Obrazy na stronie

The salong was profoundly still when I took my apart. dence through that barrier, that Swedish hilarity at home ments, and I understood that it was not in ordinary use. bears some proportion to Swedish quietness abroad. Such Alas! when I take possession of them I find it is the only ringing laughter, such fearfully loud voices, might be sitting as well as eating-room of the household ; and the tolerated, were it not for the offensive-to refined ears I gabble of voices, and the loud laughs of which I have the could term it appalling-practice of mingling in common, full benefit through the folding doors, give me plenty of and even jocund discourse, the most reverend, sacred, or noise without society, and cause me fully to experience awful words and phrases. My own ears, at least, tingle what it is to be a solitary in a crowd.

at some of these sounds, uttered often amid bursts of See what it is to yield to persecution. I fled from laughter, or with trifling expressions of pleasure, surprise, the flies, but I have only exchanged one plague for or admiration. another.

The commonest, vulgarest of Swedish exclamations is And when I opened the folding doors, thinking I Kors Jesu !-Cross of Jesus !-the most sacred words to would begin my acquaintance with social life in Sweden, Christian hearts! And this, contracted usually to Kors, what do you think was the first thing? A little woman prefaces a remark that a dress is pretty, or a dance is in a Bloomer costume-a tunic and trousers of coarse pleasant. The little children can exclaim Herr Gud ! brown merino.

with their first accents; and a young lady, who is one " What is it?" I inquired.

of my next-door neighbours, appears to be quite an adept “ One of my young ladies is on the gymnastics,” said in stringing whole lines of sacred words together, and my new hostess.

uttering them as the only means of attracting observation So it is; in summer every one who can rushes from

to what she says. the capital to the country, to take baths or drink waters ;

We may ask, Why do not the priests of the land set and in winter, or autumn rather, every one who suffers themselves against this vile practice ? Alas! the priests any bodily complaint, and can manage to move, moves themselves are not exempt from it. up to Stockholm to take gymnastic exercises ; young men and maidens, old men and children, if they are too weak The reader now knows what manner of peror too stout, too little worked or too hard worked, they must “ go on the gymnastics " when winter draws on.

formance Miss Bunbury's Life in Sweden is-And when these doors are shut, I have sufficient evi light, sketchy, agreeable gossip, and no more.

The British Jews By the Rev. John Mills. Post 8vo. London: Houlston and

Stoneman. 1853. This is the production of a clergyman of the time of Cromwell. They now perhaps thrive Church of England, who assures us that he in this country more than in any other part of has had more extensive intercourse with the Europe. British Jews, and collected more materials on Mr. Mills furnishes us with a curious and the subject of their history, than any other living succinct detail of their religious customs and man.

domestic habits. The ceremony that ensues His aim has here been to describe the various when an Israelite declines to marry the widow religious duties and ceremonies in vogue at of his brother is in many respects singular. the present day among what may be termed Having expressed his disinclination, the Chief the strict but enlightened Jews.

Rabbi calls for “the shoe," and commands the He has not attempted to collect all the ab man to put it on: the Rabbi then twists and surd superstitions of the ignorant, nor has he ties certain laces around his leg. The widow, omitted those duties which only the irreligious having been led by the Rabbi to the man, she among the Hebrews neglect. The treatise is repeats in Hebrew these words, “My huscompendious, written in a popular form, with- band's brother refuseth to raise up unto his out any aim or pretension to be considered a brother a name in Israel.

He will not perlearned work. Had it been otherwise, Mr. form the duties of my husband's brother.” She Mills might have greatly enhanced the value then unties the knots, a somewhat difficult of his labours had he consulted those standard matter, as she must do so with her right hand works that treat minutely of the laws and ob- only. Having loosed the shoe, she throws servances of this strange people; such as it on the floor, and spits before the man, (alBingham's “ Christian Antiquities," Churdon's though it is currently believed no Israelite can “Histoire des Sacrèmens” (tome VI.), Seldon's perform that vulgar act), repeating after the “ Uxor Ebraica ” (Vol. II. pages 529—836).

Rabbi this formula : « So shall it be done The persecutions inflicted on the Jews dur- unto that man who will not build up his broing the early period of England's history are ther's house; and his name shall be called in too well known to need more than a passing Israel, The house of him that hath his shoe allusion.

loosed.'All those who witness this strange It was in the reign of the first Edward that ceremony exclaim, as audibly as they are able, the whole of their property was confiscated,

“ His shoe is loosed ! His shoe is loosed! His numbers of them were slain, and the rest ba- shoe is loosed !" neither more nor less than nished from the kingdom, nor were they again three times. After this, the Rabbi declares the allowed to take up their abode here until the lady free to wed whomsoever she pleases, and

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gives her his consent, and the Secretary of the Pair of single-soled slippers, with spring

heels Synagogue writes a certificate to that effect

Double-dyed bonnet, including a net cap when the ceremony is completed.

Pair of white cotton gloves The washing or purifying of hands is not

A lady's green silk paletôt, lined with crima morning ritual solely: it is a duty strictly son silk, trimmed with black Felvet, quilted enjoined on many occasions, though we fear and wadded throughout not as rigidly observed. We have no

3 planation given of the accredited fact, that the Jews, as a race, are the dirtiest people in the This account is taken by Mr. Mills from an world. The Old Clothes’ Exchange affords article in the City Mission Magazine. The vensufficientevidence to convince the most sceptical, dor was a “literary dustman,” fluently speakthat the only clean, or comparatively clean in- ing English, German, Dutch, Swedish, and habitants of that locality are the costermongers, Danish, and gaining his livelihood by raking who have introduced themselves into this New dusthills and selling the bones. It would Exchange, and earn a living by bartering glass scarcely be right to pry into the antecedents of and different kinds of ornaments with the pub- the bride. lic for antiquated apparel.

Sunday is of course utterly disregarded In Petticoat Lane and its adjacent parts by the Hebrews: it is with them one of the there are no less than three miles of shops for busiest days at the Old Clothes' Exchange the sale of old clothes. Great bales of worn in Houndsditch, until about two o'clock : a clothes, including many once dazzling liveries, halfpenny is paid for admission on week days, are exported to Holland, Belgium, and Ire- but nothing on Sundays. land, &c. They are generally packed up and The Hebrews are very particular in the matdespatched on Sundays. At the old Rag Fair, ter of food. Animals intended for their use unquestionably the commodities offered for must be killed by a Jew butcher, who attaches sale are among the cheapest that can be con a leaden seal, with a Hebrew inscription, to the ceived. Pickles, cucumbers, ginger-beer, and meat. A Jewish butcher assured the writer a spurious sort of soda-water, are passing that his method of slaughtering animals was cheap; and so are good scissors and knives the most cruel of all, for they cut the poor sold by Jew children, and other things of a beasts' throat and let it bleed slowly to death; similar character. A single visit to Petticoat while the stunning blow from the Christian or Rosemary Lanes will not, we are assured, butcher's pole-axe destroys all further sensation. be thrown away. The people there are inva- As there is no specific mark to distinguish the riably very civil, or as they call it, polite. cleanness or uncleanness of poultry, all birds

, To shew at what extremely low rates not prohibited by Moses, are lawful food. raiment may be purchased for the poor, we give Fishes with fins and scales are permitted, but the following statement of the expense of fitting every kind of shell-fish is strictly forbidden: out a pauper bridegroom and his bride oysters, however, are sold and eaten by the As we were here providing for a female, and the Jew boys if their freshness be on the wane

. winter was approaching, we added the extra clothing of Mixtures of divers natures are to be strenuously the last item, but a summer dress would have been avoided, such as the grafting of one descrip

. complete without it, which would have reduced the total to 23. 3d.

tion of fruit tree upon stocks of another kind; The Man's.

but no Jew could eat a pear or an apple off a Full linen-front shirt, very elegant

grafted tree if he were strictly to obey this inPair of warm worsted stockings

junction. A Hebrew must not sow different Pair of light-coloured trousers

seeds simultaneously in the same ground. We Black cloth waistcoat Pair of white cotton braces

are furnished with an enumeration of the Jewish Pair of low shoes

schools, but they are said to be greatly neg. Black silk velret stock

lected, and many of the pupils who have atBlack beaver, fly-fronted, double-breasted paletót coat, lined with silk, a very supe

tended them long can neither read nor write. rior article


They prefer employing their time in selling fruit, Cloth cap, bound with a figured band

0 and pass their evenings quarrelling and gamPair of black cloth gloves

bling in the coffee-houses about the London

road, leading to the Elephant and Castle, near The Woman's.

which is a Synagogue of considerable size.

Their favourite diversion is backgammon, one A shift

of the oldest games known. Many Jewish Pair of stays

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children are employed for the merest pittance Black Orleans ditto

in cigar making, but even they also spend Pair of white cotton stockings

much time in gambling. A very good light-coloured cotton gown 0 10 The Synagogues, except on the Passover and

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such like occasions, are very sparely attended : scruple at perjury. Even in the days of hangall seem to neglect the ritual, walking in and ing for larcency they somehow or other geneout as they please. An idle, desultory con- rally escaped the gallows. Yet of all these, versation is carried on. A knot of Jews in and many other traits, our author says nothing, their seats in the Synagogue were, on one occa except that the Israelites shew remarkable sion, overheard talking of Mendoza the boxer, laxity in their lives ! and saying how well the “old fellow" looked, We may conclude by observing that they and that they would back him still if they are forbidden by their laws to sow or to plough, found him going to "a mill.” The Jew to mow, to gather into sheaves, 10 thresh, to fighters, such as the Belascos and Mordecais, winnow, to grind, to sieve, to knead, to bake, now keep the most disreputable houses in Lon- to shear wool, to wash wool, to card, to dye, to don, their wives assisting them in the infamous spin, to warp, to shoot two threads, to tie, to business.

unite, to sew two stitches, to tear thread, to The Jewish community comprises three catch game, to slaughter it, to skin it, to salt a kinds of members—the Cohen, or priest, be- hide, to tan, to cut up a hide, to build or delonging to the family of Aaron; the Levite, molish, to extingush fire, or to hammer, or, who has, under the Mosaic dispensation, to we might add, to pursue any manly occupaperform specific duties long since dispensed tion. with; the term Israelite comprises every Jew On the day of atonement the Maphtir reads having no claim to the distinctions just men a portion of the book of Jonah, and closes the tioned. The Chief Rabbi is Dr. Adler, a na- ritual with the Nergilah, or great concluding tive of Hanover, and his income is about 12001. thanksgiving. The Shophar is then blown, a year. Many of the members of the Syna- and they conclude with the words, “Next year gogues did not think it worth their while to we shall meet in Jerusalem." The festival is vote at the last vacancy, and Dr. Adler was then commenced after a fast of twenty-four returned by a great majority, although, in 1844, hours. Neither leather shoes nor any thing there were four candidates. This salary is made of calf-skin are allowed to be worn on raised partially by fines for absence from all the day of atonement on account of the religious worship, and the wealthy Jews con Golden Calf worshipped by their forefathers, tribute the rest.

and certainly as fondly adored by themselves. The greed of the Jews is manifested in their So the majority wear on that occasion cloth neglect of their own literature. A valuable boots or shoes, or go with stockings only on work on the Hebrew language was brought, their feet. The most honourable portion of not long since, from Poland, to be disposed of the Synagogue is that near the ark, less so in England. Even the Rothschilds, who are is that next the doors at the west end. All enormously rich, would not advance a farthing the seats increase in honour, and in price, as to get it printed.

they approach the ark. The Jews assert that their women are far A goodly number have visited the gold digmore chaste than the generality of Christian gings, not to dig, but to buy the gold, both in women-an assertion that we are not prepared Australia and California. Much destitution to admit. If true, however, how is it to be prevails among the Jews there; thus adding accounted for? They traffic in all the vile to the poverty of their community, like that of houses in London, without the smallest apparent the Irish. The Gentiles there are far richer, compunction, and laugh at any remonstrance because more laborious. at such a money-making avocation. Their The metropolitan Jews number about 20,000, laziness in these haunts, and their drunkenness, while 5000 are to be found settled in the proare notorious. Yet they attend the Synagogue vinces, or as wandering pedlars. There are now once or twice a year, and subscribe for the help forty-one registered Synagogues in the kingof the poor when the church warden calls upon dom; besides which, there are three others in them. This plainly is a tax for a toleration of process of construction-one at Birmingham, their immoral practices, and not a word of one at Glasgow, and another at Edinburgh. reprobation is heard by them, as themselves With respect to the Talmud, Mr. Mills obadmit.

They are generally reputed to be not over honest in their dealings. Many hundreds of

A knowledge of the Hebrew language will enable any them indeed are receivers of stolen goods, person, with the assistance of a commentator, to underrealizing, of course, immense profits. Their stand the Talmud. But whoever pursues that ancient very children carry on this trade at the rag and work, must bear in mind that it contains the religious marine-store shops until they are wealthy and philosophical opinions of thousands of learned and enough to aspire to something better. They nearly a thousand years, in different countries, various seldom get convicted : many of them make no situations, and under the most variegated circumstances ;




and that above a thousand years have elapsed since those among the first to protest against any confusion of the opinions were collected. The piety of its authors is un- Talmudic Rills with the ever-flowing Stream of Holy questionable. Its morality, with the exception of a few Writ, I do not hesitate to avow my doubts, whether there isolated opinions, is excellent. To believe that its multi- exists any uninspired work of equal antiquity, that confarious contents are all dictates of unerring wisdom, is as tains more interesting, more various, and valuable inforextravagant as to suppose that all it contains is founded mation, than that of the still-existing remains of the in error. Like all other productions of unaided humanity, ancient Hebrew Sages. it is not free from mistakes and prejudices, to remind us Until we read Mr. Mills' book we had no that the writers were fallible men, and that unqualified idea how little is popularly known of this cuadmiration must be reserved for the works of divine inspiration, which we ought to study, the better to adore rious people domiciled among us, and holding and obey the all-perfect Author. But while I should be so many of us free Britons in bondage,

The Stones of Venice. Vol. II. The Sea Stories. By John Ruskin. With Illustrations

drawn by the Author. London: Smith, Elder, & Co., 65 Cornhill. 1853. The first volume of this most interesting and city, and sought a doubtful safety in the shallows beautiful work treated of THE FOUNDATIONS, of the Adriatic. the present, concludes the account of the ancient Lowing herds are grazing on the site of the architecture of Venice.

town whence they were banished; the chief After a most vivid and sparkling description, street it boasted once is now a level meadow. which forcibly recalls to our recollection the Queen of the Sea, our author aptly remarks,

Let us go down into that little space of meadow land.

The inlet which runs nearest to the base of the camthat “They little thought, who first drove the panile is not that by which Torcello is commonly apstakes into the sand, and strewed the ocean proached. Another, somewhat broader, and overhung by reeds for their rest, that their children were to alder copse, winds out of the main channel of the lagoon be the princes of that ocean, and their palaces the Piazza of the city, and there, stayed by a few grey

up to the very edge of the little meadow which was once its pride;" and yet, he proceeds to observe, stones which present some semblance of a quay, forms its how strange was the preparation of those mat- boundary at one extremity. Hardly larger than an orters upon which the whole existence and for- dinary English farmyard, and roughly enclosed on each tune of the Venetian nation were in future ages briar, the narrow field retires from the water's edge, tra

side by broken palings and hedges of honeysuckle and to depend. Had their islands indeed been versed by a scarcely traceable footpath, for some forty of separated by deeper currents, the nascent city fifty paces, and then expanding into the form of a small would over and again have been reduced, by square

, with buildings on three sides of it, the fourth behostile navies, to servitude: had the shores been ing that which opens to the water. Two of these, that lashed by sterner waves, all the richness and the canal, are so small that they might well be taken for

on our left and that in front of us as we approach from glory of Venetian architecture must have the out-houses of the farm, though the first is a contenbeen replaced by the unpretending massiveness tional building, and the other aspires to the title of the of a common port. Had there been no tide,

“Palazzo publico,” both dating as far back as the begin, as in the rest of the Mediterranean, the marsh ning of the fourteenth century; the third, the octagonal

church of Santa Fosca, is far more ancient than either, surrounding the city, and the narrower canals yet hardly on a larger scale. Though the pillars of the within it, would have yielded continually pes- portico which surrounds it are of pure Greek marble, and tiferous exhalations. If, on the other hand, the their capitals are enriched with delicate sculpture, they, tide had but occasionally risen a few inches the height of a cattle-shed ; and the first strong imprese higher, all access to the doors of the palacession which the spectator receives from the whole scene is

, would have been impossible, their courts and that whatever sin it may have been which has on this entrance-halls would have been continually spot been visited with so utter a desolation, it could not flooded, and covered with masses of dripping be diminished as we approach, or enter, the larger church sea-weed and slimy limpets. In short, the to which the whole group of building is subordinate. It streets would have been widened, the sagene of has evidently been built by men in flight and distress, canals filled up, and all the present striking who sought in the hurried erection of their island church

such a shelter for their earnest and sorrowful worship as, peculiarities of Venice utterly destroyed.

on the one hand, could not attract the eyes of their eneThirteen centuries ago, the sand-banks which mies by its splendour, and yet, on the other, might not stretch irregularly to the northward of the city, awaken too bitter feelings by its contrast with the the long dreary tracts of moorland beyond them, churches which they had seen destroyed. There is visible the purple mountains reflecting the “light of the form of the temples which they had loved, and to do the dying day,” all bore much the same aspect honour to God by that which they were erecting, while as at this very hour; but the sad wail of woe distress and humiliation prevented the desire, and prumingled then-once--with the rippling mur

dence precluded the admission, either of luxury of ornamur of the wave as the terrified inhabitants of devoid of decoration, with the exception only of the western

ment or magnificence of plan. The exterior is absolutely Altinum fled in anguish from their burning entrance and the lateral door, of which the former bas

carved sideposts and architrave, and the latter, crosses of even the Renaissance arcades of St. Mark's Place, though rich sculpture; while the massy stone shutters of the frequently painted, are always treated as a mere avenue windows, turning on huge rings of stone, which answer to its Byzantine church and colossal tower. And the the double purpose of stanchions and brackets, cause the Ducal Palace itself owes the peculiar charm which we whole building rather to resemble a refuge from alpine have hitherto felt, not so much to its greater size as comstorm than the cathedral of a populous city; and, inter- pared with other Gothic buildings, or nobler design (for nally, the two solemn mosaics of the eastern and western it never yet has been rightly drawn), as to its comparaextremities,-one representing the Last Judgment, the tive isolation. The other Gothic structures are as much other the Madonna, her tears falling as her hands are injured by the continual juxtaposition of the Renaissance raised to bless, -and the noble range of pillars which en palaces, as the latter are aided by it: they exhaust their close the space between, terminated by the high throne own life by breathing it into the Renaissance coldness; for the pastor and the semicircular raised seats for the but the Ducal Palace stands comparatively alone, and superior clergy, are expressive at once of the deep sorrow fully expresses the Gothic power. and the sacred courage of men who had no home left And it is just that it should be so seen, for it is the them upon earth, but who looked for one to come,--of men original of nearly all the rest. It is not the elaborate “persecuted but not forsaken, cast down but not de and more studied developement of a national style, but stroyed."

the great and sudden invention of one man, instantly I am not aware of any other early church in Italy forming a national style, and becoming the model for the which has this peculiar expression in so marked a degree; imitation of every architect in Venice for upwards of a and it is so consistent with all that Christian architecture century. It was the determination of this one fact which ougit to express in every age (for the actual condition of occupied me the greater part of the time I spent in Venice. the exiles who built the cathedral of Torcello is exactly It bad always appeared to me most strange that there typical of the spiritual condition which every Christian should be in no part of the city any incipient or imperfect ought to recognise in himself, a state of homelessness on types of the form of the Ducal Palace; it was diffcult to earth, except so far as he can make the Most High his believe that so mighty a building had been the conception habitation), that I would rather fix the mind of the of one man, not only in disposition and detail, but in reader on this general character than on the separate style; and yet impossible, had it been otherwise, but that details, however interesting, of the architecture itself. some early examples of approximate Gothic form must

exist. There is not one. The palaces built between the From Torcello and Murano our author leads final cessation of the Byzantine style, about 1300, and us to contemplate, with veneration and awe, the date of the Ducal Palace (1320 — 1350), are all comSt. Mark and the Byzantine palaces; he then pletely distinct in character,--so distinct that I at first

intended the account of them to form a separare section points, with evident feelings of exultation, to

of this volume; and there is literally no transitional form the remains of the Gothic period.

between them and the perfection of the Ducal Palace. The former, he justly affirms, contribute but Every Gothic building in Venice which resembles the latlittle to the effect of the streets, that effect being ter is a copy of it. I do not mean that there was no almost entirely due to those of the Gothic and Gothic in Venice before the Ducal Palace, but that the

mode of its application to domestic architecture had not the Renaissance eras. In themselves the Re- been determined. The real root of the Ducal Palace is naissance buildings are neither pleasing nor the apse of the Church of the Frari. The traceries of picturesque, but they afford an agreeable con that apse, though earlier and ruder in workmanship, are trast, by their combined severity and refine- nearly the same in mouldings, and precisely the same in

treatment (especially in the placing of the lions' heads) ment, with the wildness and variety of the sea

as those of the great Ducal Arcade ; and the originality life beneath them, and by the solidity of their of thought in the architect of the Ducal Palace consists white marble, around which the soft green in his having adapted those traceries, in a more highly waves incessantly play.

developed and finished form, to civil uses. The Gothic edifices, on the other hand, are This edifice, unlike many others as widely in themselves essentially picturesque, and exer- celebrated that fall upon the eye, endows with cise over the spectator an independent power. undiminished attractiveness every picture or Under any sky, even the dull, leaden pall of drawing in which it forms the principal subject. our own ungenial clime, they would still be From it we learn that Venetian architecture is essentially beautiful.* The principal of these is divisible into two periods--one, in which was of course

developed no consistent type of domestic build

ing, though it exhibited many irregular Gothic In spite of all architectural theories and teachings, the tendencies. The second, on the other hand, paintings of this building are always felt to be delightful: from direct imitation of the great design of the we cannot be wearied by them, though often sorely tried; but we are not put to the same trial in the case of the Ducal Palace, insensibly formed a consistent palaces of the Renaissance. They are never drawn singly, school of domestic architecture. Our author or as the principal subject, nor can they be. The build- discusses very ably these two peoiods, and ading which faces the Ducal Palace on the opposite side of verts to their relative merits, their products, the Piazzetta is celebrated among architects, but it is not familiar to our eyes; it is painted only incidentally, for

and results. the completion, not the subject, of a Venetian scene; and In 1419 a fire occurred which damaged

much, both the church of St. Mark's and a * Mr. Ruskin here takes occasion to observe, that the large portion of the palace. The noble old most characteristic sentiment of all that we trace in the Doge Mocenigo proposed its re-construction working of the Gothic heart, was the frank confession of its own weakness; that of the Renaissance, firm confi

on a vaster scale and of mightier proportions dence in its own wisdoin ; and this view of the matter he than before; though in so doing he incurred loses no opportunity of inculcating.

and paid, a fine of a thousand ducats, the


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