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gree improbable. Speaking of the desolation mentioned, Is. vi. he says, that "it "was fulfilled in the time of Adrian, when "the Jews, undergoing a second siege, were *' reduced to such misery, that, by the im"perial orders, they were not suffered even "to see the desolation of their metropolis "at a distance*."

Independent of all natural probability, had Sulpitius Sevcrus actually written all that Mostieim advances; whether is it from this writer, or from Origen, that we are more likely to gain true information on this subject. Origen, writing in controversy, and of course subject to correction, appeals to a fact as notorious in the country in which he himself resided, and in his own times, to which therefore he could not but. have have given particular attention. Whereas Sulpitius Severus lived in the remotest part of Gaul, several thousand miles from Palestine, and

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Vol. 2. p. 379.'

two two hundred years after Origen, so that he could not have asserted the fact as from his own knowledge; and he quotes no other person for it. But, in reality, Sulpitius Severus is no more favourable to Mosheim's account of the matter than Origen himself; so that to the authority of both of them, of all ancient testimony, and natural probability, nothing can be opposed but a willingness to find orthodox Jewish christians somewhere.

The passage of Origen, which is a full contradiction to all that Mosheim has advanced concerning this orthodox Jewish church, consisting of persons who abandoned the law of Moses, at the surrender of Jerusalem to Adrian, is as follows: "He who "pretends to know every thing, does not "know what belongs to the profnpopeia. "For what does he fay to the Jewish be"lievers, that they have left the customs of "their ancestors, having been ridiculously 41 deceived by Jesus, and have gone over to "another name, and another mode of life; '* not considering that those Jews who have k* believed in Jesus have not deserted the O 2 "customs were Jews, because the people were so. It is natural, therefore, to suppose, that when the bishops Were Greeks, the people were Greeks also. And this is what Nicephorus expressly asserts to have been the cafe. For he fays, that " Adrian caused Jerusalem to "be inhabited by Greeks only, and per'* mitted no others to live in it*."

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Origen is so far from saying, that any Jews abandoned circumcision, and the rites of their religion, that he fays some of the Gentile christians conformed to them-f-.

Having consulted Euscbius, and other ancient writers to no purpose, for some account of these Jews who had deserted the religion of their ancestors, I looked into Tillemont, who is wonderfully careful and exact in bringing together every thing that relates to his subject; but his account

* Emwi fe (Mvoi; Tw Otoxiv eJiSs, aalouaiv firtyvKSf. Hist, lib. 3. cap. 24. vol. 1. p. 256.

t Quia non solum carnales Judæi de cjrcumcisione carstis revincendi sunt nobis, fed nonnulli ex eis, qui Christi nomen videntur suscepisse, et tamen carnalem circumcistonem recipiendam putant: ut Ebionitæ, et si qui his simiii paupertate sensus aberrant. In Gen. Horn. 3. Opera', vol. x. p. 19.

of the matter differs widely indeed from that of Mofheim. He fays (Hist, des Empereurs, torn. 2. part 2. p. 506) "The "Jews converted to the faith of Christ "were not excepted by Adrian from the '* prohibition to continue at Jerusalem. "They were obliged to go out with the "rest. But the Jews being then obliged "to abandon Jerusalem, that church began "to be composed of Gentiles, and before "the death of Adrian, in the middle of the "year 138, Marc, who was of Gentile "race, was established their bishop." He does not fay with Moiheim, that this Marc was chosen by the Jews who abandoned the Mosaic rites. Hist. vol. 1. p. 172.

Fleury, I find, had the fame idea of that event. He fays (Hist. vol. 1. p. 316. ) "prom this time the Jews were forbidden "to enter Jerusalem, or even to see it at "a distance. The city being afterwards "inhabited by Gentiles, had no other name «' than Ælia. Hitherto the church of Je"rusalem had only been composed of Jew"ifh converts,-who observed the ritual of "the law under the liberty of the gospel;

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