpret it otherwise.' (Robertson.) "And a lawgiver from between his feet:" pp, part. pohel from one decreeing, giving laws.3 The word occurs in Numbers, and is tranlated lawgiver. In the plural it is rendered " governors." 5 "The portion of the lawgiver;" 6 that is, the portion which Moses, the lawgiver, had prophetically assigned to Benjamin; or that which Joshua, the governor, afterwards allotted him. "Judah is my lawgiver," with evident reference to this text 7 "The Lord is our Lawgiver, &c. 8-I believe, these are the only places in which the word occurs in the Hebrew Bible: and they are sufficient to fix its biblical meaning; namely, One having authority to enact laws, or at least to enforce by power laws already enacted. 'O 'Hyuevos (Sept.) Ηγέμενος


'Ez. xix. 14. "She hath no strong rod, for a sceptre to rule."

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Am. i. 5." Him that holdeth the sceptre."

4 Num. xxi. 18.

7 Psalm lx. 7. cviii. 8. Heb.


3 Matt. xxiii. 2.

6 Deut. xxxiii. 21.

8 Isaiah xxxiii. 22. Heb.

Judg. v. 14.

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"Till Shiloh come." That the ancient He'brews by Shiloh understood "the Messiah," 'the threefold Targum teaches, or the Chaldee paraphrase of Onkelos, Jonathan, and Jerusa'lem; in which it is written for Shiloh, King Messias." (Robertson.) As all the three Targums agree, and the Talmud in the title 'Sanhedrim ; and many other ancient and modern Jews. I will mention only the words ' of R. Bechai, who confesses, that it is right to ' understand this verse of the Messiah.' (Bp. Patrick.)

Different opinions prevail respecting the derivation and meaning of the name: but the Peaceable One," the Prince of Peace," as tranquil, and 'the author of eternal tranquility,' seems the most obvious. This, however, does not at all affect our argument.

It was then expressly predicted by Jacob when dying, as his words are recorded by Moses, that the Messiah should come while Judah continued in authority; and while the Jews, so called from Judah, had power to make laws, or to enforce the law of Moses; and to manage the affairs of their nation by a government of their own: but that, afterwards "the gathering of the peoples" (plural) would be to Shiloh ; or the obedience of the people would be rendered to him.

It is needless to go through the detail of the history of Israel, and of the ruling and legislative authority of Judah, previous to the Babylonish captivity. From the accession of David to the eve of that event, during almost 500 years, his descendents from father to son, possessed the

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kingdom, in lineal succession. Then, indeed, "the tabernacle of David" fell into ruins: yet, even during the captivity, some authority over the Jews, and their internal affairs, was evidently vested in the descendents of Josiah : and Zerubbabel, under whom the Jews were restored, was of that family. The whole nation, however, was from that time called Jews, or Judeans: and, though not wholly independent, they retained their distinction as a nation, and were generally governed by rulers from among themselves, during the continuance of the Medo-Persian and Macedonian kings, and for some time after the Romans gained the ascendancy. Even these con querors did not deprive Judah of the sceptre and lawgiver. King Herod, indeed, was by birth an Edomite; but he was a Jew, as proselyted: the Sanhedrin still possessed great authority, with little interference of the Romans, till after the birth of Jesus. But soon after, at the death of Archelaus, Judea was reduced to be a Roman province, under Roman governors: the authority of the Sanhedrin was also greatly limited, and its functions restricted. That court did not possess legal authority to enforce their own sentence against Jesus; but were constrained to apply to Pilate to crucify him: and, after a few very short intervals, in which they recovered rather more authority, Jerusalem and the temple were destroyed; the whole civil and ecclesiastical government subverted and annihilated; the Jews dispersed as wanderers through the nations; and they have continued for almost 1750 years "without a king, and without a prince, and with

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"out a sacrifice, &c." They have been for '1745 years, more destitute of sceptre, lawgiver, kind of legislative authority, than even during the Babylonish captivity. This consideration so perplexed a learned Jew, above 700 years ago, that he wrote thus to his friend: I would 'fain learn from thee, out of the testimonies of 'the law and the prophets, and other scriptures, why the Jews are thus smitten in this captivity 'wherein they are ; which may be properly called THE PERPETUAL anger of GOD, because it hath no end. For it is now above 1000 years since we 'were carried captive by Titus; and yet our 'fathers, who worshipped idols, killed the prophets, ' and cast the law behind their back, were only punished with a seventy years captivity, and "then brought home again; but now there is no ' end of our captivity, nor do the prophets promise any.-(Bp. Patrick.)

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Every attempt of the Jews to shew that they have, or can have, a sceptre, or lawgiver, in their present dispersed state, only proves how reluctant they are to believe that Shiloh is come. But he is come; and Jesus is Shiloh: to him has the gathering of many peoples been, and soon I trust the Jews will be gathered to him; which "will be "as life from the dead" to all the nations of the earth. 2

The word a signifies a rod, and in a very few instances it is used for a rod of correction.3 Hence some modern Jews, would interpret the prediction thus, The rod of correction shall not depart from



Hos. iii. 3, 4. Rom. xi. 15.

Ps. lxxxix. 32. Lam. iii. 1.

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