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LITERATURE OF THE RUSSO-TURKISH CRISIS. I. Progress of Russia in the West, North, and South, by opening the Sources of Opinion

and appropriating the Channels of Wealth and Power. By David URQUHART.

London: Trübner & Co. 1853. II. The Greek and the Turk; or, Powers and Prospects in the Levant. By E. E. Crowe.

London: Bentley. 1853. JII. The Turks in Europe ; a Sketch of Manners and Politics in the Ottoman Empire. By

BOYLE ST. John. London: Chapman. 1853. IV. Russian Turkey; or, a Greek Empire the inevitable solution of the Eastern Question.

By G. D. P. London: 1853. It is now exactly four hundred years since the the Adriatic to reduce into decorous submission Greek empire was extinguished by the house his disobedient city of Rome; and there was of Othman, and Mahomet the Second captured a moment when a Pope was preparing to fly Constantinople. A hundred and fifty years beyond the Alps, and the metropolis of all previously à mere marauder, at the head of Christendom was in danger of becoming an scarce a thousand fighting men, made to him- appanage to Constantinople, and a provincial self a house and a kingdom in the mountains seat of Mohammedanism. This claim to emof Anatolia. His son assumed the name of pire is still a tradition at Constantinople: it Othman (the bone-breaker), because it was an has never been abandoned. Although the epithet that was the synonym for the vulture. immediate successors of the conqueror of ConFrom that time forwards he and his descendants stantinople turned eastward towards Persia, have followed the instincts of the bird they and southwards to Egypt, Solyman the Great

, adopted as a type, and fattened upon the carcases in the early part of the sixteenth century, inof decaying empires. Zingis Khan poured his dignant that Charles the Fifth should assume myriads over the territories of the Seljukian to himself a title inconsistent with his supreSultans of Iconium, and abandoned the waste macy, vindicated the universal sovereignty of he had made. The vulture appeared as he the house of Othman, by invading and annexing departed, adopted that desert as his kingdom, Hungary, reducing to tributary obedience and fed upon the relics of the prey which the Wallachia and Moldavia, expelling the Chris hunter had left. From Emirs the Othmans be- tian brotherhood of the lance from Rhodes, came Sultans ; and although the irruption of and besieging Vienna. We are accustomed to Timour for a moment disturbed the progress think largely of Charles the Fifth, Francis the of their fortunes, ten years sufficed to obliterate First, and their contemporaries on the continent the battle of Angora and the fate of Bajazet, of Europe; but Solyman demeaned himself and to give them strength to attack with beak among them as a powerful Lord-Lieutenant and claws the festering cadaver of the Greek would bear him towards a mob of discontented empire.

country squires-“The kings of France, PoRigid in their faith, rigid in their discipline, land, Venice, and Transylvania seek refuge unfaltering in their fatalism, inspired by the under our shadow," was his observation when happiest of fanaticisms, strong in their institu- Francis the First made overtures for a treaty. tions, which rendered the whole race a standing But constant wars in Europe rendered warfare army for invasion, and created another from a science, and a standing army a necessity. the children of their prisoners, these Turks Austria had, in the seventeenth century, already met with contemptuous confidence the hasty excelled the military strength of the Turks, and temporary levies of feudal Europe. On and Muscovy was growing into power. the field of Nicopolis the honour of the West When Constantinople fell, Ivan the Great, was lost, and it was told with shame that who had just assumed the title of Czar, and Christian knights had fled before the scimetars proclaimed himself an independent sovereign

, of the misbelievers. Northward and westward married the last of the Greek princesses, and rolled the tide of conquest, and even Hungary assumed the two-headed eagle which had been had been reached before Constantinople fell. the ensign of the Eastern empire. But the

The empire of the world had passed, in name suggested pretension of the barbarian Fas at least, from Rome to Constantinople. The somewhat ridiculous. Had Poland been less Turk was upon the throne of the Cæsars, and bigotted, or her form of government more claimed to have succeeded to their dominion. reasonable, the kingdom of Ivan had som The name of Grand Signior is but the trans- sunk into a province of Poland. But Po lation into a western dialect of a Turkish title land was unquiet and intolerant; the Cos that comprehends this claim. Nor was this sacks were driven into alliance with the Mus a mere barren pretension. Mahomet seriously covite; Peter the Great joined in battle with undertook to give it full effect. He crossed the Ottomans, and was beaten on the banks of

the Pruth. Thenceforward there has been war placed in the same condition that India would be by between Russia and Turkey. The strange allowing Russia to occupy the Punjab. assumption of the founder of the Russ monarchy being a champaign country, a regular army would have

In 1828 Turkey made no defence of the Principalities : has been taken up as a tradition by the succeed- been required for that purpose, and Turkey had none; ing house of Romanoff

. No drop of the blood of yet Russia, in the course of that campaign, was beaten the Greek princess Sophia ran in the veins of back. She had 200,000 men ; in fact, her whole rethe husband of Catherine; yet she felt herself, In 1810, with half that force, she captured all the for

sources were called up after two years of preparation. as fully as Zenobia, entitled to be empress of the tresses on the right bank of the Danube. Turkey has East, and played royally for the stake. The an army now to defend the Pruth, and, in the words of occupation of the Morea, the arrogant jest upon General Bem, better soldiers than Russia, and more of the gate of Kherson ("The Road to Constanti

This opinion may be considered tinctured by the feelings nople”), the campaign of Suwarrow, and the of the man, but the fact is unquestionable that Turkey storm of Ismael, shew that the quarry had can now muster on the theatre of war twice the number been sprung. The great earthquake of the that Russia can bring against her; and if these are not French revolution intervened, and even Russia

all regulars, they are the same irregulars who, in 1828,

at Kurtipe, under every disadvantage of position, beat was startled from her prey ; but Catherine had twice their number of Russian regulars. “As to their named one of the princes of her royal house quality, the opinion of General Aupick, expressed to the Constantine, perhaps as a fortunate omen for Sultan in 1849, tallies with that of General Bem. the fulfilment of a tradition that has strength- good account of any enemies that will be opposed to

“ Your Majesty's troops," he said, " are able to give a ened daily since its origin, four hundred years them." ago.

Even supposing that this army were forced to retreat, Since that time Russia has advanced steadily it would devastate the Provinces before it, and in its and surely. She has gained a province by in a similar position to that at which she commenced every pretext for quarrel. She has advanced the campaign of 1828, Russia would require at least from the Bug to the Dneister, whereby she 400,000 men: this force could not be supported, and, beobtained all the sea-board of Odessa ; thence sides, she has not got it. to the Pruth, whereby she obtained Bessarabia; rolved of the downfall of Turkey: all enthusiasm is

If the war be made from the Danube, the idea is inthence to the delta of the Danube; and now she destroyed. Further is involved that of the co-operation, seizes upon Moldavia and Wallachia. Start or consent of England and France, with the consequent ing from these provinces, the capture of Con- depression upon the minds

depression upon the minds of the populations which ex

tend from the Baltic all round to the Steppes of the stantinople is scarcely an enterprise. None

Kirghis. If the war be made from the Pruth, and a but people like David Urquhart pretend that,

powerful Turkish army brought within hail, so to say, of if the other nations of Europe kept aloof, the Cossack country, the Tartars of the Crimea, the Turkey could maintain her position in Europe Poles and the Hungarians,

Poles and the Hungarians, it then is a question of the for three months.

fall of Russian and not Turkish power. Then most as

suredly would be seen 100,000 Circassians on the Eastern But Turkey in Europe contains fifteen mil

plains of Russia, and every population would strike for lions of inhabitants, three millions of Moham independence. The Sultan is now the protector of the medans, and twelve of Christians. It contains,

old Muscovite Church ; their bishops and priests now remoreover, some of the most fertile and impor

pair to Constantinople for consecration ; he is the reli

gious head of the Mussulman subjects of Russia ; and the tant districts of Europe. Our food, our com

recent excitation of fanaticism will be a new spur to Cathomerce, our road to India, the balance of power lic Poland and to the Starovirtzé, who have already pro(horrid fetish!), are all at stake. What is to jected flight into Turkey. If, then, Russia were so inbe done?

sane as to make a war which had to commence when This is the question upon which Mr. Urqu. observation a body no less powerful than that which she

she invaded her neighbour's territory, she must leave in hart, Mr. Crowe, Mr. St. John, and a host of would employ in the war. pamphleteers, now undertake to enlighten us.

We propose to state, and not to discuss. The Lord Aberdeen, Lord John Russell, and subject has produced no book which we could Lord Palmerston, are the evil genii who prehonestly recommend as a guide. The writers vent Turkey from holding her own. are either smatterers or crotchet-mongers. The Greek pamphleteers differ altogether

Mr. Urquhart's solution of the question is from Mr. Urquhart: they think that a Greek the most simple. He thinks that Turkey is empire ought to be at once established by Euquite able to defend herself against Russia. ropean armaments. Seeing, however, that, I now assert in the most emphatic manner, that by Greeks do not number more than one million

upon the authority of Mr. Urquhart, the deficiency of military power Russia cannot attack Turkey. I assert, that as compared with the circumstances of the out of the twelve or thirteen millions of Chrislate war, the force of Turkey has multiplied many fold, tians in Europe and Turkey, and seeing, moreand that that of Russia has absolutely diminished. I do over, that they have proved themselves, in not refer to any extraneous support given to Turkey: I Greece Proper, to be a degenerate race of peospeak of an even-handed contest, of which the Principalities are to be, and must be, the theatre. If you ple, and unworthy of sympathy as incapable commence by surrendering them, Turkey is, of course, of self-government, we think we may dismiss

A YOUNG TURK.

this modest proposition with the suggestion of ever becomes necessary. There is, indeed, no well-ana couple of lines of counsel that were ever and thenticated instance that I am aware of, in which a disanon given by Daniel O'Connell to his “ here ciple of the Koran has passed over to Christianity er.

cept from motives connected with interest or the passions. ditary bondsmen.”

I have told a story somewhere of a youth who kissed the Mr. Eyre Crowe is at once commercial, war- Cross from love, and trod upon the Crescent, but he like, and profound. On the subject of com

found his way back to Egypt again, imploring forgivemerce and calico he says—“ England and

ness, and was executed by the club on the shores of the

Cape of Figs. No faith seems to have taken a former Western Peloponnesus seem made for each hold of humanity than this sensual one. How it is so other. We are the greatest consumers of cur- deeply implanted I cannot tell. The Albanians, so rerants in the world, our avidity for puddings cently converted by force, are now the most virulent secand their condiments knowing no bounds; taries of the Koran, which appears to have had a won

derful affinity with their harsh and ruthless minds. and the Greek is equally extravagant in the use of our staple produce, for every Greek

Mr. St. John takes a Turkish boy, and follows wears an incalculable number of yards of white him from his birth, in order to shew the sort of calico in the petticoat that covers his loins.”

education which these lords of the East receive. But in order to keep or to obtain such good customers, it seems we must go to war, for

When he has learned to run, he is confided by the “nothing but defeats by land and sea will ever

wealthy to the care of a servant become incapable from

age of performing any other duty; or to a negro slave keep the Russians out of Constantinople.” To bought for the purpose. These preceptors, who know not prevent this, we should destroy Constantinople either how to read or to write, take out their charges on altogether. “Constantinople ought to be struck Fridays and feast-days to the public promenades on the with the prohibition to be a capital city.”

borders of the Bosphorus, and sit with them on their

knees, watching the passers-by. On such occasions they There is a story told, that when the Dey of are taught to salute with becoming Turkish gravity the Algiers was informed of the sum which the pashas, the viziers, the ministers, and all dignitaries who fitting out of Lord Exmouth's fleet cost, he pass in their carriages or their caiques. If by chance an exclaimed, with mingled scorn and regret, “I Europeana minister of some foreign

court--happens to would have burnt it all down myself for half Whimand the child, eager for information, inquire, the money.” We record the anecdote for the “hog of an infidel!" upon which the young believer im. benefit of the British ambassador, who may mediately makes the peculiar sign of contempt, which have to propose Mr. Crowe's expedient to the consists in forking the fingers and thrusting them for

ward, as if to blind a person. Thus they are early inocureigning Sultan.

lated with hatred and contempt for whatever is not MusThe best of things that could happen,” lim-for whatever has the least tincture of modern cirisays Mr. Crowe, “would be the defeat of the lization. Turks in Europe by the Christian population, and bigotry, at the age of seven or eight the boys are put

Having gone through this admirable course of etiquette unaided by Russian, and obedient solely to under a Khoja, or priest, whose duty it is to teach the their own impulses." But unhappily the arts of reading and writing the Turkish language. The Christians in Turkey do not love one another. process is slow, and the required proficiency is not atThey are divided into Greeks, Sclavonians, tained before the age of twelve or fifteen years. In this and Armenians, and these again are sub-di- indeed, consists all the mental training which is directly vided into sects which are not amicable. The But, in the mean time, the lads are pushed forward in statesman who should attempt to mingle these another department, by the absurd impatience of their acids and alkalis, and expect no effervescence, The details which might be given of their early demoralia would not be a far-seeing individual.

zation would seem incredible if they could be ventured Turn we now to Mr. St. John, who, if not on: suffice it to say, that the slave-girls, bought gener very profound, is at least amusing.

rally, as will be seen, for a different purpose, are incited Mr. Bayle St. John believes that the Sultan

to obey every caprice of their young masters, and even to of Constantinople ought to be retromitted to

make every possible advance—so that the fond mother may

be able to boast of the precocious development of her boy! Bagdad, and that all Turkey in Europe ought Under such auspices it is that the Turkish youth to be erected into a fresh empire. Therefore reaches the age of twenty or so, when he is considered does he publish two hundred and ten pages of capable of entering the public service, of occupying lofty abuse of ihe Turks. He has no faith whatever surprised, therefore, that he is by this time worn out in

We must not be in Turkish reforms, except as a fresh element mind and often in body; and that he seizes with aridity of weakness.

on the privilege which the new Reform has given him, THE TURKS ARE INCONVERTIBLE.

of drinking wine, and, above all, spirituous liquors, by

which his stupefaction is completed. It is from among I have often had occasion to observe the impenetra- youths of this description that are chosen the ministers bility of all Easterns, and especially the Turks, to our by whom the Turkish empire is governed ; and, indeed

, ideas, which may enter their ears, but never penetrate instances have occurred in which å grand rizier has not further, not finding any place ready to receive them. Of even been able to read or write. course it is scarcely necessary to repeat that there is one irresistible obstacle to the march of the Muslim mind. It

The career of Riza Pasha is somewhat oddly cannot be converted to any other form of faith. Death offered as an example of the results of an edaawaits the apostate ; but it is rare that its application cation like this.

AN EPISODE OF STAMBOULI DIPLOMACY.

RIZA PASHA.

count of the affair, if true, detracts somewhat He was originally a waiter in a coffee-house, without from the magnanimity of “the servant of God." hope, and probably without the ambition, to rise higher than the succession of his master. One day the Sultan Mahmoud, who was fond of going about his capital in semi

The ministry began to fear that so bold a stroke might incognito, happened to enter the coffee-house where Riza end in their total defeat, and that the old Opposition was serving, quite a boy. He was struck with his beauty; would seize this opportunity to use the timidity of the for physical perfections have always more to do than Sultan as an instrument of its elevation. What was mental with the sudden elevations so freqent in oriental the plan de termined on? To draw off the attention of annals; and taking him at once to his palace, made him his imperial majesty from political affairs, and prevent one of his minions, and raised him rapidly from one post him from seeing anybody that was hostile to them, the to another until he became Pasha. The young and hand- ministry resorted to a truly oriental expedient. They some Riza soon attracted the attention of the Welideh, a

took the Sultan day after day to the very kiosques which principal wife of the Sultan, and an intrigue is said to

once in a fit of n oral indignation he had visited in search have been set on foot. Mahmoud about this time died, of Riza, and there intoxicated him in his turn with and Abd-ul-Mejid began nominally to reign, whilst the music, beauty, and strong drinks. The orgies lasted until queen-mother in reality held the reins of authority. She his reeling majesty was incapable of business for the day. soon chose Riza for her prime minister, and for some

Similar scenes took place in the evening at another time affairs went on well enough under their joint ma

kiosque in a vineyard belonging to one of the ministers. nagement. But it was written that their harmony should

Here all the members of the cabinet, with the exception not last. Riza (1846) began to misconduct himself, in

of Reschid Pasha, who has always been celebrated for the opinion of his royal mistress. Her jealousy was er

sobriety, assembled to drown their cares in wine, and encited, and she determined to overthrow him. This, how- courage each other to resolution between two hiccups. ever, was not to be done without the concurrence of

Thus the Porte, during this anxious period, sought for Abd-ul-Mejid, who had now a will of his own, and who courage in the bottle ; and while Europe thrilled with was not likely to be pleased by a confession of the real admiration at its magnanimity, scarcely retained suffimotives of her altered opinion. She accordingly com

cient presence of mind even to understand the threats municated to the young Sultan reports which she had

which the Russian nvoy in vain poured forth. heard of the dissolute life of his prime minister, and Learned ladies are not loved in Turkey. urged him to ascertain the fact by personal observation. The counsel found favour in the eyes of his majesty. He

AN ACCOMPLISHED WIFE. was told that Riza, as soon as the easy business of his

I have heard of an instance in which learning was day was over, used to retire to one of the imperial ki- mentioned by a female marriage-broker as an induceosques on the borders of the Bosphorus, and pass the nightment to a young man in search of a pattern wife. in jollity. The morning was generally spent in sleeping

He was at first alarmed, and determined to break off the off the effects of this debauch; and on Friday, the Ma

match ; but curiosity attracted him, and when he got hommedan sabbath, the orgie was generally recommenced

possession of his bride, his first care was to open a Koran in the afternoon, and continued during the second night.

and set it before her, and request her to read. She ran Accordingly, early one Friday, Abd-ul-Mejid took his

her pretty henna-stained fingers down the page, and at caiquo, and began to visit all his kiosques one after the

last came to the letter waw, upon which she pleasantly other. The navigation was tedious, time passed away,

barked, “ waw-waw,” like a little dog. This was the sum garden after garden was inspected, and no signs of the

of her knowledge ; and the young husband took her in wassailers appeared. Towards evening, however, the his arms, and exclaimed, " Thanks be to the Prophet it caique stopped at a landing-place, at some distance from is no worse !" whích inland there was a kiosque situated in a vineyard. Ignorance, however, does not seem to sucBy this time the Sultan was tired, yet, determined not to be baulked in his researches, he sent one of his attend

ceed. We are quite shocked to learn that ants with orders to bring an accurate account at mid- Eastern ladies are very wicked people, who night of whatever he observed. This done, Abd-ul- beat their husbands, and even do much worse. Mejid returned to his palace, half-reassured as to the moral character of his minister. But the attendant, on reaching the vineyard, found Riza with several other

We commonly conceive a Turk as a burly individual, dignitaries, bowl in hand, surrounded by dancing-girls,

surrounded by a great number of submissive beauties, engaged energetically in relaxing his mind,

overpowered anxious for the honour of the handkerchief ; but it is not by political exertions. The dizzy conclave received him lors in the East. In spite of the disgrace in which celi

remembered that there is a prodigious number of bachewith acclamations of welcome, glorying, as topers generally do, that there should be a new arrival to keep them bacy is held, a large proportion of the men of the middle in countenance or encourage them to fresh excesses. It

classes abstain from marriage, on account of the difficul. was necessary to drink; so the spy drank. Temptation ties thrown in their way by manners and the competition was strong: he drank too much, and it was only at mid

of the rich. I have known instances among the Levannight that he remembered the commands he had received.

tines in which a young shopkeeper has been compelled to Hastening to stagger away, which he did unobserved, he spend half his capital to procure a dirty little wife. The repaired to the palace, where the Sultan impatiently

same system of purchase prevails among the Turks, and awaited him. The words which he found it impossible to is, indeed, derived

from them. The number of unmarried utter were unnecessary. His condition spoke for itself. persons in the Ottoman empire is therefore very great. The next day Riza Pasha was dismissed, and Reschid This may partly account for the development of vices was named vizier in his stead ; and reform became again depths of degradation, and to which I can do no more

which alone are sufficient to bring a race to the lowest the order of the day.

than allude here.

The Turks are naturally a licentious race. Even the When Russia and Austria required the tra- conformation of their heads reveals that fact. The posdition of the Hungarian refugees, all Europe terior portion is enormously developed ; and the napes of rang with plaudits at the magnanimity of the their necks are something almost miraculous to behold-

, Sultan, who,“ like a great gentleman,” refused and in case no suspicion of jealousy crosses their minds, to surrender his guests. Mr. St. John's ac- treat their wives with considerable deference. Few will

21

THE DOMESTIC TURK.

venture to appear in the presence of their ladies in the ing sleepily about, and murmuring to be taken home. slightest degree intoxicated; and they will submit to be There is a walk planted with elm-trees, not far from the beaten on the day of Beiram, if from poverty, or other city, where only women are admitted. Two or three causes, they have been unable to bring home the roast thousand assemble there at a time, and sitting upon a shoulder of mutton required by inexorable custom for the verdant slope, enjoy the indescribable pantomime of a family dinner of that day. Eastern ladies often resort to comedy, which some infamous Jews, hired for the purpose, this summary mode of proceeding with their lords and perform on the limits of the forbidden ground for their masters, even when not protected by the privilege of a amusement, Europeans, of course, cannot enter the festival. It is true that, on the other hand, they are walk itself, but they may see the crowds collected at a exposed to similar treatment if they carry the joke too distance, and hear the shrill applause which every act far, or misbehave in any way; and that the sack-of more than usually beastly of the mountebanks creates in which it is now the custom to make fun among wags the female crowd. who have looked at the outside of eastern manners-- In the interior of the harims, the occupation of the is always ready to punish serious derelictions of duty. women consists chiefly in receiving risits, telling equiro

Once married, the Turkish women consider themselves cal stories, dyeing the finger-nails, painting the cheek free ; and, indeed, they enjoy far more freedom than wo and eye-brows. Dancing-girls are sometimes introduced; are accustomed to believe in Europe. Their veils and and lately barrel-organs, with obscene puppets, liave been hideous uniform costume keep them in a state of perma- forwarded in great numbers from Italy, for the amusenent disguise ; and with this advantage, under pretext of ment of these idle princesses. paying visits to friends or relations, they may go where they will in company with their slaves. Only the wives We must admit, however, that the education of the Sultan and some great viziers are now encumbered of the ladies thus harshly criticised has not with the unpleasant attendance of eunuchs. A not un- been a careful one. common place of resort is one of the public cemeteries, where hasty intrigues are often formed with soldiers, pea

THE BEAUTIFUL GEORGIAN. sants, the first comer, in fact ; for it is perfectly absurd to expect to find our notions of morality, save as wonder- the market of Georgian slaves ; but it is by no means

Another source from which vacant harims are filled is ful exceptions, in a country where all the conditions necessary to their growth are wanting. Narratives, more so popular. These unhappy creatures, who are embarked or less exact, have often been given of eastern intrigues. at Trebisond on board of the regular steamers, reach ConI shall not enter upon that ground, being satisfied to re- stantinople in a very sad and pitiable state. We can mark, in general, that when the hero of their tale is imagine an European reader almost envying the captain a Frank, it is probable that romance has adorned or oris under whose care is placed so poetical a cargo ; but, alas! ginated the story. It is quite certain, however, that the truth is, that the Georgians are looked upon almost Turkish women do find plentiful opportunities of in

as suspiciously as a hundred cases of leeches from the triguing with men of their own religion, not only in the Marseilles market. It is true, they are separated as way I have indicated, but in many others. Their imagie in like a Rock of sheep, and hidden by dirty cloths ; or, in

much as possible from the rest of the passengers, penned native literature, like that of the Arabs, deals almost enbad weather, crammed below like negroes in the middle tirely in the artifices by which lovers have contrived to meet, eluding the guardianship of eunuchs, and of hus passage. In spite of these precautions, the whole vessel bands or masters.

suffers from their presence." Nearly every one of them

has the itch ; and, without exception, every one brings If all Mr. St. John says of the Contantino, away a colony of native vermin. This is easily accounted politan ladies be quite true, it would perhaps be for: The poor things resemble

, not a bevy of English

maidens going out voluntarily to seek for husbands in the better they were kept in still stricter seclusion.

barracks of Madras or Calcutta ; they are sold from po

verty or avarice by their parents or friends, and are A LADIES' PIC-NIC.

handed over nearly naked to the purchaser. To dress Nearly all Turkish women sally out every Friday to them would eat up all the profits. A ragged shift and take the air, away from the town, on the banks of the piece of canvas wrapped round their shoulders-such is Bosphorus, or to some of the places where water and the costume in which they crowd by day, and huddle toshade may be found. The wealthy go in carts without gether at night, whispering or dreaming of the splendour springs, of unwieldy and primitive construction-six or which has been promised them, to dispel their sorrow of seven heaped together ; and sometimes their husbands their sulkiness, and perhaps giving a passing thought to lead the oxen or horses to the chosen spot, and then go the home which has cast them forth, like the pet-lamb away, leaving the women perfectly free to enjoy them, when it has outgrown the fondness or the patience of its selves as they please. The most popular amusements mistress. The merchant, with the uncalculating stuare the singing and music of the gipsy women, who re- pidity which characterizes all dealers in human flesh, pair thither for the purpose-music which is amorously fattens these future sultanas during the voyage on water languid, and singing which is detestably indecent. Á and millet-flour porridge. They arrive at their journey's lunch is generally brought out, and when this is des end in such a state that few connoisseurs in incipient patched, smoking

and drinking commence-drinking, not beauty would venture to pronounce an opinion. of sherbet, but of good brandy, or other strong liquors, Sometimes, when the owner is in haste to realize, be which soon induce a boisterous gaiety, so that the sul- drives his Georgian flock to market in the unseenly contanas, whom we often imagine as pining away imprisoned, dition in which they come ashore; or at most throws may be seen rolling in convulsions of inextinguishable around them a ferigeh—the mantle of the Turkish laughter on the turf, or huddled up in a still more ad- women. Chance for the most part presides over the sale. vanced stage of intoxication, like bundles of rags. Their The purchaser keeps at a respectful distance from his ac Montenegrin servants, who are the privileged beholders of quisition-as a doctor might from a plague-patient; and these scenes, are often compelled to haul them into their drives her before him to what may be called a preparacarts, in which they are jolted back to the harim. Those tory school for the barim. A number of old women, inwho are not too far gone frequently pull up, in passing deed, gain their living by polishing up this rough ma. through the Christian quarter, at the doors of taverns, to terial, curing them, by remedies of which they have the get more drink; and a file of a hundred carts may often secret, of their disease, combing their hair into shape

, be seen stopping in one street, all full of women, some scrubbing them, and exterminating the reminiscences made bold and chattering by their excesses, others hang- they have brought with them from their native bovels.

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