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CONTENTS.

PREFACE

List of Engravings

CHAPTER I.

Preliminary Observations—Origin of Monastic Institutions in Britain—Almost total

destruction of them in the Danish Invasion—Their restoration by King Edgar—

Dunstan—Changes introduced at the Conquest—Declining reputation of Monachism

under Henry III.—Obvious reasons of this declension—Appearance of the Men-

dicant Orders in England—Their growing popularity—Deviation from their original

strictness—Orders of St. Francis and St. Dominic—Distinguishing Name and Habit

of the Grey Friars—Their arrival in England—Settlement of a part of the fraternity

in London—John Iwyn—Foundation of the Convent in London—Erection of the

Conventual Church—Whittington's Library—Eminent Members of the Order—

Observants—Nuns of St. Clare—Conventual Magnificence of the Metropolis—Dis-

solution of the Monasteries—Unjustifiable proceedings of the Commissioners—

Destruction of Libraries—Cranmer—Henry's real motives—Conduct of the Fran-

ciscans—The Maid of Kent—Friars Peto, Elstow, and Robinson—Suppression of

the Observants—Surrender of the Convent of Grey Friars in London—Desecration

of the Church—Sale of the Monuments—Persons of note there buried—Some effects

of the Dissolution—Increase of Mendicity—Appropriation of the Monastic Revenues

—Letter of Sir Richard Gresham to the King—Grant of the Convent, &c. to the

City—Endowment of the Parish of Christ-Church

CHAPTER II.

Death of Henry VIII.—The birth and early education of Edward VI.—His superior

acquirements—Cardan's character of the young King—His journal—Lord OrforcTs

estimate of his talents—His political and general character—His zeal for religion—

Anecdotes—Ridley's Sermon at Westminster—Its effect upon the King—The

Bishop's ejaculation—Lever's Sermon (note)—The King's Letter to Lord Mayor

Dobbs—Consultation thereon—Proposal for the foundation of three Hospitals—

Grant of the Convent of Grey Friars by Henry VIII. confirmed—Further grant of

linen—Bridewell—Ridley's Letter to Sir William Cecyl—Charter granted—The

young King's prayer—The Savoy—Death of Edward VI.—Opening of Christ's

Hospital—First appearance of the Children in public—Presentation of the Charter

—Holbein's Picture—Malcolm's criticism thereon—Joint and local government of

b

Premonition—Provision for the poor before the Statute of 43 Eliz.—Parochial Col-

lections—Specific objects of Christ's Hospital—Inquiries respecting women with

Child—These gradually discontinued—Falling off in the Inquest boxes—Poverty of

the Hospital—Stat. 14 Eliz. respecting Legacies—Money-boxes in the Cloisters—

Symonds' and Randall's Gifts—Early regulations respecting the admission and edu-

cation of Children—Apprentices—Evident distinction in the objects of the Hospital

—Admission at the request of Benefactors—for pay—in accordance with the wills

of Benefactors—Present inadequacy of such gifts—Dependence of the Hospital on

benefactions and bequests—Cession of Chartered Estates—Amount of Donations

and Legacies up to the year 1600—Continued Embarrassments—Loan—Restricted

admissions—Security required for the discharge of Children at the proper age—

Right of the Court of Aldermen to send children questioned—Rising prospects of

the House—Early Benefactors—Lady Mary Ramsey—Her five advowsons—Present

amount and disposition of her bequests—Exhibitions at the University—Early

instances—Gift of Serjeant Moses—First Establishment of a Writing School—The

Grammar and Pettite Schools—Nature of the Education—Public reputation of the

School—Interest taken in its welfare by Lady Mary Ramsey—Increase in the

number of Children—Children put out at Nurse—Place house at Ware—Establish-

ment at Broxburn—Excess of expenditure above revenue—Causes thereof—Conse-

quence of the early modes of admission—Suspended admission—Assistance received

from the citizens after the Great Fire—Qualifications of Children to be admitted—

Original form of Presentation—Fixed Regulations for the future—Provisions for the

different orders of Governors—Dissatisfaction caused thereby—Privileges of the

Court of Aldermen—Rules confirmed—Recapitulation 55

CHAPTER IV.

Foundation of the Royal Mathematical School—Grant of the Charter by King

Charles II.—Its inefficient endowment—Further grant obtained by Mr. Pepys

Mr. Colwats gift—Sir Jonas Moore—His system of Mathematics—Death of

Mr. Perkins, Master of the School—Inefficiency of his successors—Interest taken

by Mr. Pepys in the welfare of the School—His Letter to the Treasurer—Munificent

bequest of Mr. Henry Stone—Letter of Mr. Pepys to the General Court—Sir John

Moore's reply—Reluctant explanation of the Court—Impediments thrown in the

way of an examination of the children—Proposed disposition of Mr. Stone's gift—

Resignation of Mr. Pagett—Election of his successor-—Sir Isaac Newton—Prospects

of Improvement—Perverse opposition of the Treasurer—Mr. Pepys' sentiments

thereon—A Royal Visitation threatened—Mr. Pepys appointed Treasurer—Illness

of Sir John Moore—Mr. Pepys elected Vice-President—Correction of abuses—Set-

tlement of Stone's gift—The Twelves—Royal Badge—Stone's Badge—Presentation

of the King's Boys at Court—The King's Ward—Exclusive character of the boys—

Their advanced age—Mr. William Wales elected Master—Disorganised state of the

School—Strict discipline of the New Master—His character and success—Con-

tinued exclusiveness of the King's Boys—Ludicrous instance, and disastrous con-

sequences thereof—Dissolution of the King's Ward—Stock's Gift—The Twos

Extract from the will of Mr. Stock—Badge—Trovers' School—List of Mathematical

Masters

CHAPTER V.

Munificence of Sir Robert Clayton—His severe illness—Destructive effects of the Fire

of London—Projected re-erection of the south front of the Hospital—Death of

Mr. Morrice—Sir Robert's wish to keep his charity secret—Reasons which led to

its discovery—Estimate and cost of the building—Inscription over the gate-way—

Character of Mr. Firmin—His monument—Dilapidated state of the Great Hall—

Sir John Frederick—Description of the Hall, as rebuilt by him—The Organ—

Associations connected with the Old Hall—Its demolition in 1827—Spital Sermons

— Dr. Parr—Easter processions—The Lord Mayor's annual donation—Easter

Antheins—A curious old one—A beautifully illuminated Hymn in the Hospital

Archives—Public Suppers—Their early institution—Changes in the time of their

celebration, and mode of admission to them—Order of the Ceremony—St. Matthew's

day—The Sermon at Christ's Church—The Speeches—Collection for the speakers—

Customs still observed on this occasion—Relics of the Old Hall—Benefactions at

the period of its erection—Mismanagement of Mr. Treasurer Hawes—Great increase

in the number of Children—Insufficient accommodation at Ware and Broxbourne

The Place House—Subscription set on foot for building a larger establishment at

Hertford—Completion and cost of the new Edifice—Gallery for the children in

All-Saint's Church, Hertford—Sir John Moore—His Writing School—Estimate and

cost—Ceremony of opening it—The inscription under his Statue—Singular marriage

of a Blue-coat Boy and Girl—Amount of Benefactions between 1600 and 1700—

Gifts of Fowke, Garway, West, Guy, and others—Disputes between the Hospital

and the Parish of Christ Church—Revised regulations respecting the admission of

children of advanced age, and the limitation of non-free presentations—Further

revision of the regulations of 1676"—Comparative view of ancient and modern quali-

fications for admission—Singular bequest of James St. Amand, Esq.—Erroneous

notion respecting the portrait of his grandfather—Extract from his will—Ancient

custom of addressing the Sovereign on his first appearance in the City—Presentation

of the children to James II.—Verrio's great Picture—Address presented to George
III. and Queen Charlotte, in St. Paul's church-yard—Intended addresses to the

CHAPTER VI.

Differences of opinion respecting the chartered rights of the Corporation of London—

Original joint government of the four Royal Hospitals—The Charge of every Go-

vernor in general—General Courts—Courts of each Hospital respectively—Com-

mittees—Discontinuance of the office of Comptroller General, and Surveyor General

—Presidents first appointed—Early mode of Election—Articles of agreement of

1782—Their confirmation by Act of Parliament—Present Government of Christ's

Hospital—Chartered, Benefaction, and Nomination Governors—Mode of Election—

Charge—Presentations—Exclusive privileges—Election of Mr. Boyer to the Upper

Mastership—Academical Reputation of his Pupils—His character drawn by the

poet Coleridge—First Establishment of a Grammar School at Hertford—Formation

of an English Library—General Library—The old Grammar Schools—Bequest of

John Smith, Esq.—The Grammar Schools of 1793—The New Grammar and Mathe-

matical Schools—Unprecedented admission in the year 1799—Improvement in the

System of Education—Rev. A. W. Trollope appointed Head Grammar Master—

Success of his Pupils—Inscription on a piece of plate presented to him by the

Governors—Dilapidated state of the Hospital—Public subscription for the Esta-

blishment of a building fund—Manifestation of a turbulent spirit among the boys—

Institution of a Sunday Evening Lecture—Anxiety of the Governors respecting the

admission of children—Revision of the Regulations in 1809—Officious interference

of Alderman Waithman and others—Statement of alleged cases of abuse—Proceed-

ings in Chancery—Evidence adduced before Mr. Brougham, and the Education

Committee—Result of the inquiry—Sale of Presentations—Sir W. Curtis elected

President—His feast to the boys on the occasion—Increasing reputation of the Hos-

pital Scholars at the University—Presentation of the Head Master with the degree

of Doctor in Divinity 129

System of Education pursued in Christ's Hospital in early times not to be ascertained

—Plan at present pursued—Upper Grammar School—Grecians—Deputy Grecians

—Great and Little Erasmus—Selection of Scholars for the University—Scheme of

Lessons in the two higher Classes—Anomalous constitution of the head Class—

Eminence attained by Deputy Grecians—Adaptation of the present system to its

proposed ends—Constitution of the Under Grammar Schools—Laborious duties of

the Masters—Day's work with each class—Writing School—Its original constitution

and importance—Extent of instruction there given—Specimens of Penmanship—

Spelling by dictation—Mathematical Schools—Proficiency acquired in the Under or

Travers' Department—Course of Nautical Education on King Charles's Foundation

—Drawing School—Mathematical Studies of the Grecians and Deputy Grecians—

System pursued at Hertford—Girls' Establishment—Half yearly Examinations—

Prizes—Rewards in the Grammar School—Donation to a Grecian on leaving the

Hospital—Examination in Reading—Hertford Visitations—Private pupils—Restric-

tions upon the Masters—Inadequate compensation—Ecclesiastical Preferments—

Religious instruction—Office of Catechiser—Sunday Exercises—Markers—Religious

duties—Attendance on Divine Service—Daily Devotions—Bishop Compton's Prayers

—Psalmody—Music Master—Choir and Chorus Boys—Vacations and Holidays—

August Holidays—Conditions of absence—Leaves—Tickets—Hours of Recreation—

Libraries—State of the Books in the Classical and Mathematical Libraries—The old

Observatory—Subsequent advantages to those educated in Christ's Hospital—Ap-

prentice-fees—Gifts 181

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