Obrazy na stronie

The description of the closing scene of this miserable man's life is quite unconnected with the point of the story; but it appears that he lived for many years after his daughter's decease, and that he was of a morose and gloomy disposition; he became exceedingly jealous and suspicious of strangers, and has been known to awake in the dead of night under the delusion of being assailed by the officers of public justice. It has been hinted by some, that the passion for revenge has manifested itself as a prevailing feature of his character, in more than a single instance, and that other fatal results have ensued: I should hardly conceive this to be the case, from one or two striking incidents of kindness and humanity which have occurred in the recollection of many of his contemporaries,-he has relieved the oppressed and comforted the afflicted; and these qualities, indicative of an amiable nature, should be sufficient to induce us to throw a veil over the failings of a man who in one action of his life, by following the impulse of pride and jealousy, became the bane and torment of his own existence.

“ No sleep close up that deadly eye of thine.”


Our modern sportsmen will be surprised to find that wild bees were pursued in the chase as mountain game by our ancestors. A bee-hive hunt was then as much the fashion as a steeple-hunt at present. We find a hive of bees, haid wenyn, mentioned in the “ Naw Helwriaethimmediately between the carw, stag, and the gleisiad, salmon; thereby intimating, that after a stag hunt, a hive of bees was considered the most deserving object of a sportsman's attention, in preference even to the fishing or spearing of the salmon. Mr. Wyndham, in his “ Tour in North Wales," alludes to this ancient field-sport of the Welsh. The Saxon word hyve was probably formed out of a conjunction of these two Welsh words, haid wenyn, by dropping the final letters of both, and by converting as usual the w of the last into v, which would give us haive, from whence the transition to hyve, or hive, is easy. Bee may, perhaps, be derived from byda, another Welsh word for a hive of bees.


To the Editors. GENTLEMEN, I Have often been solicitous to possess a brief register of the castles erected in the Principality, and the battles noticed in the chronicles, accompanied by such expositions of the localities as it might be possible to collect: such information, I believe, is not to be obtained in any work that I am acquainted with, treating upon Welsh occurrences; and without aid of such a description, the reader does not derive the minute knowledge conducive to accuracy of conception, nor that pleasure which he would experience in tracing events, when engaged in the perusal of the history of our country. Such a collection would materially assist many branches of study, and would very appropriately form a feature in your miscellany; if it suits your views to receive such communications, I will transmit to you the few and imperfect gleanings I have made on this subject, which may perhaps elicit from some of your correspondents, in the habit of such researches, much interesting information. Preparatory to this attempt, may I beg to solicit, through your medium, any notices that may occur to your readers upon the following places, the sites of which, owing to my very imperfect acquaintance with the topography of Wales, more especially the southern portion, I am unable to identify.

Among the places where battles have been fought, noticed in the Chronicles, the following are unknown to me. Year. 656. Strages Gaii Campi. 721. Heilin, in Cornwall. 838. Feryllwg, between Wye and Severn. Is it the same as

Ferrex? 844. Ketyll. The Gwentian Chronicle has Cyveiliog. 848. Finnant. 860. Cad Wythen. 873. Rhiw Saeson, in Morganwg. Is it in the parish of Llan

trisaint? 880. Bryn Onnen.

Bangolen, in Mona.

Manegid, in Mona. 930. Brun. 980. Hirbarth, in Lleyn. 991. Cors Einion, in Gower. 1029. Poniwlwg, in Morganwg. I observe a tract, called Go

wielwg, on the map of Monmouthshire, near the town of Usk.

Year. 1031. Hiraethwy. The Gwentian Chronicle has Traethwy.

Machwy. Query, the river Machawy, which falls into

the Wye? 1037. Rhyd y grog, or Rhyd y groes, on the Severn. 1040. Pwll Dyvach. 1066. Mechen. 1075. Bron yr erw. Most probably in Caernarvonshire or Mei

rioneth. 1076. Gwennottyll. 1094. Coed yspwys. According to the context in Gwynedd. 1094. Celli darvawc, or Gelli carnawc. The Normans there de

feated, either in Gwent or Morganwg. 1255. Bryn Derwin. Where Llewelyn took his brothers, Owain

and Davydd, prisoners. 1257. Coed Lathen. Near Dinevwr, whe the English were

defeated by Meredudd ab Rhys and Meredudd ab

Owain. The castles in Wales, according to Mr. Jones, in his History of Brecknockshire, amount to 143; my list embraces about the same number. Subjoined are the names of those with whose sites I am unacquainted. 1107. Aberrheidiol. May be the same as Aberystwyth. 1108. Kenarth vechan. The account states that Gerald rebuilt

the castle of Pembroke at a place called Cenarth vechan. 1109. Aberteivi at Dingereint. Supposed by some to be Cilgeran,

by others, Hengastell, below Cardigan. 1144. Mab Udrud. Built by Gilbert, earl of Clare; probably

situate in the Comot of Mab Udrud, in the western part

of Caermarthenshire. 1151. Ystrad Cyngen. Taken in that year by Rhys ab Grufudd. 1155. Aber Dyvi. Built by the Lord Rhys. 1157. Ial. Taken by Iorwerth Goch. 1174. Gwent is coed. 1194. Y Cantrev bychan. 1216. Ystum Llwynarth. Query, if Oystermouth Castle? 1216. Nant yr Ariant. Somewhere in the lower part of Car

diganshire. 1236. Morgan ap Hywel ym Machein. 1245. Garthgrugyn. Fortified by Maelgwn Vychan; situated

in Cardiganshire. 1257. Bydydon or Bodedon. Destroyed by Llywelyn, during

an incursion into Powys. 1257. Llan Geneu, Llangymwch, Powel. 1266. Celli Wrda. Query, if the Hay?



THE WELSH PEASANT.” This is the title of an article which appeared in a monthly publication for September (Frazer's Magazine); and in replying to the misstatements it contains, we must be understood to entertain no feelings of personal hostility to the conductors of the magazine, for we are well aware that the editor has been cajoled—that his pages have been rendered a vehicle for misrepresentation: unfortunately for himself, for us, and the cause of truth, he had not used, in the instance before us, that caution which must ever be essential in the conduct of a book professing independence, nay, professing common disinterestedness, and common integrity.

There have been occasions when we were compelled to justify the people and institutions of Wales, the editors of other periodicals having intentionally misrepresented their condition and character; the present one does not require such a procedure: we shall merely disprove assertion: nor shall our contradictions rest entirely upon our own remarks, they shall often be sustained by other authority.

The introductory portion of the paper objected to, consists of legendary scraps, selected from former numbers of the Cambrian Quarterly, and elsewhere interspersed with original matter; and it is possible that this contrivance of the writer operated as a clap-trap on the attention of the editor, leading him but to a superficial examination of its merits, and thereby preventing his understanding the real tendency of subsequent assertions, utterly destitute of a single particle of truth.

To begin then with our quotations :

“ In all matters of literature and science, the Welsh are worse than careless—they are culpably and obstinately neglectful.” P. 172.

In reply to this, we have to state, that there are seventeen periodicals published in the old British language, mainly supported by the peasantry. We consider that this fact alone is a sufficient reply to the assertion, which no doubt has been made in igno

We proceed to another extract. “There is no concealing the fact, that the Welsh are not a literary or an enlightened people; the genius of their bards expired with its nobleminded possessors; and even the mantle of the order has not descended in any of its pristine freshness and purity to the modern inhabitants of the Principality."* P. 172.

• The late Edward Williams, of Glamorgan, we conceive to be unimpeachable authority on this point. In pages 8 and 9, vol. 2, of his Lyric and Pastoral Poems, will be found the following passage : “ The Bardic, or, which is the same thing, the Druidic, institution, originated in Britain, according to Julius Cæsar, the ancient Welsh writers, and the traditions retained still by the Bards; it is not yet extinct, for we have in Wales a small number still remaining, in an uninterrupted succession from the ancient British Bards and Druids. A Welsh Bard of the present age retains the ancient title of Bardd wrth Fraint a Defod Beirdd Ynys Prydain ; in English, Bard according to the Rights and Institutes of the Bards of the Island of Britain. The Druidic theology also


The history of Wales will readily account forthis inevitable change in the general tastes and habits of the people: the natural genius of the country has developed itself in many modern instances of literary and military achievement,—we need scarcely cite individual examples; for it has long since been acknowledged, that the Principality has afforded her full quota to the talent of Great Britain; but we know not what this has to do with dissent in Wales, or the condition of its peasantry; and, as to the Welsh being “not a literary or enlightened people," we have only again to advert to the existing literature of our small territory, a like comparison with which cannot be made, according to its geographical extent, in any other portion of Britain.

Remarking on the constituency of the Gwyneddigion Society in London, the writer favors us with the following:

“ We have looked in vain for the names of the Wynns, the Vaughans, the Mostyns, the Morgans, the Trevors, or, in truth, of any of the magnates of Wales, attached to it as actual members." P. 173.

Although, the parties mentioned here have not intermixed with the members of the society, it is a fact well known that they have upon many occasions liberally contributed to the relief of their countrymen, who have been recommended by one or other members of the society as proper objects of their charity; and for proof of this fact, we refer our readers to the Gwyneddigion Society itself ; and, assuredly, we have not a less exalted opinion of the philanthropy of the individuals mentioned in this extract, because their “ names” are not advertised to the public among

the list of other benefactors to the unfortunate and necessitous of their countrymen.

The estimate of the good effected by the society, as stated by the following passages,

[“The only good which has accrued from it, as far as we know, is the publication of the Myvyriun Archaiology. With the publication of the Archaiology we must, we fear, close our account of the real benefits which the Gwyneddigion society has conferred upon literature.” P. 173.] displays either so much intentional misstatement, or otherwise unpardonable ignorance, that we can barely suppose the “critic” has inquired in any way into the objects of its foundation: a stimulus for literary exertion is annually afforded by the distribution of its medals and pecuniary rewards; and the author of any work of Welsh literary merit is well aware, that their liberality has invariably been unimpeachable.

We pass unregarded the passages respecting the conviviality and "uproarious orgies” of the meetings as trash, unworthy any notice, save this, that it is ridiculous to imagine that the ebullition of warm-heartedness at all interferes with the objects of the institution, or is in any degree a reflection upon the members who compose it. still remains in Wales, where it was never entirely abolished: yet Druidism has been sought for every where but in Wales, and the Welsh language, where it is only to be found.”

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