Obrazy na stronie

vince has been for ever forced from the yoke piness and destinies of hundreds of millions will of the Mantchoo Emperor, and, in all proba- be in his hands, and the amount of good or bility, long ere these lines are in type, Pekin evil he may achieve it is impossible now to will have fallen, and the unfortunate Hièn-foung predict. Since the days of Mahomet, no one will have been deposed! What religion, what man has ever attained such eminence with such institutions, Tien-tè, or his representative, may slight pretensions, and, as it appeared at the then establish, it remains to be seen. The hap- outset, with such slender prospects of success.

Chang-chow and Tang-wang have both lately succumbed to the insurgents, though not without severe loss to the latter. At Tang-wa the inhabitants en masse, though sanctioning the ejectment of the mandarins, have refused to allow the insurgents to have any thing to do with the government, and have proceeded to declare themselves free and independent burgesses, who could govern for themselves. We have just learnt that the main body of the insurgents still remains at Nankin, Chin-kiang-foo, and on the northern banks of the Yang

tse-kiang. They have taken Tai-ping-foo, a city of great strength to the westward of Nankin. No movement has been yet made northward, or in the direction of Soochow and Shanghai.

Mr. Taylor returned to Shanghai from visiting the insurgent general Loo at Chin-kiang-foo, who forwarded him on to Nankin on his expressing a wish to go there. The tents of the Imperial troops were distinctly seen from the walls of that city.


I. An Act to provide for the Government of India. 20th August, 1853.
II. Précis of the Great Surat Case, compiled from official documents : being an illustration

of the mode in which justice is occasionally administered in Western India. Chesson:

Bombay, 1853. III. A history of the Sikhs, from the origin of the nation to the batlles of the Sutlej. By

Joseph CUNNINGHAM. Second Edition. Murray, 1853. IV. Plan for the future Government of India. By JAMES SILK BUCKINGHAM. 1853. THERE is a temporary lull in the storm of In- Every Director must henceforth acknowledge dian pamphlets. All the world is out of town; the Queen's Government of India after the folthe India Bill has passed ; the new Charter Act lowing fashionhas not come into operation; the machinery

“1, A. B., do swear that I will be faithful to Her for working it is scarcely beginning to be pre- Majesty Que

18 Lo de prc Majesty Queen Victoria, and will, to the best of my pared. Yet British interest in this great ques- ability, perform the duty assigned to me as a Director of tion was never higher than now; and we the East-India Company in the administration of the earnestly exhort our Indian fellow-subjects not

Government of India in trust for the Crown. So help to allow themselves to be discouraged by the

me God." apparent cessation of movement, but to renew Coupled with Section 35 (which was inserted and exercise their efforts for the enlightenment on the motion of Mr. Vernon Smith, and the of the public mind as to the nature of their purport of which is to place the President of grievances and the conditions of their redress. The India Board on the footing of a Secretary Much remains to be accomplished; but much of State), we cannot but regard this amendment has been achieved. When, this very day in the terms of the directorial oath of office as twelvemonth, we addressed our first article on one of the most significant among the many the measure then contemplated for the misrule indications now abroad of an intention to asof India to a public whose habitual heedless- sume, formally and openly, the reins of Indian ness but too well justified the despondency government into the Queen's hands; a transfer under which we wrote, was it possible to fore- of power virtually accomplished by the present see the change that has since come over the Act. The prospect thus afforded of the speedy English mind, the miscarriage of the Herries extinction of that useless, cumbrous, and ex. project, and the concessions—inadequate as they pensive pageant is one on which we cannot but are-which Parliament has at length made to congratulate our readers. that public opinion which it is our boast to We scarcely know whether we ought to dishave called into existence ?

approve of the omission from this new oath of Since our last Number the “Act for the the customary abjuration of bribe-taking and Government of India" has received the royal jobbery. Certainly it has had no practical reassent. Our observations with respect to it are sults. Directors hitherto have taken the oath necessarily brief. It is essentially the same and the bribe with the same peace of mind; with the « Government of India Bill.”

and so they would have continued to do so One of the most noticeable differences be- long as the oath stood in their way to the bribetween this grub and that chrysalis consists in pot. Nevertheless, there was some pleasure in the Directors' oath. The Bill proposed, in the making them gulp it. Our feeling is not preold form, that every Director, after swearing to cisely that of the Caur-de-Lion of Walter his qualification in “stock of the East-India Scott_“I will have him perjure himself! I Company,” should “further swear that he will insist on the ordeal! How I shall laugh would not, directly or indirectly, accept or take to hear his clumsy fingers hiss as he grasps the any perquisite, emolument, fee, present, or re- red-hot globe of iron! Aye, or his huge mouth ward, upon any account whatsoever, or any riven, and his gullet swollen to suffocation, as promise or engagement for any perquisite, fee, he endeavours to swallow the consecrated present, or reward whatsoever, for or in respect bread!” Our interest in the solemnity is of the appointment or nomination of any person purely historical. The oath was first deviseu or persons to any place or office in the gift or by Parliament in the days of Clive and Verelst, appointment of the said Company, or of him, in the vain hope of checking the corruptions of as a Director thereof;" and the formula ended that epoch. It is good for us to remember with the usual clause of fealty and allegiance such things, and not to let Directors forget them, to the Company and its Government, all Their mock indignation on the late occasion of mention of the Crown being utterly excluded. Mr. Bright's disclosures, and the sham proses In this last respect the change made by the cution of Mr. Norman Wilkinson which tolHouse of Lords is a decided improvement. lowed, will deceive nobody. Their character

as “men of business" is by this time too well sibly have placed his son in a position either to established.

gratify the expectations of Mr. Bright with a If Lord Ellenborough enjoys the credit of seat in his father's cabinet, or to become the having procured the amendments on which liberator of India. But our advice, as though we have been remarking to be made, to the it had been pearls, was trodden under the feet Bishop of Oxford's excellent speech on the of those before whom we cast it. Young second reading of the Bill in the Lords we owe India,” led by Lord Stanley and Mr. Bright, an amendment not less important, but of an- were signally beaten on the second reading, and other kind. The thirty-ninth clause of the their préstige rapidly went down, Not a single Bill proposed merely to empower the Board of amendment, good or bad, ever afterwards was Control to appoint examiners, under regulations carried by their strength, or obtained by their to be made by that Board, for conducting the influence. Their want of intelligence, informaexaminations of candidates for admission into tion, tact, and concert, defeated the few which Hailey bury and Addiscombe, “and of students they brought forward ; and to those members or persons leaving such college and seminary who, not being noted by their confidence, did for the purpose of entering into the civil or succeed in forcing useful alterations or ad. military service of the said Company, and of ditions now and then, the support which was other persons entering such military service, rendered by “Young India” may be estimated and of persons desirous of being appointed as- at zero. Sir John Pakington, for instance, in sistant surgeons in the said Company's forces," the name of his salt-making constituents at The effect of this proposed clause would have Droitwich, moved and carried, in the very been, to leave the civil service of the Company teeth of Government and the India House, Fa the private patrimony of Haileybury students; really valuable clause for giving effect to the a monopoly, the evil consequence of which statutory prohibition of the Company's trade, the Bishop of Oxford most forcibly depicted, by closing the Government salt-works in India, Lord Granville yielded to the remonstrance, and throwing open to all the world the manuand Section 42 of the new Act accordingly ex- facture and sale of that first necessary of Hindù tends the provision generally to all “ candidates existence. Mr, Bright, whose party, by the for appointment to the civil and military ser. way, seem to have excluded, through some unvice respectively of the said Company," with explained whimsy, the Company's monopolies out regard to the place of education, or any of land, salt, opium, tobacco, and so forth, from other test than that of fitness.

their favourite category of parliamentary topics, Notwithstanding these decided improvements allowed the battle to be fought and won by Sir upon the original plan, it must be confessed John Pakington, without help or countenance that the new Indian Charter Act is a wretched from him; and, forgetful of Manchester and failure, and open, with but little modification, its politicians, sat silently and sullenly aloof. to every one of the vital objections to which The Bill, thus improved, went up to the Lords; the Bill was liable, and which, in our last the Lords rejected the improvement, and the Number, we endeavoured to point out. One Commons were thus again called upon to concomfort is, that it cannot work, and that, session sider the salt monopoly, and the propriety of after session, the legislation of Parliament will adhering to their proposal to abolish it. But, continue to be invoked by the jarring function when the day came, Mr, Bright and his party aries and the agitated people of India, and were nowhere : the former had been heard to likewise by the perplexed and confounded say, “It is Pakington's clause, and he may occupants of Cannon Row. The thing cannot pass it if he can; I am off for the country :* work; and before CREATION, Chaos!

and the utmost exertions of the Treasury whip A somewhat better result might have been had at last succeeded in getting together a obtained had it pleased the “Young-India slender majority for Leadenhall Street. Thus party," as Mr. Bright's parliamentary hench- deserted, and yet able to extort from Sir men absurdly call themselves, to be rational, Charles Wood the distinct pledge that the In, reflecting, and patriotic. We advised them dian legislature should, with all convenient well, when we urged them to reserve them- speed, carry into effect the purpose of Parliaselyes for a series of combined and sustained ment so long evaded, Sir John Pakington amendments in Committee, and not to expend wisely resolved to allow the Lords' amendtheir fire in the vain attempt to cripple the Bill ment to pass unopposed, and not to incur the on the second reading. Lord Stanley, an able risk of diminishing the force of the censure and well-meaning young nobleman, was but previously pronounced by the Commons against the cat's-paw of his noble parent and chief on the salt monopoly, by inviting an unsuccessful that occasion; and the success of “Young In, division on that question, in the last week of a dia" under such auspices might have restored long session, and in a thin and exhausted the ex-minister to power, but could not pos- House.

In the meantime, great is the excitement in The tale of Surat may be briefly told. Arda. Leadenhall which of the Directors shall be seer Dhunjishaw, in 1835, held his present offices eliminated, under Section 4, “on the second of inferior magistrate and chief constable, and Wednesday in the month of March ?'' --which Small Debts' Commissioner at Surat under Mr. retained ? Mr. Wigram, the brewer, an octo- Simpson, the then Collector at that place, but now genarian at the least, will resign quietly, and a judge of the Sudder. Ardaseer is described SO will old Sir Robert Campbell. But then in the “Précis" as "a man of consummate there will still remain thirteen actual and non- ability, greedy of power, tyrannical, unscrupuactual Directors to be extruded by brute force; lous in the means by which he sought his ends, and who shall they be? Colonel Sykes, Mr. and perfectly au fait at all the complicated reLeslie Melville, Major Oliphant, and one or lations of the British authorities and subjects of two other Directors of reforming predilections, Surat with the petty native chieftains of the think that the unreforming and jobbing ma- neighbourhood.” Withal, he was greatly in jority, of which Sir James Weir Hogg is the debt, and his principal creditor was a wealthy head, and his son-in-law, Mr. Marjoribanks, banker at Surat. In fact, « he owed nearly the youngest Director, is the tail, ought to per- forty thousand pounds," says the “ Précis," form a noble act of abnegation, and furnish “ within his own jurisdiction," whilst his offifrom their own ranks the thirteen victims, by cial income was scarcely 8001. a year. He way of grateful sacrifice to the offended justice contrived, however, to enlist the good grace of of their country. But the said majority think “ the English officials of the old school” on far otherwise, and, being the majority, are not his side, by negociating loans for them in like unlikely to do precisely as they think; and manner, and also “ by other services infinitely the imperious voice has been heard to mutter more degrading, according to European ideas;" his expectation of being speedily rid “ of such for the race of “ Brahminised Englishmen” (as men as Colonel Sykes." From that collision Mackintosh dubbed that “old school" of offimay light be vouchsafed to irradiate the vaults cials) was then in full vigour. of the India House !

His creditor, the Surat banker, died in 1838. The Outram and Khutput papers are still His nearest of kin were his father's widow and there; a living memorial of the forbearance of his own half-sister ; and the former being, by the disregarded Parliament. At the rate at Hindú law, entitled to succeed before the latter, which these discoveries proceed, the generation he bequeathed his property accordingly to them of wrong-doers will have slept with their in that order of succession. Ardaseer, as we fathers before the last sheet of copy has reached learn from the report of Mr. Hutt, a judge of the Queen's printers. The delay, indeed, is the Sudder Adawlut of Bombay, finding his not unaccountable, for the Directors thrive best debt to the bank accumulating largely from upon the Fabian policy; but what is really un- the unpaid arrears of interest, and having been accountable is, the supineness with which pro- obliged to mortgage his property and twofessing inquisitors have sat by and allowed thirds of his pay as a security, conceived the them to pursue it.

idea of ridding himself of it altogether by But the Indian press, at least, is not idle. getting the sister to contest the right of the The valuable document lately published in matter, and by obtaining the appointment of Bombay, which stands the second on the list himself and a friend to be joint trustees for at the head of this paper, is the crowning the management of the estate. But his views act of ac 'usation--we had well nigh said con- could not be carried out without the help of demnation-against the system which Outram his chief, Mr. Simpson; and it is here that the endeavoured to uproot, and to which he was connection of the European officials with the made a victim. Surely some member of Pare disgraceful business commences. liament may be found to expose the foul busi Mr. Luard, of the Bombay Civil Service, ness to te censure of the House, and to pro- who was judge of Surat in 1843, distinctly cure the redress of the wrong and the chastise- states, that Mr. Simpson, whilst Collector at ment of the offender. The friends of Mr. that place, “ promised to forward Ardaseer's Roebuck will be gratified to hear of his com- views, provided he would obtain for him the plete restoration to health, and of his confident person of the half-sister, who was young and expectation of being able to resume his active pretty ; that he obtained his desire, and that functions in the House of Commons at the be- he kept his word by supporting Ardaseer ginning of next session. We shall doubly ree with the greatest energy against all comers joice if these news be indeed certain; for his in the subsequent proceedings, and by writing presence there will be the sure earnest of the (though himself at the time on the Sudder searching inquiry which we demand, being Bench) to assure Ardaseer of his support while instituted and followed with perseverance and the latter was under trial on a criminal charge success.

in an inferior court." The half-sister was delivered of a son in August 1839; and Mr. judges, was accordingly appointed, in the beSimpson was soon after succeeded by a Mr. ginning of 1844, to conduct the inquiry ; and Elliott, who is charged in Mr. Hutt's report the result of his investigation was, the convicwith trusting implicitly to Ardaseer, with omit- tion of Ardaseer on every one of the charges ting all supervision over his proceedings, and alluded to, and the reversal of every decision " with leaving to him the performance of the given by Messrs. Simpson and Elliott prejuwhole of his own magisterial duties.”

dicial to the rights of the widow. She was On his side, Ardaseer was not unsuccessful. accordingly restored to her possession, and ArA forged deed gave him a pretext for seeking daseer was suspended from office until the the intervention of the friendly tribunal, and a final determination of the Sudder could be suborned “native law-officer” falsified the taken as to the proper steps to be pursued in his Hindù law of succession in his favour. Mr. regard. Luard charged this official with the receipt of But Mr. Simpson was himself a Sudder a bribe of 5000 rupees from Ardaseer." To judge, and in his colleague, Mr. Bell, possessed avoid the inquiry he resigned his post; and a powerful friend. Mr. Luard's accusation, Government subsequently refused to allow him and their colleague, Mr. Hutt's, unexpected to recal his resignation. But this did not pre- report, exasperated them beyond all bounds; vent Mr. Andrews, who succeeded Mr. Luard and the coarseness of their strictures on their as judge at Surat--and whom Mr. Luard, in colleague's conduct was such as to draw down 1851, charged with having himself received the marked censure of the Directors themselves, from Ardaseer a bribe of 10,000 rupees—from as being “most reprehensible, exceptionable, promoting that disgraced native official, and unbecoming, and inexcusable.” Mr. Luard, employing him at Baroda, where he took a however, was otherwise treated. A Mr. Releading and an effectual part, as the Outram mington, who was “ about twenty places below Blue Books shew, in the robbery of the Mr. Luard in the Civil list,” was selected to widow Joetabhaee, and the frustration of Colo try Ardaseer's case and that of the widow over nel Outram's endeavours to bring the perpe- again: the trial was conducted in English; no trators to justice.

counsel was allowed to Mr. Luard; the leader Ardaseer and his friend by these means ob- of the Bombay bar appeared for Ardaseer ; tained possession of the coveted inheritance: and Mr. Luard himself, after preparing the they carried off the books of the firm ; its charges, was allowed to take no further part business was stopped ; and the lawful owner in the proceedings. The consequence was, that was turned out to starve. She endeavoured to the report made by Mr. Hutt, the judge, was appeal to Bombay, but the all-powerful Ar- overruled by this young gentleman; Ardaseer daseer prevented the departure of herself and restored to office; the widow again reduced to her agents. One of them, indeed, succeeded poverty ; Mr. Luard removed to Ahmedabad ; in getting on board of the Bombay steam- and Mr. Remington rewarded with the sucpacket, but he was taken out again, and forcibly cession to him in the judgeship of Surat. The brought back. In the language of Mr. Hutt's Directors, in their letter to the Bombay Governreport,“ Such a series of tyrannous and op- ment of the 3d of March 1847, express the pressive acts could hardly have been supposed opinion, that the trial was so conducted as to be possible to have been perpetrated under British "at variance with the principles of equal jusrule; and yet all this is clearly established by tice to all parties concerned ;” and, having Ardaseer's own records, and under his own expressed that opinion, allowed the matter to hand.”

rest where the result of the trial had placed it. Mr. Elliott resigned in 1842, and was suc- The triumphant Ardaseer now in his turn ceeded by Mr. Richardson, a man of intelli- charged Mr. Luard with intemperate and argence and honesty, in the Surat judgeship. bitrary behaviour, while at Surat, towards Ardaseer found it impossible to deceive Mr. himself; and Mr. Luard was aroused from his Richardson, or to obtain his connivance. He sick furlough in the hills to meet this new died on the 21st of May 1843, and Mr. Luard, charge. To do so with effect, he found it neceswho succeeded him, expresses the belief that sary to prefer, on his own part, against Mr. he was poisoned.

Simpson, of the Sudder, specific and formal The unfortunate widow having petitioned charges of corrupt relations with Ardaseer; Mr. Luard to review Ardaseer's proceedings and these charges the commission which was to in her case, that gentleman, instead of dealing have tried Mr. Luard would have had to enterwith it himself, forwarded her petition to the tain and investigate. “But,” says the “Précis," Bombay Sudder, and recommended that a “the Court of Directors sent out orders that case of so much gravity should be tried, not the whole proceeding should be quashed, as hy a single judge, but by a commission from being calculated, if further ventilated, to bring the Sudder itself. Mr. Hutt, one of the Sudder discredit on the administration of justice in

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