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Christ was supposed to join in their prayers. “ We are not to pray,” says he, “ without
our high-priest *.” In like manner, other saints were supposed, in the time of Origen, to bear their part in the prayers of the churches to which they had belonged, long before it was thought right to pray to them, and this was the natural progress of things with respect to Christ.
It has been seen how strenuously the ancient unitarians insisted upon the antiquity of their doctrine, and how far all the learned trinitarians conceded to them, by admitting that, in the time of the apostles, the doctrine of the divinity of Christ was not taught openly; because the world was not then ready to receive it. It has also been seen that Basil was charged with introducing novelty into his diocese, especially in his form of doxology to the Holy Spirit; from which it is evident, that the unitarians of that age and country consi. dered his doctrine as having had some other origin than either the scriptures, or chris
* Ana Men xazis ta aş ziepewsDe Oratione, p. 49.
tian antiquity; and one of them certainly thought very justly of it, when he said to Basil, “ I know nothing of your foreign “ philosophy*.” In that country, the authority of Gregory Thaumaturgus was very great, and it was appealed to both by Basil and his adversaries, who were perhaps better judges than himself, of what had been the custom before he came into the diocese. In a letter to his clergy, he says,
despise the hypostases, do not deny the
name of Christ, or pervert the sayings of “ Gregory t."
Gregory Nyffen fays, that he and his friends were charged with innovation when they taught the doctrine of three hypostases, of one goodness, one power, and one divinity I.”
“ do not
γαρ συνιημι υμων της αλλοκόλα σοφιας. De Sp. S. cap. 17. Opera, vol. 2. p. 330.
* Τας υποτασεις μη αθέλετε, το ονομα τα χρισε μη απαρνείσθε, TAS TE Ignyögis povas hen wapenyeso SE. Epist. 63. Opera, vol.
3. p. 98.
1 Αλλ' καινοτομιαν ημιν προφερεσιν εξωσι το έγκλημα καθ' ημων συνήθειες και τρεις υποτασεις ομολογείων, μιαν αγαθόληλα, μιαν δυναμιν και μιαν θεόίηλα λεγειν ημας αλιωνlαι. De Trinitate, vol. 2. p. 439.
E e 3
The apostles creed has been lewn to afford a strong argument for the antiquity and purity of the ancient unitarian doctrine.
This argument was urged by Photinus, who, according to Ruffinus, pleaded that “ the apostles creed, literally under“ stood, was in his favour*.” Marcellus, in his epistle, quotes the whole of the apostles creed, and afsents to it +.
The orthodox used to alledge the received mode of baptism as a proof of the divinity of Chrift; but we learn from Basil, that the unitarians replied, that “ baptizsing in the name of the Spirit was no “ proof of his godhead, because mention is “ made of baptizing unto Moses."
* Fotinum vero hæreticum scio eatenus scripfiffe, non ut rationem di&torum audientibus explanaret, sed ut fimplicitur fideliterque dicta, ad argumentum sui dogmatis traheret. In Symbol. pref. p. 169.
+ Epiphanii, Opera, vol. 1. p. 836.
+ Αλλ' εδε ει βαπτιζομεθα, φησιν, εις αυλο, εδ' είω δικαιον μεία θεέ τελαχθαι. και γαρ, και εις τον Μωσης τινες εβαπτισθησαν, εν τη VEPEAN Kİ EV Tn Saragon. De Sp. S. cap. 14. Opera, vol. 2. p. 318;
Arguments of the ancient Unitarians from the
was the scriptures, and the plain literal sense of them. They bawl out”, says Basil, “ with their proofs from scripture, " and make no account of the unwritten “ traditions of the Fathers *.” And Photinus, in his dispute with Basil, said that “ he could prove his doctrine by a hundred
passages of scripture t." The orthodox in general, complained of the advantage which the unitarians had in appealing to the literal sense of the scripture.
“ If," says Gregory Nyssen, “a man rests in the
* Τας εκ των εγγράφων αποδείξεις επιβοωνίας, την αγραφον των σαλερων μαρίυριαν ως αδενος αξιαν αποπεμπομενοι. . De Sp. S. cap. 10. Opera, vol. 2. p. 313.
t Και μεία καυχησεως σερι της υποθεσεως εκαίον μαρίυριας φεSelv o yewadas Ennyleinało. Epiphanius, Hift. 70. vol. 1. p. 829.
“ bare letter, so far he judaizes in opinion, " and has not learned that a christian is not “ the disciple of the letter, but of the Spirit, “ for the letter killeth, but the Spirit
It is to be observed, that by judaizing, was meant 'adopting the doctrine of the fimple humanity of Chrift. For the an. cient unitarians were commonly compared by the orthodox to Jews, and the Arians to Gentiles, as worshippers of two gods; the Arian logos not being of the same substance with the Father; and therefore a maker of the world, or a God, quite distinct from him. .
Gregory Nazianzen also represents the heretics as drawing many to them by their interpretation of the scriptures t.
* Ουκεν, ει ψιλω παραμενει των γραμμάλι, και καλα τείο το μερος Ιεδαιζει τη γνωμη, και επω πεπαιδεύlαι οι εχι γραμμαλος εστι χρισλιαν μαθηίης, αλλα πνευμαίG-. το γαρ γραμμα, φησιν, απαν Πεινει, το δε πνευμα ζωοποιει. Contra Eunomium Oratio 16. Opera, vol. 2. p. 34Ι.
* Τας δε παρα των θειων γραφων, εντασεις τε και ανιθεσεις αις οι τα γραμμαίος ιεροσυλοι, και τον νον των γεγραμμενων κλεπίoνίες τες πολλες σφετεριζονlαι, και την οδον της αληθειας ταρασσεσι, Or. 36. Opera, Ρ. 577: