Spherical Astronomy

Przednia okładka
Cambridge University Press, 31 paź 1985 - 520
This is an introductory textbook on spherical and positional astronomy. It is entirely suitable for use by students with no prior knowledge of classical astronomy. At the same time, it is sufficiently comprehensive to make it a useful background reference book for anyone engaged in practical astronomy. The first three chapters sketch essential background: mathematical techniques and coordinate systems. Successive chapters then give treatments of refraction, aberration, stellar parallex, precession, nutation and proper motion. An entire chapter is devoted to astrographic plate measurements. The gravitational two-body problem is solved and applied to solar system dynamics. Novel areas include a full treatment of binary star orbits and two chapters on developments in radio astronomy. Worked examples and problems to be solved by the reader ensure that this is a valuable textbook.
 

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Spis treści

Basic formulae
1
13 Spherical polar coordinates
6
14 Spherical trigonometry basic formulae
8
15 Terrestrial latitude and longitude
12
16 Right ascension and declination
14
17 The displacement of a star on the celestial sphere
16
The celestial sphere
22
22 The altazimuth system
23
115 Pulsar timing
271
116 The redshift in general relativity
272
117 Systematic effects in proper motion and radial velocity
276
118 The cosmological redshift
279
Mean and apparent coordinates
284
122 The annual and secular variations
286
123 A stars true place
288
124 A stars apparent place
290

23 Hour angle and declination
25
24 Sidereal time and right ascension
30
25 The ecliptic and ecliptic coordinates
32
26 Apparent and mean solar time
35
27 Galactic coordinates
40
28 Setting a telescope
43
The reference frame
48
32 Precession nutation and proper motion
49
33 The origin of the reference frame
58
34 Selective review of special relativity
62
35 General relativity
70
36 General relativistic treatment of parallax aberration and light deflection
75
Geocentric coordinates
82
43 Refraction in a radially symmetric atmosphere
87
44 The refraction constants and refraction tables
93
45 Geocentric coordinates of the observer
96
46 Geocentric parallax
101
47 The effect of geocentric parallax on right ascension and declination
106
48 Diurnal aberration
109
Direct measurements of right ascension and declination
113
52 Errors of the meridian circle
114
53 The removal of instrumental effects
117
54 Reduction to the apparent place
122
55 Polar motion
124
56 The Danjon astrolabe and the photographic zenith tube
128
Twobody orbital motion
137
62 Keplers equation for a bound orbit
139
63 Keplers three laws
143
64 The solution of Keplers equation
144
65 The equation of the centre
147
66 Components of a planets velocity
148
67 Elliptic and hyperbolic orbits
149
68 Comparison of general relativity with Newtonian theory
151
69 The Kepler solution in general relativity
153
610 The relativistic advance of perihelion
156
Planetary and satellite orbits
162
72 Calculation of an ephemeris
165
73 Planetary masses
167
74 Planetary perturbations
169
75 The orbit of the moon
171
76 Calculation of osculating elements
176
77 Preliminary orbit determination
178
Heliocentric and barycentric coordinates
184
83 Annual parallax
187
84 Annual aberration
189
85 Low precision formulae for parallax and aberration
190
86 Planetary aberration
193
87 General relativistic light deflection
196
88 The direction of the null geodesic
200
89 Relativistic derivation of the apparent place of a star
202
810 Summary
204
Precession and nutation
208
93 Planetary precession
211
94 General precession
214
95 Rigorous formulae
217
96 Rotation matrices
220
97 Approximate formulae
222
98 Nutation
225
99 The effect of nutation on a stars coordinates
230
Time
236
102 Sidereal and solar time
240
103 Ephemeris and universal time
242
104 Modern dynamical timescales
245
105 The Julian and the Besselian year
249
106 Ephemeris transit
251
107 Proper and coordinate time
253
108 The computation of lighttime radar delays
254
Proper motion and radial velocity
259
112 Intrinsic changes in proper motion
262
113 Precessional changes in proper motion
265
114 Barycentric radial velocity
268
125 Vector derivation of a stars apparent place
295
126 The apparent place of a planet
299
127 Star catalogues
303
Astrographic plate measurements
307
132 Standard coordinates
310
133 Centring error
313
134 Refraction and annual aberration
315
135 The plate constants
319
136 Principles of plate reduction
322
137 The method of dependences
325
138 Direct use of rectangular coordinates
328
Stellar distances and movements
333
142 Measurement of parallax and proper motion
339
143 Distances of nearby stars
342
144 The solar motion
346
145 Statistical parallax
350
146 Galactic coordinates
353
147 Oorts constants
356
148 The effect of galactic rotation on proper motions
358
Elements of radio astronomy
362
152 Radio interferometry
366
153 A radio transit instrument
370
154 Phase ambiguity
372
155 Northsouth interferometer
374
156 The interferometer of general orientation
378
157 Polar motion
380
158 Aperture synthesis
382
159 Rotational synthesis
385
Radio astrometry
389
162 Twelvehour connected interferometry
390
163 Very long baseline interferometry
392
164 Source directions and baseline vectors
397
165 Media effects
400
166 Relativistic effects
405
167 The radio and stellar reference frames
409
Planetary phenomena and surface coordinates
415
172 The apparent motion of a superior planet
418
173 Stationary points
420
174 Planetary phases
422
175 Planetographic coordinates
425
176 Planetographic coordinates of a point on the disc
429
177 Heliographk coordinates
430
178 Heliographic coordinates of a sunspot
433
179 Selenographk coordinates
434
Eclipses and occupations
439
182 Conditions for a lunar eclipse
441
183 Conditions for a solar eclipse
443
184 Ecliptic limits
444
185 Frequency and recurrence of eclipses
448
186 Besselian elements of a solar eclipse
450
187 Solar eclipse calculations
453
188 Eclipse magnitudes
457
189 Occultations by the moon
459
Binary stars
465
192 Orbital elements of a binary system
467
193 The ThieleInnes method
470
194 The LehmannFilhes method
474
195 The masses of visual binaries
478
196 Spectroscopic binary masses
481
197 The binary pulsar
484
Tensor methods
491
A2 Tensors
493
A3 The metrical tensor
496
A4 Geodesies
498
A5 Curved spacetimes
499
Astronomical constants
502
B2 Planetary data
503
Answers to the numerical problems
506
References
509
Index
511
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