« PoprzedniaDalej »
considerable length and beauty. He has also published hymns and other poems. He prepared an edition of Pope's works, which, being attacked by Campbell in his Specimens of the Poets, led to a literary controversy, in which Lord Byron and others took a part. Bowles insisted strongly on descriptive poetry forming an indispensable part of the poetical character ; “every rock, every leaf, every diversity of hue in nature's variety.' Campbell, on the other hand, objected to this Dutch minuteness and perspicacity of colouring, and claimed for the poet (what Bowles never could have denied) nature, moral as well as external, the poetry of the passions, and the lights and shades of human manners. In reality, Pope occupied a middle position, inclining to the artificial side of life. Mr Bowles has outlived most of his poetical contemporaries, excepting Rogers. He was born at King's-Sutton, Northamptonshire, in the year 1762, and was educated first at Winchester school, and subsequently at Trinity college, Oxford. He has long held the rectory of Bremhill, in Wiltshire.
Sonnets. To Time.
0 Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay
Winter Evening at Home.
Fair Moon! that at the chilly day's decline
I heard the village bells, with gladsome sound
Proclaim the tidings of the village round,
Even so, when I am dead, shall the same bells Ring merrily when my brief days are gone; While still the lapse of time thy shadow tells, And strangers gaze upon my humble stone l
Enough, if we may wait in calm content
Blameless improve the time that Heaven has lent,
The Greenwich Pensioners.
When evening listened to the dripping oar, Forgetting the loud city's ceaseless roar,
By the green banks, where Thames, with conscious
pride, Reflects that stately structure on his side,
Within whose walls, as their long labours close,
As thus I mused amidst the various train | Of toil-worn wanderers of the perilous main, Two sailors—well I marked them (as the beam Of parting day yet lingered on the stream, And the sun sunk behind the shady reach)— Hastened with tottering footsteps to the beach. The one had lost a limb in Nile's dread fight; Total eclipse had veiled the other's sight For ever! As I drew more anxious near, I stood intent, if they should speak, to hear; | But neither said a word ' He who was blind Stood as to feel the comfortable wind
That gently lifted his gray hair: his face Seemed then of a faint smile to wear the trace.
The other fixed his gaze upon the light Parting; and when the sun had vanished quite, Methought a starting tear that Heaven might bless, | Unfelt, or felt with transient tenderness, Came to his aged eyes, and touched his cheek 1 And then, as meek and silent as before, Back hand-in-hand they went, and left the shore.
As they departed through the unheeding crowd,
There is a world, a pure unclouded clime, Where there is neither grief, nor death, nor time ! | Nor loss of friends ! Perhaps, when yonder bell
Beat slow, and bade the dying day farewell,
One of the most voluminous and learned authors of this period was Robert SouTHEY, LL.D., the poet-laureate. A poet, scholar, antiquary, critic, and historian, Mr Southey wrote more than even Scott, and he is said to have burned more verses between his twentieth and thirtieth year than he published during his whole life. His time was entirely devoted to literature. Every day and hour had its appropriate and select task; his library was his world within which he was content to range, and his books were his most cherished and constant companions. In one of his poems, he says—
My days among the dead are passed;
It is melancholy to reflect, that for nearly three | years preceding his death, Mr Southey sat among his books in hopeless vacuity of mind, the victim of disease. This distinguished author was a native of Bristol, the son of a respectable shopkeeper, and
was born on the 12th of August 1774. He was indebted to a maternal uncle for most of his education. Having passed with credit through Westminster school, he was, in 1792, entered of Baliol college, Oxford. His friends designed him for the church; but the poet became a Jacobin and Socinian, and his academic career was abruptly closed in 1794.
The same year he published a volume of poems in conjunction with Mr Robert Lovell, under the names of Moschus and Bion. About the same time he composed his poem of Wat Tyler, a revolutionary brochure, which was long afterwards published surreptitiously by a knavish bookseller to annoy its author. “In my youth,” he says, “when my stock of knowledge consisted of such an acquaintance with Greek and Roman history as is acquired in the course of a scholastic education; when my heart was full of poetry and romance, and Lucan and Akenside were at my tongue's end, I fell into the political opinions which the French revolution was then scattering throughout Europe; and following those opinions with ardour wherever they led, I soon perceived that inequalities of rank were a light evil compared to the inequalities of property, and those more fearful distinctions which the want of moral and intellectual culture occasions between man and man. At that time, and with those opinions, or rather feelings (for their root was in the heart, and not in the understanding), I wrote “Wat Tyler, as one who was impatient of all the oppressions that are done under the sun. The subject was injudiciously chosen, and it was treated, as might be expected, by a youth of twenty in such times, who regarded only one side of the question.” The poem, indeed, is a miserable production, and was harmless from its very inanity. Full of the same political sentiments and ardour, Southey composed his Joan of Arc, an epic poem, displaying fertility of language and boldness of imagination, but at the same time diffuse in style, and in many parts wild and incoherent. In imitation of Dante, the young poet conducted his heroine in a dream to the abodes of departed spirits, and dealt very freely with the ‘murderers of mankind,” from Nimrod the mighty hunter, down to the hero conqueror of Agincourt—
A huge and massy pile—
Massy it seemed, and yet in every blast
They entered there a large and lofty dome,
As gazing round,
The Virgin marked the miserable train,
In the second edition of the poem, published in 1798, the vision of the Maid of Orleans, and everything miraculous, was omitted. When the poem first appeared, its author was on his way to Lisbon, in company with his uncle, Dr Herbert, chaplain to the factory at Lisbon. Previous to his departure in November 1795, Mr Southey had married Miss Fricker of Bristol, sister of the lady with whom Coleridge united himself; and, according to De Quincy, the poet parted with his wife immediately after their marriage at the portico of the church, to set out on his travels. In 1796 he returned to England, and entered himself of Gray's Inn. He afterwards made a visit to Spain and Portugal, and published a series of letters descriptive of his travels. In 1801 he accompanied Mr Foster, chancellor of the Exchequer, to Ireland in the capacity of private secretary to that gentleman; and the same year witnessed the publication of a second epic, Thalaba the Destroyer, an Arabian fiction of great beauty and magnificence. The style of verse adopted by the poet in this work is irregular, without rhyme; and it possesses a peculiar charm and rhythmical harmony, though, like the redundant descriptions in the work, it becomes wearisome in so long a poem. The opening stanzas convey an exquisite picture of a widowed mother wandering over the sands of the east during the silence of night:— 1. * How beautiful is night! A dewy freshness fills the silent air;
No mist obscures, nor cloud, nor speck, nor stain, Breaks the serene of heaven:
Southey had now cast off his revolutionary opinions, and his future writings were all marked by a somewhat intolerant attachment to church and state. He established himself on the banks of the river Greta, near Keswick, subsisting by his pen, and a pension which he had received from government. In 1804 he published a volume of Metrical Tales, and in 1805 Madoc, an epic poem, founded on a Welsh story, but inferior to its predecessors. In 1810 appeared his greatest poetical work, The Curse of Kehama, a poem of the same class and structure as “Thalaba, but in rhyme. With characteristic egotism, Mr Southey prefixed to ‘The Curse of Kehama' a declaration, that he would not change a syllable or measure for any one—
| | the terrestrial paradise, under the sea—in the heaven | of heavens—and in hell itself. The principal actors | are, a man who approaches almost to omnipotence; another labouring under a strange and fearful malediction, which exempts him from the ordinary laws of nature; a good genius, a sorceress, and a ghost, with several Hindostan deities of different ranks. The only being that retains the usual attributes of humanity is a female, who is gifted with immortality at the close of the piece.” Some of the scenes in this strangely magnificent theatre of horrors are described with the power of Milton, and Scott has said that the following account of the approach of the mortals to Padalon, or the Indian Hades, is equal in grandeur to any passage which he ever perused:—
Far other light than that of day there shone Upon the travellers, entering Padalon. They, too, in darkness entering on their way, . But far before the car A glow, as of a fiery furnace light, Filled all before them. 'Twas a light that made Darkness itself appear A thing of comfort; and the sight, dismayed, Shrank inward from the molten atmosphere. Their way was through the adamantine rock Which girt the world of wo: on either side | Its massive walls arose, and overhead |Arched the long passage; onward as they ride, | With stronger glare the light around them spread— And, lo! the regions dread— | The world of wo before them opening wide, There rolls the fiery flood, Girding the realms of Padalon around. A sea of flame, it seemed to be | Sea without bound; | For neither mortal nor immortal sight | Could pierce across through that intensest light.
Besides its wonderful display of imagination and inwention, and its vivid scene-painting, the “Curse of Kehama' possesses the recommendation of being in manners, sentiments, scenery, and costume, distinctively and exclusively Hindoo. Its author was too diligent a student to omit whatever was characteristic in the landscape or the people. Passing over his prose works, we next find Mr Southey appear in a native poetical dress in blank verse. In 1814 he published Roderick, the Last of the Goths, a noble and pathetic poem, though liable also to the charge of redundant description. The style of the versification may be seen from the following account of the grief and confusion of the aged monarch, when he finds his throne occupied by the Moors after his long absence:—
|Mottle with mazy shades the orchard slope;
. The sound, the sight | Of turban, girdle, robe, and scimitar, | And tawny skins, awoke contending thoughts | Of anger, shame, and anguish in the Goth; | The unaccustomed face of human kind | Confused him now—and through the streets he went | With haggard mien, and countenance like one Crazed or bewildered. All who met him turned, | And wondered as he passed. One stopped him short, |Put aims into his hand, and then desired, |In broken Gothic speech, the moonstruck man To bless him. With a look of vacancy, Roderick received the alms; his wandering eye Fell on the money, and the fallen king, Seeing his royal impress on the piece, Broke out into a quick convulsive voice, That seemed like laughter first, but ended soon In hollow groan suppressed: the Mussulman Shrunk at the ghastly sound, and magnified The name of Allah as he hastened on.
A Christian woman, spinning at her door, |
Or the following description of a moonlight scene:—
How calmly, gliding through the dark blue sky,
Here o'er the chestnut's fretted foliage, gray
Mr Southey, having, in 1813, accepted the office of poet-laureate, composed some courtly strains that
tended little to advance his reputation. His Carmen Triumphale, and The Vision of Judgment, provoked much ridicule at the time, and would have passed
into utter oblivion, if Lord Byron had not published
another Vision of Judgment—one of the most power
ful, though wild and profane of his productions, in
which the laureate received a merciless and witty
castigation, that even his admirers admitted to be not unmerited. The latest of our author's poetical works was a volume of narrative verse, All for Love, and The. Pilgrim of Compostella. He continued his ceaseless round of study and composition, writing on all subjects, and filling ream after ream of paper with his lucubrations on morals, philosophy, poetry, and politics. He was offered a baronetcy and a seat in parliament, both of which he prudently declined. His fame and his fortune, he knew, could only be preserved by adhering to his solitary studies; but these were too constant and uninterrupted. The poet forgot one of his own maxims, that “frequent change of air is of all things that which most conduces to joyous health and long life.” Paralysis at length laid prostrate his powers. He sank into a state of insensibility, not even recognising those who ministered to his wants; and it was a matter of satisfaction rather than regret, that death at length stept in to shroud this painful spectacle from the eyes of affection as well as from the gaze of vulgar curiosity. He died in his house at Greta on the 21st of March 1843. Mr Southey had, a few years before his death, lost the early partner of his affections, and contracted a second marriage with Miss Caroline Bowles, the poetess. He left, at his death, a sum of about L. 12,000 to be divided among his children, and one of the most valuable private libraries in the kingdom. So much had literature, unaided but by prudence and worth, accomplished for its devoted The following inscription for a tablet to the memory of Mr Southey, to be placed in the church of Crosthwaite, near Keswick, is from the pen of the venerable Wordsworth:—
“Sacred to the memory of Robert Southey, whose mortal remains are interred in the neighbouring churchyard. He was born at Bristol, October 4, 1774, and died, after a residence of nearly 40 years, at Greta Hall, in this parish, March 21, 1843.
Ye torrents foaming down the rocky steeps,
Few authors have written so much and so well, with so little real popularity, as Mr Southey. Of all his prose works, admirable as they are in *. of style, the Life of Nelson alone is a general favourite. The magnificent creations of his poetry—piled up like clouds at sunset, in the calm serenity of his capacious intellect—have always been duly appreciated by poetical students and critical readers; but by the public at large they are neglected. A late attempt to revive them, by the publication of the whole poetical works in ten uniform and cheap volumes, has only shown that they are unsuited to the taste of the present generation. The reason of this may be found both in the subjects of Southey's poetry,
TILL THE PRESENT E. and in his manner of treating them. His fictions
are wild and supernatural, and have no hold on human affections. Gorgeous and sublime as some
of his images and descriptions are, they “come like
shadows, so depart.' They are too remote, too fanciful, and often too learned. The Grecian mythology is graceful and familiar; but Mr Southey's Hindoo superstitions are extravagant and strange. To relish them requires considerable previous reading and research, and this is a task which few will undertake. The dramatic art or power of vivid delineation is also comparatively unknown to Southey, and hence the dialogues in Madoc and Roderick are generally flat and uninteresting. His observation was of books, not nature. Some affectations of style and expression also marred the effect of his conceptions, and the stately and copious flow of his versification, unrelieved by bursts of passion or eloquent sentiment, sometimes becomes heavy and monotonous in its uniform smoothness and dignity.