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ferat, et ut ita dicam, Fidelibus vale dicit, quos non ante visurus est, quam Sacrificium consummaverit. Le Brun. tom. i. pag. 182.
Page 32, line 14. Ebor, &c. “ Præfatio.” So called, as being an introduction to the Canon or solemn part of the Service. In the Greek Church only one Preface is used: anciently in the West there was a greater number than at present: which was about the twelfth century reduced to ten. Pope Pelagius in a letter to the Bishops of Gaul, quoted by almost all the Ritualists) enumerates nine Prefaces only, proper to certain days. To this a tenth was afterwards added, in honour of the Blessed Virgin, which is mentioned as to be used also in the English Church, by the 14th Canon of the Synod of Westminster, A. D. 1175.
Wilkins. Conc. tom. i. 478.
Page 32, line 17. Sarum, Bangor, &c. “ Sursum corda.” This invitation is to be found in all the Liturgies both of the Eastern and Western Churches : and without doubt is of Apostolical authority. S. Cyprian especially alludes to it, in his treatise de Oratione Dominica. Opera, p. 213. “ Sacerdos ante orationem præfatione præmissa, parat fratrum mentes dicendo, Sursum corda, &c. In some of the old Sacramentaries, the Canon begins with the words, “ Sursum corda.” As in the Gelasian. Thomas. Codex. Sac. pag. 196.
Page 33, line 5. Rom. “ Sine Oremus." This seems a remarkable variation from the English rubric. The reason is said to be, because in the Roman Church, all the prayers which come between the Offertory and the Secret, have been considered (since they were introduced) as a part of that prayer: and to be included in the Oremus before the Offertory.
Page 36. “ Canon Missæ.” Oratio quæ incipit, Te igitur, quamque sequitur Pater, dicitur Canon, quippe quæ tanquam regula in Sacrificio offerendo servanda, nunquamque mutanda præscripta fuerit.
Le Brun. tom. i. pag. 197. The whole Canon of the Mass was sometimes called Secretum : as, for example, in the third decree of the Synod of York, 1195, which respects the correctness of the Manuscripts used in the public Services, and begins : “ Quia secretum missæ frequen
ter invenitur, aut scriptorum falsitate, aut librorum vetustate corruptum, ita ut legi distincte non possit,” &c.
Wilkins. Conc. i. 501. The title Canon, as applied to this part of the Service, is as old certainly as at least the time of Gregory the Great: who himself speaks of his having directed the Lord's prayer to be said “ mox post Canonem.” Strictly the Canon ends with the Lord's prayer: and in many Manuscripts a different style of writing begins again immediately after it.
Page 36, line 6. Sarum, Bangor, &c. “ Hæc dona hæc munera.” Quod Superior inferioribus, Creator creaturis, Rex subditis donant, id donum dicitur; quod autem subditi Principi, inferiores Superioribus, iisque exhibent, quibus debent, munus appellatur. Panis et vinum quæ super Altari sunt, dicuntur dona quoad Deum, a quo omne bonum in nos derivatur, sunt autem munera quoad homines, qui Deo eadem exhibent.
Le Brun. tom. i. pag. 200. See also some verses by Hildebert, quoted, Durant. ii. 23.
Page 36, line 7. Sarum, &c. “illibata.” This is to be referred, not to the sacred elements, but rather to the purity both of soul and body which is fitting to the Priest. By the use of this term he commends (according to the best ritualists) his own singleness of heart, and sincerity, to God.
Page 36, line 17. Sarum, &c. “ et rege nostro.” Sacrificamus pro salute Imperatoris, says Tertullian (ad Scapulam, c. 2.) quoted by Cardinal Bona; and we know from Eusebius, how strictly this duty was fulfilled, even in the case of the Emperors Gallus, Valerian, and Gallienus. Hist. Ecc. lib. vii. c. 1.
S. Paul, in the 2nd chapter of the Epistle to S. Timothy, must have alluded to the Eucharist, and the prayers then to be offered up in behalf of Kings. There can be no giving of thanks in its usual sense to God, for His permitting of a persecuting King, But, as Theophylact says, “ their safety is our peace.”
Page 38, line 1. Bangor. “Sequitur infra canonem." This rubric was inserted, and in the Roman, “ infra actionem," to remind the officiating Priest that on certain days, another form was to be used instead of the usual one, here given.
Page 38, line 6. Sarum, &c. “ac Martyrum.” None are here commemorated by name, who are placed in the Church lower in rank than the Martyrs. The Blessed Virgin, although she departed at last in peace, is entitled, as S. Jerom has said, to that rank also, having indeed suffered all the pains of it, according to Simeon's prophecy.
Upon this point I would also quote the fourth stanza of a very ancient English hymn to the Blessed Virgin.
“ Heyl mayden, heyl modur, heyl martir trowe,
Vide, Warton's Hist. of English Poetry, vol. ii. p. 152.
Page 38, line 7. Sarum, &c. “Grisogonus." A noble Roman citizen, who, according to the Golden Legend, suffered martyrdom near Aquileia, in the persecution under Diocletian. His day in the Calendar is Nov. 24th.
Golden Legend. Edit. Wynkyn de Worde, 1527.
Page 38, line 7. Sarum, &c. “ Joannis et Pauli.” Brothers, who were beheaded by order of Julian the Apostate. The history of these Saints is given in the Golden Legend. Their day is June 26th.
Page 38, line 7. Sarum, &c. “ Cosmæ et Damiani.” These two, says the Golden Legend, were also brothers, lerned in the arte of medycyne and of leche crafte: and heled all maladyes and languours for ye loue of God, without takynge of ony rewarde. They were put to death at Rome about A. D. 284. Their day is September 27th.
Page 40, line 1. Sarum, &c. “ In sanctas ac venerabiles manus suas.” This is not expressly stated, (neither are some other particulars which follow) in the Gospels, but is to be found in the Liturgies of S. Clement, S. James, S. Basil, and S. Chrysostom.
Page 44, line 9. Sarum, &c. “ Per manus Angeli tui." Upon the meaning of this passage in this very ancient prayer, there is a great variety of opinion. Some refer it, but I think scarcely with sufficient reason, to our Blessed Lord. Himself, as the Angel ; “ per excellentiam Angelus, Sanctus Dei Angelus," &c. Pope Innocent has said well: “ Tantæ sunt profunditatis hæc verba, ut nulla acies humani ingenii tanta sit, ut ea penetrare possit.” And again, according to another Bishop of Rome, quoted also by the Ritualists: “ Quis enirn fidelium, habere dubium possit in ipsa immolationis hora ad Sacerdotis vocem cælos aperiri, in illo Jesu Christi mysterio angelorum choros adesse, summis ima sociari, terrena coelestibus jungi, &c.” Vide Preface, page lxxiii, and Note 85.
Page 46, line 5. Sarum, &c. “Cum Joanne, Stephano, &c." The Martyrs whose names are especially commemorated here, are not of one, but of several classes. Evangelists, Deacons, Apostles, Disciples, Bishops, Popes of Rome, Priests, Exorcists, the married and the virgin states, are all included.
Page 54, line 14. Sarum. “ Diaconus pacem recipiat.” Instrumentum, quod inter Missarum solemnia populo osculandum præbetur. Du Cange. Gloss. The introduction of the Pax instead of the old practice of mutual salutation was not until about the thirteenth century. In a Council held at York, in the year 1250, under Walter Gray, Archbishop, the earliest mention occurs of the Pax, or Osculatorium, as used in England. It is named among the ornaments and furniture of the Altar, which were to be provided by the parishioners. Wilkins. Concil. i. 698. Again, in the same collection, ii. 280, we find a similar order to have been made in the province of Canterbury, in the year 1305, at the Council of Merton: “tabulas pacis ad osculatorium.” Both of these Constitutions are to be found also in Johnson's Eccles. Laws, vol. ii. Several figures of the Pax are given in works relating to the subject, and in many of the printed editions of the Sarum Missal it is represented as part of the furniture of the
Altar, in the woodcut which commonly precedes the service for Advent Sunday.
Page 59, line 11. Herf. (et pro defunctis fidelibus ?) This is a very remarkable prayer : not to be found in any edition that I have seen of the Sarum, York, or other English Use, or Roman: whether printed or manuscript. The copy of the Hereford Missal in the Bodleian (from which, as it is stated in the Preface, the present text is taken) has one erasure in the Canon which occurs in this prayer; the only other copy which is known to exist (also in the Bodleian Library) wants the leaf altogether. Over the erasure is written in an old hand, “ et pro defunctis fidelibus :" these words, however, do not occupy all the original space.
Page 60, line 11. Sarum. “ Quo sumpto.” This was the time when the Communion was given to any who were desirous of receiving; as it is especially directed in the general rubrics which precede the Roman Use.
Page 65, line 10. Herford. “ Corpus tuum, Domine, quod sumpsi, &c.” This prayer was necessarily altered, after the Cup was denied to all except the officiating Priest. Anciently it was in the plural number : and occurs in the old Gothic Liturgy; “ Corpus tuum, Domine, quod accipimus (accepimus ?) et calicem tuum (calix tuus ?) quem potavimus, &c.”
Thom. Missale Gothicum, p. 392.
Page 66, line 10. Sarum, &c. “ Benedicamus Domino.” The reason why sometimes this form, and sometimes the “ Ite missa est :" was used, seems to be, that upon the lesser festivals, only the more religious and spiritually disposed would make a practice of being present, who were not to be so suddenly, as it were, dismissed, but rather were to give thanks to God. Upon the greater feasts, a large number of people of all occupations would probably attend, and to these the “ Ite missa est” would be a license to depart.