Obrazy na stronie

personal attractions, mental and phys- longer minds her spinning-wheel as in ical, and the amount of dowry which Iranian days), and Parsee ladies are her father is prepared to give with her. always peculiarly gentle and home-loyThis last is purely supplemental, anding, showing to best advantage in their arrives at its largest figure when ugli- families. Poems sing the praises of ness and brainlessness predominate. the warlike Gurdafrid, firm in saddle Nor is character omitted in the compu- and practised in the fight, who vantation — a bad temper is equated in the quished Sorab, the son of Rustum, sound coin of her Majesty's empire. whom no man could withstand (FirIf beautiful or otherwise attractive, her dusi). Perhaps beside her Parsee ladies father feels justified in concluding that are too little active ; at any rate one his daughter needs no bush. Choice is longs for something — poverty perhaps, pain ; he will not dazzle the young aspi- or the devotion to some idea, however raut by too many attractions, although exaggerated, which will rouse us out of when the suitor has appeared the our lethargy to prove ourselves worthy father is not loth to dower heavily. of our origin — emancipators of Indian A Zoroastrian is by no means a miser ;/ women, builders of an Indian literature, he loves to do handsomely that to reformers of Indian abuses – what which he sets his hand. The dastur, not ? We are so placed as to invite omniscient being, possesses an equally action ; united and small, our lives significant list of marriageable young must touch each other's ; the treasures men, with a forecast as to their pros- of the university are at our feet ; India, pects in their profession or other- with its beautiful sunsets, its luxuwise ; these lists, as will be imagined, riant hills, its wild wastes, its demonmake excellent literature for the re- haunted caverns, its ancient literature, spective parents. They are Iranian lits differing peoples and minds, is at enough, however, to let the persons hand to supply our imaginations ; concerned manage for themselves the beauty, in God's work and in man's real business of the wooing. The par-work, is around us ; the result of ents content themselves with making various civilizations is with us to influopportunities, and directing the tastes ence us ; looking on lovely things with of the younger generation, and com- a trained and understanding eye, our pulsion is rarely necessary, whether minds ought to grow beautiful. We because the child is docile — who might fulfil that for which the prophet knows ?

said Zoroastrians were born - to add to One cannot regret any system which the sum of goodness in the world, and retains authority in an age when lib- diminish the power of Ahreman, the erty, whether much or little, is likely to Evil Spirit. prove baneful; still I must confess to Perhaps one mistake made in the being intensely amused at the marriage education of a Parsee girl is that the lists I have seen, and the arithmetical religious and emotional side of her exactitude of the equations. One won- nature is not sufficiently developed. ders, too, why “ accomplished" should Women have for long left the praying take so much off a dower when it to the men. Some effort has of late means what it does mean in India, been made to bring back the ancient for most Parsee girls, alas ! - a little times, when men and women had equal music, bad enough to be painful, a religious duties. Compare Zoroaster's little painting, an acquaintance with prayer to Ahura Mazda, “that the virEnglish and French. This last is often tuous and noble Hataosa, the wife of put to no further use than the reading King Vishtaspa, may exert herself to of lachrymose novels, for there is no help in propagating among her sex the one in a Parsee household who will moral and spiritual culture of which he trouble to suggest better. The domes- was the great pioneer and founder" tic part of the girl's education is not (Yt. ix. 25, xvii. 46). So Professor neglected, certainly (though she no Darmesteter says : “ The moral victory of Zoroastrianism is the work of a the walk round the sacred fire, indicwoman, and no picture of women is ative of a desire to make religion the nobler and higher than that drawn in centre of their joint lives, with all that the Avesta.” She helped her husband fire symbolizes of purity and holiness to suppress evil and propitiate the and light. The liturgy is interesting gods ; she was trained in all truth, - Ahura Mazda is invoked for happirighteousness, and justice, and after ness. Then follows the curious and this life was found worthy to be iu- quaintly detailed marriage blessing, voked among the saints.

compassing many sides of life. A fool Of Zoroastrianism itself much has is evidently not easily suffered. - May been said and written ; we all know you be brilliant ;' exhortations to virthat the sun and fire and light are to a tue and piety succeed this, with excelZoroastrian only the greatest exhibition lent maxims for daily life: “Do of the power of a deity. Pure Zoroas- nothing without mature consideratrianism is simply a beautiful form of tion;" “ Avoid being angry ;" “ Be Theism. The Fire Temple, with its courteous, sweet-tongued, and kind ;' priest forever feeding the sacred flame, “Do not indulge in scandal ;” “Do the incense of the people's prayers not quarrel with the revengeful ;” continually ascending to God, has no and, what certainly does credit to the touch of heathenism, or of anything appreciation of knowledge, “Do not. but what is refined and beautiful. All co-operate with the ill - informed." that is wanted now is what Mr. Arnold “ Speak in an assembly after mature calls Hebraism or Judaism ; we have consideration" may be enjoined on ocenough of Hellenism and to spare. casions other than a marriage. Also, The unity of Zoroastrianism is notice-“In no way annoy your mother." able. The people did indeed divide Then are invoked the thirty angels for into Kudmis and Shehenshais, but the their respective virtues, and final blessdifference was only as to the date of ings that thoughts, words, and actions the last Persian king. It does not ex- may be good dismiss the patient couple. ist in Persia, and even among Indian The funeral rites are peculiar to PerZoroastrians is of no practical impor-sia. The Parsees will not burn or bury tance whatever. The sects intermarry, their dead, because they consider a and are on the friendliest terms, re- dead body impure, and they will not taining the distinction merely so as not suffer themselves to defile any of the to embarrass old records.

| elements. They therefore expose their To view religion now in its concrete corpses to vultures, a method revolting aspect and in its relatiou to the life of a perhaps to the imagination, but one Parsee. At a child's birth the protect- which commends itself to all those who iny angels are invoked, prayers are are acquainted therewith. And, after offered in the Fire Temples, the astrol- | all, one sees : nothing but the quiet, oger is consulted, the child's name sug- white-robed procession (white is mourngested (for the goddess of Fate does ing among the Parsees) following the not write visibly on the blauk paper bier to the Tower of Silence. At the laid ready for its use beside the bed of entrance they look their last on the the young infaut). Then comes the deal, and the corpse-bearers - a caste time for his admission to the privileges of such — carry it within the precincts, of his race'; the investiture with the and lay it down, to be fiually disposed sudra and kusti, already explained. of by the vultures which crowd the The next occasion for a ceremony is a tower. And why should the swoop of marriage -- full, as all Easteru cere- a flock of white birds be more revoltmonies, of symbolism. It is worth ing than what happens in a grave ? noticing that the marriage knot is a Meanwhile, and for three days after, sevenfold cord — seven being a sacred the priests say constant prayers for number among the Parsees; the con- the departed, for his soul is supposed cluding ceremony is also peculiar — not to leave the world till the fourth

day after death. On the fourth day of a governing body, the Parsees sothere is the Uthanna ceremony, when licited government aid, and after much large sums of money are given away inquiry and discussion two acts were in memory of the departed. The lit- passed - the Parsee Succession Act and urgy in use is a series of funeral ser- the Parsee Marriage and Divorce Act, mons by Zoroaster.

| 1865. Moreover, the Parsce MatrimoOf superstitions, the Parsees have vial Courts have taken the place of the had more than they retain. Connected old Panchayet in the matters they conwith burial is the popular conception as sider, and of the constitution and proto the efficacy of a dog's gaze after cedure of this court the curious will death. Dogs are sacred, and supposed find ample explanation in the report of to guide the souls of the dead to heaven, Sir J. Arnold's commission. and to ward off evil spirits ; hence it is It remains to add something by way customary to lead a ciog into the cham- of apology. I have been hampered by ber of death, that he may look at the the thought that much that I can say corpse before it is carried to the Tower. must be common knowledge. More.

Oriental scholars will miss the prom-over, I have tried to avoid what could inence of Parsee legislation. We have be found in books. All that was posno Manu and no Koran. The codes sible was to glauce at the Parsees as prepared by the Prophet seem to have they appear in their daily life in India. been lost in early ages. Custom has We find an anomalous little body of guided therefore, and the Panchayet people, with a history and a philosophy, had the final decision in disputes. The planted in a small corner of western first Panchayet was a self-constituted India — themselves in a way both Westcouncil of the influential members of ern and Eastern — and thus forming a the community. It was the court of bridge between the continents. Westjustice in all causes, and any refusal toern in progressive thought, in educaabide by its decrees was punished by tion, and in social customs ; Eastern in excommunication, and, what would location, in birth, in imagination, and have delighted Bentham, public beat- religion, and working in what was a ing with shoes. About the eighteenth foreign country in the most perfect century the Panchayet received govern- harmony with the people and their ment recognition, but it was recon- rulers. Always loyal to her Majesty's structed in 1787, in consequence of Empire, they may be said to be inquarrels and the oppression of the terpreters to the East of the Western members. In its new form it consisted spirit, while the most cordial relations of six priests and six laymen, and it exist between them and the other races worked well. It passed regulations in India. Their religion has found about such inatters as the manner of many expounders and defenders ; all mourning; e.g., they were not to cry must acknowledge its beauty, its freein assemblies, or beat their breasts, or dom from superstition, its high moral indulge in any excessive grief. So ideals, its charming symbolism. In with sumptuary regulations as to feasts education and social customs we find and fasts. Such a body depended for them almost European. its efficiency entirely on the strength And now the tale is told. We have of the members composing it. As seen the Parsee as he stands before the soon as the older ones died out, and priest in that early, solemn moment of weaker men came to rule, the Pancha- his life when he is named by the name yet ceased to have any effect. Persons of his Prophet ; we have met him were respected in the distribution of in public and private life; we have punishment, and many wicked flour- watched as his hands were bound with ished unmolested. As a result it ceased that sevenfold cord ; then, when the to exist in 1836, and has since then been last rites came to be performed, we no more than trustee for the charitable listened to the chanting of the funeral funds of the community. Thus bereft Idirge, and saw the white-robed procession winding to the Silent Tower; and, once reached so far westward, may rise as they lift him gently to where his to inspire her representatives in India foot has never trod, let us turn aside to with desire and strength, that we may the hearth and the sandal-wood, that effect our true destiny handed down to to Abura Mazda may ascend from us us by the Prophet, through the ages the prayer that the three days may not even to widen the skirts of light, and yet have elapsed, but that even now make the struggle with darkness narthe spirit of that dead Persia, which rower.


An important Bulletin on the forest and about seven hundred and ninety tons of mineral wealth of Brazil has lately been pig-iron. The ore has about sixty-seven issued by the Bureau of the American Re- per cent. of iron. In Santa Caterina, not publics. The forests of Brazil abound in far from a harbor accessible to the largest woods of great value, some of the finest of vessels, are vast deposits of hæmatite, conwhich are said to be entirely unknown in taining, on an average, thirty per cent. of Europe. With regard to mineral resources, manganese, and twenty to thirty per cent. Brazil is not less fortunate. Scientific ex- of iron. In the State of Goyaz, as in Minas plorers have found great deposits of coal Geraes, are found enormous masses of the and iron, and have also proved that the ore itaberite.

Nature. country possesses copper, manganese, and argentiferous lead ore. There are also mines of gold and diamonds. Diamonds

RACE DEGENERACY. — The“ degeneracy are co-extensive with the gold deposits, I of the race" is a favorite topic of the silly and, like that metal, are most abundant in season." Opinions are divided. The youth Minas Geraes, where they have been found and smallness of the modern British soldier since 1789. The most important locality are used as arguments in favor of degenknown for the production of these gems is eracy, whilst athletic records and the inthe district of Diamantina, in the above-l creased stature of women are urged as named state. They are found in Parana, proof of our improvement in physique. in the gravels of the river Tibagy, and in

Probably the vigor of the upper and middle the bed of streams dry during the summer.

classes is increasing, that of the working Since the discovery of diamonds at the classes being stationary, whilst a fringe is Cape of Good Hope, the Brazilian produc- deteriorating, owing to the modern crowdtion has greatly diminished. As regards | ing of the agricultural population to the iron, the State of Minas Geraes abounds

towns. From this fraction of the populawith it. It is not found in veins or strata, tion, apparently, a considerable percentage buried deep in the earth, but in enormous of our recruits are drawn. Any one who beds, often lying at the surface, or in

saw the tennis tournament in Devonshire mountain masses. These vast deposits are Park, Eastbourne, must have been struck worked only by small scattered furnaces, by the extraordinary proficiency of the charcoal being used in the reduction of the women. Take them out of the skirts ore. Of these small furnaces there are five which handicap them, and ladies like Mrs. groups, producing about three thousand

Hillyard and Miss Shackles would want tons annually, the product being used in few points from the best men. As it is, the surrounding districts in the manufac- they play half-volleys with egnal skill ture of articles of home consumption, such There is no evidence of degeneracy in lawn as hoes, shovels, picks, drills, nails, horse-tennis, at all events. One wonders with shoes, etc. In the State of San Paulo are what eyes our great-grandmothers would found deposits similar to the best Norwe- behold the cat-like activity of their degian ore ; and one of the mines is worked scendants in the tennis courts! Tennis, at by the government establishment near the all events, should send forward some excelvillage of Sorocaba. This establishment lent atavistic propensities into the future. has two furnaces, and produced in one year!

European Mail

yo mema Series:y

No. 2582. – December 30, 1893.

From Beginning

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I. THE IRELAND OF TO-DAY, . · Fortnightly Review, . .
Lacey, . . . .

Longman's Magazine, .

By St. George Mivart, . . . Nineteenth Century,. .
Gissing, . . .

National Review,

. . V. Count TAAFFE,

Temple Bar,

Title and Index to Volume CXCIX.

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