Obrazy na stronie

years, Roman virtue and greatness seemed to his ima. Those of Rome were exhibitions, not of moral, but of gination magnified: he could lament, as Horace did, a physical courage and endurance: they were sanguinary gradual decay which had not as yet reached its worst and brutalizing,—the amusements of a nation to whom point:

war was not a necessary evil or a struggle for national "Ætas parentum pejor avis tulit

existence, for hearths and altars, but a pleasure and a Nos nequiores mox daturos

pastime—the means of gratifying an aggressive ambiProgeniem vitiosiorem.Od. III. vi. 46. tion. The tragic feeling of Greece is represented by

the sculptured grief of Niobe ; that of Rome by the But the people did not sympathise with these feelings : death-struggles which distort the features and muscles they delighted in action, not in contemplation and re- of Laocoon. It was, if the expression is allowable, amflection. They did not look back upon their national phitheatrical, not theatrical. heroes as demigods, or dream over their glories: they To such a people the moral woes of tragedy were were pressing forward and extending the frontiers of powerless : and yet it is to the people that the drama, if their empire, bringing under their yoke tribes and na- it is to flourish, must look for patronage. A refined and tions which their forefathers had not known. If they educated society, such as always existed at Rome during regarded their ancestors at all, it was not in the light of its literary period, might applaud a happy adaptation men of heroic stature as compared with themselves, but from the Greek tragedians, and encourage a poet in his as those whom they could equal or even surpass: they task; for it is only an educated and refined taste which lived in hope, and not in memory.

can appreciate such talent as skilful imitation displays, These are not the elements of character which would but a tragic drama under such circumstances could lead a people to realize to themselves the ideal of tragedy. hardly hope to be national. Nor must it be forgotten, The tragic poet at Athens would have been sure that the with reference to their taste for spectacle, that the arsame subject which inspired him would also interest his tistic accessories of the drama would have a better chance audience : that if his genius rose to the height which of success with a people like the Romans than literary their critical taste demanded, he could reckon up the merit, because the pleasures of art are of a lower and sympathy of a theatre crowded with ten thousand of his more sensuous kind. Hence, in the popular eye, the countrymen. A Roman tragic poet would have been decoration of the theatre and the costume of the perdeserted for any spectacle of a more stirring nature: formers naturally became the principal requisites, whilst his most affecting scenes and noblest sentiments, for the poet's office was considered subordinate to the manscenes of real action and real life. The bloody combats ner in which the play was put upon the stage ; and thus of the gladiators, the miserable captives and malefactors the degenerate theatrical taste which prevailed in the stretched on crosses, expiring in excruciating agonies, days of Horace called forth the poet's well-known and or mangled by wild beasts, were real tragedies: the well-deserved criticism. sham fights and Naumachiæ, though only imitations, ere real dramas, in which those pursuits which most

There is one exception which we must make deeply interested the spectators, which constituted their to our general commendation of Professor chief duties and highest glories, were visibly represented. Browne's treatment of the early Roman writers Even gorgeous spectacles fed their personal vanity and pride in their national greatness. The spoil of con

-we mean, part of his criticism on Lucilius. It quered nations, borne in procession across the stage, re

contains an error singular in itself, and involves minded them of their triumphs and their victories; and an extraordinary misconception of some wellthe magnificent dress of the actors--the model of the known passages in Horace. Professor Browne captured city, preceded and followed by its sculptures says of Lucilius (p. 145)—“His real defect in marble and ivory-represented in mimic grandeur the ovation or the triumph of some successful general,

was want of facility; and it is not improbable whose return from a distant expedition, laden with that if prose had been considered a legitimate wealth, realized the rumours which had already arrived vehicle, he would have preferred pouring forth, at the gates of Rome; whilst the scene, glittering

with in that unrestricted form, his indignant eloglass, and gold, and silver, and adorned with variegated pillars of foreign marble, told ostentatiously

of their quence, rather than that, as Horace says, every wealth and splendour.

verse should have cost him many scratchings Again, the Romans were a rough, turbulent people, of the head, and biting his nails to the quick." full of physical rather than intellectual energy, loving antagonism, courting peril, setting no value on human sical readers for quoting the passages in Horace

We ought, perhaps, to apologize to our classevere. The unrelenting justice of a Brutus, represent- which are here so strangely misunderstood. ing as it did the victory of principle over feeling, was Horace says of Lucilius (Šat. I. iv. 8) that he to them the height of virtue. They were ready to undergo the extreme of physical torture with Regulus,

Durus componere versus, and to devote themselves to death like Curtius and the

Nam fuit hoc vitiosus. In hora sæpe ducentos, Decii. Hard and pitiless to themselves, they were, as might be expected, the same towards others. They

Ut magnum, versus dictabat stans pede in uno: were, in fact, strangers to both the passions, which it

Cum flueret lutulentus, erat quod tollere velles,

Garrulus, atque piger scribendi ferre laborem, was the object of tragedy to excite and to purify, Pity and Terror. They were too stern to pity, too unimagi

Scribendi rectè, nam ut multum nil moror. native to be moved by the tales of wonder and deeds In the tenth Satire of the same Book Horace of horror which affected the tender and marvel-loving refers to the subject of his having said imagination of the Greeks. Being an active, and not a sentimental people, they did not appreciate moral Incomposito pede currere versus suffering and the struggles of a sensitive spirit. They Lucili, were moved only by scenes of physical suffering and and maintains his right to criticise his predeagony.

The public games of Greece at Olympia or the Isthmus cessor, and
were bloodless and peaceful, and the refinements of Quærere num illius, num rerum dura negarit
poetry mingled with those which were calculated to in- Versiculos natura magis factos, et euntes
vigorate the physical powers and develop manly beauty. Molliùs.


a later age,

He there'asserts, that if Lucilius had lived in from the peasantry, and when the war was over the

soldier returned to his daily labour ; and, in later times,

the veteran, when his period of service was completed, Detereret sibi multa ; recideret omne, quod ultra

became a small farmer in a military colony. To a restPerfectum traheretur: et in versu faciendo

less nation, who could not exist in a state of inactivity, a Sæpe caput scaberet, vivos et roderet udgues.

change of labour was relaxation; and the pleasures of We hope that there are few Somerset-House rural life, which were so often sung by the Augustan students who would misapprehend these pas- natural atmosphere seemed to be either politics or war.

poets, were heartily enjoyed by the same man whose sages of Horace as our author has done. The Besides the possession of these rural tastes the Romans word durus, as applied by Horace to Lucilius, were essentially a domestic people. The Greeks were seems to have been the main cause of Professor social; they lived in public; they had no idea of home.

Women did not with them occupy a position favourable Browne's error. He evidently interprets it as

to the existence of home-feeling. The Roman matron implying that Lucilius was hard (costive, as it was the centre of the domestic circle: she was her huswere,) in composition. But of course the mean- band's equal, sometimes his counsellor, and generally the ing of Horace is to censure Lucilius for the educator of his children in their early years. Hundreds

of sepulchral inscriptions bear testimony to the sweet rugged rapidity of his verse -- for his folly in charities of home-life, to the dutiful obedience of children, indulging in, and even boasting of, a fatal faci- the devoted affection of parents, the fidelity of wives

, lity of composition, while he disliked the trou- the attachments of husbands. Hence, home and all its ble of retrenching and correcting.

pursuits and occupations had an interest in the eyes of

a Roman. For this reason there were so many writers There is another queer slip of Professor

on rural and domestic economy. From Cato to ColuBrowne's as an Horatian scholar, which he mella we have a list of authors whose object was instruemakes in his account of the elder Cato. He tion in the various branches of the subject. They are says of him, “Cato, with all his virtues, was a

thus enumerated by Columella himself: “Cato was the hard-hearted man” (p.161). The remark is true

first who taught the art of agriculture to speak in Latin;

after him it was improved by the diligence of the two enough; but Mr. Browne unfortunately backs Sasernæ, father and son ; next it acquired eloquence from it up by a reference to Horace. Od. ii. i. He Scrofa Tremellius ; polish from M. Terentius (Varro) ; here applies the fine stanza

poetic power from Virgil.” To their illustrious names

he adds those of J. Hyginus, the Carthaginian Mage, Audire magnos jam videor duces

Corn. Celeus, J. Atticus, and his disciple J. Græcinus. Non indecoro pulvere sordidos,

The work of Cato, “ De Re Rustica," has come down Et cuncta terrarum subacta,

to us almost in form and substance as it was written. Præter atrocem animum Catopis,

It has not the method of a regular treatise. It is 3 to Cato the Censor, instead of to Cato of Utica, common-place book of agriculture and domestic economy, to whose “stern spirit, "'* as displayed amidst the under 163 heads. The

subjects are connected, but not

regularly arranged; they form a collection of useful woes of civil war, the poet was paying homage. instructions, hints, and receipts. Its object is utility, It is strange that he could have so completely not science. It serves the purpose of a farmers' and forgotten the preceding stanzas. The very first gardeners’ manual, a domestic medicine, a herbal

, a line of the Ode, in which Horace says that cookery-book: prudential maxims are interspersed, and

some favourite charms for the cure of disease in man and Pollio was describing the

beast. Cato teaches his readers, for example, how to Motum ex Metello consule civicum,

plant osier-beds, to cultivate vegetables, to preserve the ought to have kept a critic clear of this porten- health of cattle

, to pickle pork, and to make savours

He is shrewd and economical, but he never tous blunder.

allows humanity to interfere with profits ; for he recomIf Professor Browne has done the elder Cato mends his readers to sell every thing which they do not any wrong' by trying to make a piece of evi- want, even old horses and old slaves. He is a great dence tell against him, which only applies— conjuror, for he informs us that the most potent cure for

a sprain is the repetition of the following hocus-pocus :and that favourably—to his descendant, he has " Daries dardaries astataries dissunapiter ;" or, " Huat done full justice to the stern old Censor by an hanat huat hista pista sista domiabo damnaustra ;" 01, excellent account of his writings. We quote

“Huat huat huat ista sis tar sis ordannabon dumnausthe part that speaks of Cato's agricultural tra." This miscellaneous collection is preceded by an

introduction, in which is maintained the superiority of treatise.

agriculture over other modes of gaining a livelihood, espeCircumstances invest his treatise “De Re Rustica” with cially over that of trade and money-lending. great interest. The population of Rome, both patrician The early Roman orators are passed over and plebeian, was necessary, agricultural. For centuries somewhat slightly in this work. But we fully they had little commerce : their wealth consisted in flocks admit the weight of what is said in the Preface, poor as themselves. The Ager Romanus, and subse- that “if the reader finds some features, which quently, as they gained fresh acquisitions, the fertile he considers of great importance, rapidly plains, and valleys, and mountain sides of Italy, supplied touched upon, the extent of the subject, and the them with maintenance. The statesman and the general, wish to compress it within a moderate compass

, in the intervals of civil war or military service, returned, like Cincinnatus and Cato, to the cultivation of their must be offered as the author's apology.” But fields and gardens. The Roman armies were recruited this is no excuse for saying that “Patricians like

the Gracchi stood forward as Plebeian tri* This fine translation of “atrocem animum” is Hal- bunes” (p. 185). Professor Browne ought to lam's. He well applies the phrase to Coligni,

have known that the Gracchi were members of


one of the noble, though plebeian, families, the fixed laws, human ills result from unbridled passions, and rise of which he correctly describes in his next may be remedied by philosophy.

Although, if tried by a Christian standard, the Lucrepage. The case of Clodius, about half a cen

tian morality is by no means pure, yet even where he tury later, should have made him remember permits laxity he is not insensible to the moral beauty, that a man of Patrician birth could not be the happy and holy results, of purity and chastity. Nor, eligible as tribune of the people, unless he re notwithstanding the assertions of Cicero, can the charge nounced his Patriciate, and -as Clodius did of immorality or of a selfish love of impure pleasure be

made against Lucretius or Epicurus. The distinction procured himself to be formally adopted into which the latter drew between lawful and unlawful pleasome plebeian family. It is also not substan sures was severe and uncompromising. The former tially—though it may be literally-accurate to speaks of the hell which the wicked sensualist always carsay (p. 187) that no fragments remain of the wisdom, and of a conscience void of offence.

ries within his own breast-of the satisfaction of true orations of the elder Gracchus. Plutarch gives Again, Epicurus was a man of almost Christian gentleus Greek translations of portions of two very Stoical grossness and contempt of refinement recelebrated and very beautiful speeches of Tibe

volted him; the unamiable severity of that sect was alien

to his nature, rius Gracchus. Professor Browne refers to

He was thus driven to the opposite exPlutarch for the character of Tiberius's oratory: lectual pleasure the summum bonum, his standard laid him

treme; and although he was careful to make pure intelif he had read much of Plutarch, he could open to objections from his jealous adversaries. The zeal hardly have missed the extracts.

with which many distinguished females devoted themComing to the Di Majores of Latin literature, doctrines and character especially recommended them

selves to his system, and became his disciples because his we find a critique on Lucretius of very high selves to the female sex, made it easy for his enemies to merit. We quote some portions of it, as dis- stigmatise them as effeminate, instead of praising them as playing a breadth of view, a freedom from pre- feminine. With that illiberality which refused to woman judice, and a love of truth, that do Professor

freedom of conduct and a liberal education, his adversaries

calumniated the characters of his pupils, represented Browne the highest honour. What he says them as unchaste, and their instructor as licentious. Nor respecting Lucretius as a poet forsaking the did they hesitate even to support these accusations by cold and heartless system of his own philosophy, forgeries. of his defying nature, and all the fair objects of

A careless reception of their calumnies without invesnature, is strongly applicable to our own Shel- tigation, added to the general, and perhaps wilful, misap

prehension which prevailed among the Romans in the ley. Professor Browne observes

days of Cicero, led to the misrepresentations which are

found in his writings. These have been handed down Although he asserts that the phenomena of nature are to after ages; and thus the doctrines taught by Epicurus the result of a combination of atoms, that these elemen have been loaded with undeserved obloquy. There is, tary particles are self-existent and eternal, he seems to however, no doubt that Epicurism was adopted by the invest Nature with a sort of personality. The warm Romans in a corrupt form, and that it became fashionsensibility of the poet overcomes the cold logic of the able because it was supposed to encourage indifferentism philosopher. Dissatisfied with the ungenial idea of an and sensuality. It is probable, too, that the denial of abstract lifeless principle, he yearns for the maternal ca immortality contributed much to the depravation and resses of a being endued with energies and faculties with

distortion of his system. Nothing so surely demoralizes which he can sympathise. He therefore ascribes to Na as destroying the hopes of eternity. Man cannot comture an attribute which can only belong to an intelligent mune with God, or soar on high to spiritual things, unless agent having ruling power. Nay, he even goes farther

he hopes to be spiritualized and to see God as He is. than this, and absolutely contradicts the dogmas of the Whatever the philosopher may teach as to the true Epicurean school. Even the works of nature are repre nature of happiness, man will set up his own corrupt sented as instinct with life. The sun is spoken of as a be- standard, which his passions and appetites lead him to ing who, by the warmth of his beams, vivifies all things, prefer : he will act on the principle, " Let us eat and The earth, from whose womb all things spring, fosters and drink, for to-morrow we die. Still it must be confessed nurtures all her children. The very stars may possibly that the views of Epicurus respecting man's duty to God be living beings, performing their stated motions in

were disinterested— founded on ideas of the Divine perfecsearch of their proper sustenance. These are, doubtless, tions, not merely on hopes of reward. His views of senthe fancies of the poet rather than the grave and serious sual pleasures were in accordance with his simple, frugal belief of the philosopher ; but they prove how false, hole life, diametrically opposed to intemperance and excess. low, and artificial is a system which pretends to account He taught by example as well as by precept, that he who for creation by natural causes, and how earnestly the would be happy must cultivate wisdom and justice, behuman mind craves after the comfort and support of a cause virtue and happiness are inseparable. He attached personal deity.

his disciples to him by affection rather than by admiraThe denial of the immortality of the soul is inferred tion ; submitted to weakness and sickness with patient from the destructibility of the material elements out of resignation ; and died with a heroism which no Stoic which it is composed. It must perish immediately that could have surpassed. it is deprived of the protection of the body. In accordance with this psychical theory, he accounts for the dif

Catullus is disparaged in this volume. We ference of human tempers and characters. Character results from the combination of the elementary principles: must doubt either Professor Browne's know--a predominance of heat produces the choleric disposi- ledge of the writer whom he criticises, or his tion; that of wind produces timidity; that of air a calm own power of feeling poetry, when we find and equable temper. But this natural constitution, the him asserting (p. 229) that Catullus “had skill strength of the will, acted upon by education, is able, to a certain extent, to modify, though it cannot effect a com

and taste to adopt the materials with which his plete change. Thus it is that, although moral as well as

vast erudition furnished him, and to conceal his physical phenomena are produced in accordance with want of originality and inspiration." Why, if

ever a poet in this world had his soul full of ge- of Cicero. It has called our attention to a nuine poetic inspiration, it was Catullus. Try phase of the social life of the best of the Roman him by the two best tests ; first, by his power aristocracy, which we never had remarked beof expressing deep human feeling simply, sweet- fore, and which is in many respects important. ly, and so as to come home to the heart at

His age was not an age of poetry; but he pared the once; and, secondly, by his sensibility to the way for poetry by investing the language with those objects of external nature, and his power of graces which are indispensable to its perfection. He depicting the ideas which they suggest. Try freed it from all coarseness and harshness

, and accushim by either or both of these tests, and you every-day conversation, which never called up gross ideas

, will rank Catullus with Burns. Professor but was fit for pure and noble sentiments. Before his Browne has quoted, in this very volume, one time, Latin was plain-spoken, and therefore rigorous ; of the exquisite poems of Catullus on his bro- but the penalty which was paid for this was, that it was ther's death. We would appeal, also, to the language of the upper classes became in the days of Cicero

sometimes gross and even indecent. The conversational sweet lines in the “ Peninsularum Sirmio," on

in the highest degree refined: it admitted scarcely an the blessing of returning to ease and one's own offensive expression. The truth of this assertion is erihome

dent from those of his writings which are of the most Oh quid solutis est beatius curis,

familiar character: from his graphic Dialogues, in which Cum mens onus reponit, ac peregrino

he describes the circumstances as naturally as if they Labore fessi venimus larem ad nostrum

really occurred; from his Letters to Atticus, in which he Desideratoque acquiescimus lecto.

lays open the secret thoughts of his heart to his most Then there is the address to himself on the guage morally as well as æsthetically. It was the licen

intimate friend, his second self. Cicero purified the lanfolly of continuing to love a faithless fair- tious wantonness of the poets which degraded the pleasures Miser Catulle desinas ineptire

of the imagination by pandering to the passions, at first Et quod vides perisse, perditum duces, &c.

in language delicately veiled, and then by open and dis

gusting sensuality, Moore has translated this, and justly praised it. It is difficult for us, perhaps, to whom religion comes But Moore had not the simplicity of Catullus. under the aspect of revelation separate from philosophy, He failed accordingly in his version; and he and who consider the philosophical investigation of moral would have failed worse had he tried the still subjects as different from the religious view of morals, to

form an adequate con otion of the pure and almost holy more simple and beautiful poem on the same nature of the conversations of Cicero and his distinguished subject, which contains the couplet

contemporaries. To them philosophy was the contemplaDifficile est longum subito deponere amorem ;

tion of the nature and attributes of the Supreme Being

. Difficile est. Verum hoc qualibet efficias.

The metaphysical analysis of the internal nature of man

was the study of immortality and the evidence for another We could adduce many more examples, but life. Cato, for example, read the Phædo of Plato

in bis space forbids; and we must be brief with our last moments in the same serious spirit in which the proofs of the inspired eye with which Catullus Christian would read the words of inspiration. The studs viewed the beauties of nature. Could mere

of ethics was that of the sanctions with which God has erudition have given him the wonderful third supported duty and enlightened the conscience. They

were the highest subjects with which the mind of man line in his celebrated comparison of a young could be conversant. For men to meet together, as va maiden in the retirement of her home to the the habitual practice of Cicero and his friends, and pas flower in the quiet garden ?

their leisure hours in such discussions, was the same as if

Christians were to make the great truths of the Gospel Ut flos in septis secretus nascitur hortis,

the subjects of social converse. Ignotus pecori, nullo contusus æratro,

Again, if we examine the character of their lighter Quem mulcent aura, firmat sol, educat imber, fc. conversations when they turned from philosophy to litera We will cite one passage from the old bard ture, -—it was not mere gossip on the popular literature of of Verona, and only one more. It is the stanza

the day—it was not even confined to works written in

their native tongue-it embraced the whole field of the —quite in the same spirit as that which gave literature of a foreign nation. They talked of poets, oraScotland the “ Lines on a Mountain Daisy on tors, philosophers, and historians, who were ancients to turning one up by the plough”—in which Ca- them as they are to us. They did not then think the tullus compares the downfall of slighted love subject of a foreign and ancient literature dull or pedantie to the fall of the flower at the extreme edge of should be trifling

or frivolous in order to be entertaining. the greensward, which the ploughshare grazes as it passes through the adjoining glebe

We regret to find in this portion of Profes

sor Browne's work another trace of imperfect Nec meum respectet, ut ante, amorem ; Qui illius culpă cecidit; velut prati

reading, or of hasty writing, or both. He Ultimi flos, prætereunte postquam

enumerates (p. 357), among Cicero's philosoTactus aratro est.

phical writings, the "Paradoxa, in which the The chapters on Cicero form, of course, one six celebrated Stoical paradoxes are touched of the most important part of Professor Browne's upon in a light and amusing manner.". Pro volume. He succeeds better with Cicero as a fessor Browne had better read them. He will philosopher than as an orator. There is much find no levity or mirth in them. If, inded, be beauty, both of feeling and of expression, in the stops short at the introduction, he will certainly following observations on the moral excellence find Cicero saying, “Illa ipsa quæ vix iu gym. nasiis et in otio Stoici probant ludens conjeci in true about Virgil or Horace; and the same communes locos.” But this only means that difficulty occurs, though in a less degree, when Cicero wrote them as a literary exercise, and a critic approaches their contemporaries and not for the sake of inculcating his own real their successors. opinions. But he took them up with all the Altogether, Professor Browne's work will zeal of a first-rate advocate; and they contain find, and will deserve, readers. Whether the the most energetic passages that are to be found fact of such works being in request speaks in in the whole of his philosophical works. The favour of the present state of English scholarfourth paradox, in which he assails the charac- ship, is a serious question, and leads to others ter of his old enemy Clodius, and the sixth, in moreserious still. When facilities are sought and which Crassus is the imagined mark of his in- given for obtaining knowledge about the Classics vectives, are perfect models of fiery and almost second-hand, it looks as if there were either a savage vigour and earnestness.

disability or a disinclination to seek the founOur limits will not permit us to follow Pro- tain heads. The latter may be the case; and fessor Browne further into his delineations of it may imply no want of intellectual vigour, the other Roman classical authors. They are but only the encroaching necessity on the mind fairly done, and will probably give information of educated England of becoming scientific rato many in a pleasing form, though there is not ther than classical, while it yet wishes to retain much in them that is very striking or very new. the show of classicality. Whether this be so, We readily admit that it is by no means easy and whether, if it be so, it be so for good or for to say any thing that shall be both new and evil, we cannot now pause to deliberate.

The Homeric Dialect. By J. S. BAIRD. G. Bell. The mighty Homer, the preservation of whose wart Theocritus to the Doric, &c., the great wondrous Epics will be a source of rejoicing to magician of antiquity, from whose inspirations mankind to the latest ages, combined within all succeeding generations have largely drawn, himself the highest characteristics of the poet, combines them all in harmonious beauty. He, the statesman, the philosopher, the historian, therefore, does good service to the cause of liteand the priest. In analogy with this marvel. rature, who sets forth clearly and methodically lous variety of excellence is the remarkable these various dialects; and Mr. Baird shews circumstance of his uniting in his poems all the himself fully competent to the task. The stuvarious dialects of Greece. While the stately dent of Homer will find all his inquiries in Xenophon confines himself to the Attic, the this respect answered by a series of tables, arsweet-voiced Herodotus to the Ionic, the stal- ranged so as to be at once and easily intelligible.

Sketches and Characters, or the Natural History of the Human Intellects. By JAMES

WILLIAM WHITECROSS. Saunders and Otley. 1853. This book contains nothing very profound, nor them usually takes a seat in Parliament at a very early very new, and it will scarcely take a high place age, before the mind has expanded to full maturity;

and amongst the text-books of British literature. ties which are required for close reasoning or enlarged

it is not always that they retain unimpaired those faculStill it groups together, in a not unpleasing speculation. manner, many observations that are only to be This is doubtless a little overcharged. It found in a multiplicity of authors. It opens would have been more true if the application with a chapter, which the anthor styles the had been restricted to the Parliamentary puppy “ Natural History of the Human Intellects.” so admirably described by Walter ScoitWe know not whether any of our statesmen

Or is it he, the wordy youth, will subscribe to the following description of So early trained for stateman's part, the hurtful tendency of Parliamentary oratory Who talks of honour, faith, and truth, to its possessor :

As themes that he has got by heart;

Whose ethics Chesterfield can teach ; The tendency of parliamentary life is to develope and Whose logic is from single speech ;* encourage ready wit at the expense of learning, deep Who scorns the meanest thought to vent, thought, and close reasoning. The most vigorous minds, Save in the phrase of Parliament ; when taking a serious part in Parliamentary debates, are Who, in a tale of cat and mouse, often inveigled to bring forth arguments that no man of Calls Order,' and divides the House ; sense would publish in writing-arguments which may Who craves permission to reply ;' pass unrefuted when set off with pointed language and Whose • noble friend is in his eye?' fluent delivery. They have, it is true, frequent occasions

Bridal of Triermain, Canto 2. for developing their talent for debate ; but the habit of loose reasoning is the more prejudicial, as the ablest of

* Single-speech Hamilton.

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