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Of the State of the Unitarians after the sixth Century.

E must not expect to find any distinct

T T account of the Unitarians, or the condition they were in, in what are called the dark ages. There can he no doubt, however, but that they continued to be in the fame state in which they had been in the preceding period, i. e. not very conspicuous, or forming many separate societies, at least, such as the historians of the time had any knowledge of •„ but mixed with other christians, though without making any secret of their opinions. Of this, though there are no distinct accounts, there are sufficient traces. I have noted only a few, as they happened to fall under my observation, when I was reading for other purposes.

Pope Gregory the Great, who flourished about the close of the sixth century, speaks of heretics who said " they did not envy


y_ Christ

"Christ being God, because they could be so if they would, considering Christ as "a mere man, and made a God by fas' vour*." These must have been Unitarians, for it is a language that was never held by Arians.

In Bulgaria Sandius fays, that the Photinians remained till the time of Pope Nicholas, about the year 860. Hist. p. 117. Agobard speaks of Avitus having written against them, but at what time does not appear -f.

For some time the Unitarians were called Bonosians, from Bonosus, bishop of Serdica, in the latter end of the fourth, and the beginning of the fifth century. Mention is made of him as an Unitarian, along

* Non invideo Christo deo facto, quoniam si volo, et ipfe possum fieri. Qui Jefum Christum dominum nostrum, non per mysterium conceptionis, fed per profectum gratiæ deum putavit, perverfa allegatione ailruens eum purum hominum natum: fed ut deus esset, per meritum profecisse, atque ab hoc aestimans et fe quoflibet alios posse ei coequari, qui filii dei per gratiam fiunt. In Job. cap. 35. p. no. C

t Beatus quoque Avitus, Photinianorum hæreticorum Talidi/Emus expugnator. Adv. Fælicem, sect. 41. p. 55.

with Photinus, by Marius Mercator*, and also by Justinian, who ranks him with Paulus Satnosatensis, Photius (probably Photinus) and Nestorius -}-. Mention is also made of the Bonosians in a council held at Orleans, A. D. 540 J.

Sandius fays, that the Bonosians were the fame with the Felicians, so called from Felix, of Urgella in Spain, who, in conjunction with Elipandus, of Toled6, taught heretical doctrines with respect to the trinity,- A. D. 780 (Hist. p. 360) and that this Elipandus held the fame opinions with Sabellius, he fays, appears from a copy of his confession to Beatus and Heterius. He adds, that the four preceding bilhops of Toledo, who compiled the Toledan Gothic

* Hunc itaque Hebionum philosophum secutus Marcellus Galata est, Photinus quoque, et ultirnis tcmponbus Serdicensis Bonosus, qui a Damaso urbis Romæ episcopo prædamnatus est. Opera, p. 165:

NifOfiov avaStiMoliiile. Epist. p. 128.

% Judex civitatis vel loci, si hæreticum aut Bonofiacum, vel cujuflibet alterius hæresis secerdotem, quam cunque personam de catholicis rebaptizaffe cognqveritBinii Concilia, vol. 2- pt, 2. p. 29, ,

liturgy, liturgy, were of the same opinion with him. Ibid. p. 120.

Elipandus, however, may have been a Nestorian, by his asserting that Jesus Christ; was the adopted Son of God, as we learn from the transactions of the council of Frankfort in 794 *.

The Goths and Vandals, and all the other northern nations, which invaded the Roman empire, are generally said to have been Arians. But it is very possible that this may have been said without making proper distinctions, and that many of them were Unitarians. Chilperic, king of the Franks, was probably one, at least so was Leovigild of Spain, who sent ambassadors to Chilperic in 585, as may be inferred

* Adserunt igitur, fed falsis adscrtionibus irretiti, dorninum nostrum Jesum Cbristum, adopttvum dei filium de virgine natum; quod divinis nequeunt adprobare documents. Hsec igitur dicentes, aut in utero virginis eum suspicantur adoptatum: quod dici nefas est, quia de beata virgine inerarrabiliter sumpsit, non adoptavit, carnem; aut certe purum eum hominem sinedeo natum, quod cqgitare impium est, necesse est fateantur, Binni Concilia, vol. 3. pt. 2. p. 140.

from from what Sandius fays of him, and his ambassadors *.

Some Sabellians, as well as Arians, were condemned at a council held at Toledo, A. D. 400 -f-. Also Unitarians, or Nestorians, seem to be alluded to in a council held iri the fame city, A. D. 684 %.

The Albigenfes, at least many of them, appear pretty clearly not to have been orthodox with respect to the trinity; but whether they were more generally Arians, or Unitarians, I have not been able to determine. •'

* Hist. p. 337, 338.

f Si quis dixerit atque crediderit, deum patrem eundem effe filium vel paracletum, anathema sit. Si quis dixerit vel crediderit filium eundum effe patrem vel paracletum, anathema sit. Si quis dixerit vel crediderit paracletum effe vel patrem vel filium, anathema sit. Si quis crediderit vel dixerit, carnem tantum sine anima a filio dei fuisse susceptam anathema sit. Binnii Concilia, vol. 1. p. 60.

X Si quis igitur Jesu Christo dei filio, ex utero Mariæ virginis nato, aliquid aut divinitatis imminuit, aut de suscepta humanitate subducit, excepta sola lege peccati; et non eum verum deum, hominemque perfectum in una persona subsistentem sinceriffime credit, anathema sit. Binnii Concilia, vol. 3. p. 297.

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