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the Church always, East and West, North and South, prayed for the Dead. At one time, offering “ for all the Saints, who have pleased God from the beginning of the world :"86 at another calling upon God to remem ber“ all the faithful, from just Abel unto this day, and that He would make them rest in Paradise, in the bosom of Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob."87 At another, the dyptichs of the dead having been read, entreating that God would give rest unto their souls, in the tabernacles of His Saints, that He would dispense unto them the good things which He had promised, and vouchsafe them the kingdom of heaven.”88 At another, offering the reasonable worship, for those who are departed in the faith, our forefathers, fathers, patriarchs, prophets, apostles, preachers, evangelists, martyrs, confessors, chaste persons, and every spirit perfected in faith.”89 At another, calling upon God “ to remember His servants and handmaids, who are gone before with the sign of faith, and sleep in the sleep of faith.” 90

Nor is the present Liturgy of the Church of England wanting in this particular : in it we still include and pray for those who are gone before : we still beseech our Heavenly Father, mercifully to accept our sacrifice, and to grant that " we and all His whole Church may

86 The Liturgy of S. Clement. 87 The Liturgy of Jerusalem. 88 The Liturgy of S. Mark.

89 The Liturgy of S. Chrysostom. The words which follow are remarkable. “Especially the most holy, immaculate, blessed above all, most glorious Lady, the Mother of God, and ever Virgin Mary.Hence the observers of that Liturgy did not believe but that the Blessed Virgin remains still with other departed Saints, in Paradise, expecting and not enjoying the fulness of bliss. So S. Jerome says in his Epistle to Paulina: “the Saints enjoy the company of Angels, and are with Mary the Mother of our Lord.”

90 The Liturgies according to the Use of Sarum, York, &c.

obtain remission of our sins and all other benefits of His passion." How emphatical is the expression, “ALL THE WHOLE Church !” the Communion of the Saints.

This prayer however is so far at the discretion of the officiating Priest, that he may use one other in its stead : in which the important duty of which I have been speaking, is not, it must be acknowledged, so forcibly recognized. It looks at first sight more to the living actors, and has less in it of that forgetfulness of self, as the sole object of prayer, which characterized the Church of old. And yet after all the Catholic Truth is acknowledged and in all its fulness: that the mystical Body of the Son, by a part of which and for all of which the sacrifice has been offered, “ is the blessed company of all faithful people.” 91

And how great a mark of her still being a portion of Christ's Holy Catholic Church is this that the Church of England has not, in her Eucharistic service, thrown off communion with the Invisible Church. No valid objection can be made to her Liturgy upon that pretence,

91 In the Bodleian Library, is a copy of A Form of Common Prayer, to be used upon the thirtieth of January, 8c., published by His Majestie's direction, Printed by John Bill, 1661," in which the following prayer occurs. “But here, O Lord, we offer unto Thee all possible praise and thanks for all the glory of Thy grace that shined forth in Thine Anointed, our late Sovereign, and that Thou wert pleased to own him (this day especially) in the midst of his enemies and in the hour of Death, and to endue him with such eminent Patience, Meekness, Humility, Charity, and all other Christian virtues, according to the example of Thine own Son, suffering the fury of his and Thine enemies, for the preservation of Thy Church and People. And we beseech Thee to give us all grace to remember and provide for our latter end, by a careful, studious imitation of this Thy blessed Saint and Martyr, and all other Thy Saints and Martyrs that have gone before us, that we may be made worthy to receive benefit by their Prayers, which they in Communion with Thy Church Catholick offer

her Thy Saimitation of this and provide for .

and so also, whatever the individual fancies may be of any of her officiating Priests, the great duty is equally fulfilled, and cannot be omitted.

It is necessary that I should give some account of the Editions which I have used in preparing the following arrangement of the English and Roman Liturgies.

The Use of Rome is printed from the Edition by Plantin, Antwerp 1759, 4to.

The Use of Hereford has been taken from the Edition of that Missal in the Bodleian Library, the only one, it is believed, ever printed, and of which no other copies are known to exist than the two there preserved. One of these copies is upon vellum, the other upon paper : both imperfect, and unfortunately will not between them give us the perfect Book. As for example, in the Canon (see p. 59.) there is an erasure, which occurs in a leaf altogether wanting in the other copy. It is a folio, and the following are the Title and Colophon. Title :-“Anno Incarnationis domini secundo supra quingentesimum atque millesimum, die vero prima mensis Septembris,

up unto Thee for that part of it here Militant, and yet in fight with and danger from the flesh: that following the blessed steps of their holy Lives and Deaths, we may also show forth the Light of a good example; for the glory of Thy Name, the conversion of our enemies, and the improvement of those generations we shall shortly leave behinde us: and then with all those that have borne the heat and burthen of the day (thy servant particularly, whose sufferings and labors we this day commemorate) receive the reward of our Labors, the harvest of our Hopes, even the Salvation of our Souls: and that for the Merits and through the Mediation of Thy Son, our Blessed Saviour Jesus Christ. Amen.If the Clergy are warranted in using the unauthorized Form for the 30th of January, bound up generally with our present Common Prayer Books, and if they may in its favour alter and omit lessons and prayers which by the Act of Uniformity they have engaged to use and none other, why should they not also sometimes use this ?

opera et industria M. Petri oliverii et Iohannis mauditier Impressorum Rothomagi, iuxta sacellum diui apostolorum principis Petri commorantium. Impensa vero Iohannis richardi mercatoris : hoc novum et egregium opus sacri Missalis ad usum famose ac percelebris ecclesie Helfordensis nuper instanti ac peruigili cura visum correctum et emendatum. Necnon auctoritate reuerendi in Christo patris et domini ejusdem ecclesie epyscopi meritissimi, ac dominorum decani et capituli : est in propatulo venale facili precio coram cunctis productum et exhibitum.” Colophon. " Finis Missalis ad vsum celebris ecclesie Helfordensis. summa cura ac vigili opera nuper Impressi Rothomagi cum additione, Accentuarii legentibus in ecclesiis valde vtili. Et hoc impensis Iohannis richardi eiusdem Rothomagi civis non immeriti: iuxta ecclesiam diui nicholai commorantis.” I would add that at sign. A. 1. after the Calendar and several pages containing directions how to say the Collects, the Kyries, &c., the short title at the head of the service for the first Sunday in Advent is, “Incipit missale secundum vsum Herfordensem.”

The Use of York is taken from an edition of that Missal also in the Bodleian Library : Fol. Title. “Missale ad vsum celeberrime ecclesie Eboracensis optimis caracteribus recenter Impressum cura pervigili maximaque lucubratione mendis quampluribus emendatum. Sumptibus et expensis Iohannis gachet mercatoris librarii bene meriti juxta prefatam ecclesiam commorantis. Anno Domini decimo sexto supra millesimum et quingentesimum. Die vero quinta Februarii completum atque perfectum.” Colophon. “Ad laudem et gloriam omnipotentis dei et originis marie ac totius curie celestis exaratum et completum ac etiam in pristino statu redactum

est hoc presens missale ad vsum insignis ecclesie Eboracensis. Opera honesti viri Magistri Petri Olivier impressoris Rothomagi commorantis.” The York Missal is a book of extreme rarity : Sir Harris Nicolas in his very useful Chronology of History says, “it is doubtful whether any perfect copy exists, except the one preserved at Cambridge in the library of S. John's College."92 This however is incorrect, because there are three copies 93 perfect in the Bodleian, and one (I believe also perfect) among the books given by Archbishop Laud to S. John's, Oxford. In the British Museum is a frag. ment of a York Missal, which has been long supposed to be of an unknown edition. It is in fact a part of the edition of 1516 described above.

The Use of Sarum is printed from a copy of the edition of that Missal, in my possession, of 1492, at Rouen, in folio. This is the only perfect94 copy known to exist, and in all respects a very important Book. There seems no reason to doubt that it is the Editio Princeps of the Sarum Missal, but it is not mentioned by Gough, or Brunet, or Hain : 95 all of whom speak of the edition of 1494, by John Hertzog, as the first. 96

92 Paris. Francis Regnault. M.CCCCC.XXXIIJ. 4to.

93 Viz: the same edition as that at Cambridge by Regnault, 1533. another; “Sumptibus et expensis Johannis Gachet, 1530," 4to., and the third “Impensis Magistri Petri Violette. Rothomagi.” Fol.

94 I say perfect, because there is a large fragment of this edition in the Bodleian upon vellum. The imperfections have been supplied from a copy upon paper with the date 1510, printed also at Rouen by Joh. Richard. Until lately, this vellum part was supposed to be of about the same date, and is so entered in the Library Catalogue.

35 Repertorium Bibliographicum.

96 There was one other edition during this century: printed in England, by Julian Notary, folio, (a copy also of which is in the possession of the Editor,) with this colophon: “In laudem sanctis

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