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monuments of Egypt by a similar means, the idea that the enchorial character was purely whilst we have a tolerable remnant of the alphabetic. De Sacy soon abandoned the task Coptic in our hands, is inconceivable. Such a of interpretation ; and Dr. Young modified thing has not been done since the Chevalier his opinion as to the alphabetic nature of the Palin discovered that many of the Egyptian Rosetta inscription, when he found that it was MSS. were nothing more than the originals impossible to read it into Coptic on that hyof the Psalms of David expressed in idea- pothesis. Akerblad, however, clung to his graphic characters, similar to those of the original notion, and endeavoured to turn some ancient Chinese. It will strike our readers lines of the inscription of Rosetta into Coptic, that Mr. Forster, before venturing upon an literatim, but failed signally. Mr. Forster, application of his theory, should have made whilst maintaining the accuracy of Akerblad's himself acquainted with the labours of his pre- view, reads the enchorial writing into Arabic, decessors, and that he should have paid some so called, and ignores the Coptic language attention to the fragments which we possess of altogether, and then says that Åkerblad alone the ancient language of Egypt. He, however, was right. seems to have entirely neglected this portion But we must give specimens of Mr. Forster's of his task. It is true that he quotes the names mode of rendering the hieroglyphics. There of Young, Akerblad, and Champollion ; but is a certain group of enchorial letters which he nowhere speaks of Klaproth, Kosegarten, Dr. Young read Zminis, and conjectured that Seyffarth, Goulianoff, Rosellini, Birch, Brugsch, it might mean Octavius, from the Coptic Leemans, and a hundred others; and

we vyuehne "eight.” In his “Rudiments of an hear nothing of the Coptic language, and those Egyptian Dictionary,” the learned Doctor has who have written upon it, except that the presented four facsimiles of this group, taken said language is “merely a corrupt medley of from different papyri, and, though evidently Greek and Arabic upon a substratum of the identical, varying slightly from each other. Mr. old Arabic or Egyptian.' This is absolutely Forster takes two of these, places them side by false. No doubt the Coptic, as we at present side, and then, by means of his own alphabet, possess it, is full of Greek and Arabic words; reads them into his own Arabic; thus, ja volo but if Mr. Forster had the slightest knowledge Tsaman Tsaesar, Octavius Cæsar !!! The chaof its structure, and of that of any Semitic racters of the latter word, however, can only be tongue, he would have seen that there is not approached to the name of Cæsar so nearly as the remotest connexion between the structure Thazar. The first letter being Th, (by the Perof the old Egyptian, as it has come down to sians and Turks, however, pronounced S, the us, and that of any of the Semitic family of second a z, and the third an r. But there is languages.

no doubt that the C in Cæsar was pronounced The reverend decypherer seems to be ut- hard, and the Arabs always write it correctly terly unaware of the well-known classification usb, Kísar or Kaisar. The word wel should of languages into families, and that philologists be transcribed Thámin, if it be intended to mean have found some difficulty in ranging certain “ eighth.” The interpretation of the Egyptian tongues under recognised heads; the Coptic, word Pschent—which occurs in the Greek Armenian, and Basque being among the num- portion of the Rosetta inscription thus, ¥XENT, ber. But when he talks of the old Arabic or and, from the context, means a crown or regal Egyptian” as one, we confess that we are lost head-dress—is amusing. As usual, Mr. Forster in amazement at such immense ignorance.

“consulted Golius.” There being no P in We have not space here to enter into the Arabic, he looks for Pschent under B, and discussion as to how far the hieroglyphics, finds Bishnat,“ milii genus,” a kind of millet : especially the enchorial or demotic, are alpha- this, as Mr. Forster aptly remarks, was interbetical in their nature; but we must protest against Mr. Forster's assertion, that, "with preting the ignotum per ignotius. And he adds, respect to the nature of the enchorial charac- viously decyphered the enchorial equivalent for Pschent,

I might have given up the point, had I not preters on the Rosetta stone, Young and Champollion were alike in error, and that Akerblad viz. Egy jog cwhar rára, “a shining jewel," and alone was right; for that eminent Swede found, on consulting Johnson, Millet defined by Miller

an oval shining seed." This definition led me to turn lived maintaining, and died affirming, that the

to the corresponding hieroglyphic, which I found enchorial characters of Egypt were purely rightly undermarked by Young as the Pschent or “ inalphabetical." In the first place, Akerblad signe," when the truth, and the true form, simultawas not a Swede, but a Dane. He was one neously disclosed themselves; the Pschent proving to of the first who endeavoured to analyse the the ensign of plenty in the shape of an oval shining

be neither crown, nor head-dress, but a royal ornament, enchorial inscription on the pillar of Rosetta; grain of millet, with its stamina and anthere deveand he, together with the illustrious orientalist loped." Silvestre de Sacy, and Dr. Young, started with This is too much. Bishnat has about as much

THE TREE OF KNOWLEDGE.

mar:

analogy with Pschent as plum-cake with plum- lost to all other except his critical pen. What bago : moreover, there is hardly a shadow of would our readers—who are perhaps accustomed doubt that the initial P is the Coptic masculine to smile as they hear Irishmen and Americans article; and Gawhar or Góhar (and not declare that they alone speak English-what cuhar) “a jewel,” is a Persian word, and not would they think if they heard a Frenchman, Arabic.

whom they knew to be incapable of asking his One more extract, and we have done. way from Oxford-street to the Bank, solemnly

undertaking to prove, by means of the inscrip

tions he read at the corners of the streets, that Immediately upon ascertaining the species of the tree, I observed to the left of the name raman, in the

all our received notions of the language of horizontal inscription over it, a cluster of three bell Chaucer are wrong; and that Chaucer wrote shaped flowers; whose appearance being new to me, an entirely different English, whereof he (the I asked a friend who happened to come in at the time, Frenchman) had, by his intimate knowledge of what flower they might be designed to represent.

represents the English language, obtained the key ? An " They are the flowers of the pomegranate tree," was the immediate answer. “ They are exactly of this English muffin-boy would laugh at our Frenchform, and hang thus in clusters of two or three bells." man; but, doubtless, some of his own countryThe proof was at once doubled, and by an independent men, knowing even less of English than he discovered, in the second perpendicular column to the does, would admire him as a prodigy of learnright of the picture of the Fall, as I could now safely ing. So, perhaps, will crowds of the gaping pronounce it to be, the word raman, pomegranate, at vulgar look upon the unknown characters the top, with a second cluster of three pomegranate wherewith Mr. Forster has besmeared his pages, flowers beside it, and two balls, one of them streaked, obriously representing the fruit, and a third cluster of and wonder gravely that one small head can three pomegranate flowers underneath. The surety now carry all that Mr. Forster knows. In the cause became trebly sure. But I was disappointed by the of learning and of morality (we do not say of occurrence of an intermediate word and hieroglyphic, Christianity, because that which is divine is inwhich seemed altogether to break the continuity of capable of being sullied by human dross) we the sense.

o the hieroglyphic, a couchant dog or jackal

. think it necessary to say, in the ears of these Marmar (like our English murmur) I knew signified ignorant extatics, that they do right to do angry; and might mean here growling or snarl- worship to this “most learned Pundit;" for in ing, which would answer for the dog. It also, I him they do reverence to ignorance in the conwas aware, signified marble : but this was nothing crete, and they bow before an idol kindred to to the purpose. The dog, interposed between the

themselves: they receive, with respectful awe, pomegranate flowers, seemed quite to break the connection of the story depicted, whatever it might be. After strange stories of the languages of the East pausing on the difficulty for a moment, it occurred to from the lips of a man who might write all he me to try whether yoyo, marmar (a word, I was aware, really knows of Oriental literature in a clear having few senses) might possibly bear some sense

character, and with decent margin, upon the whicb, from not having occasion for it, I had over

nails of his ten fingers. looked. I opened Golius at the word, and to my astonishment ready los marmar, Multi succi malum

Mr.Pococke is another smatterer with a theory. pudicum, A juicy pomegranate. The mystery was at

His is a thick volume, whereof the intention once cleared up: the growling jackal, instead of a is, to prove that the Greeks were emigrants break in the sense, was the determinative of the root from India, and that their mythology is but Jojo in its primary sense, Iratus fuit; its proper sense a perversion of historic facts. The Centaurs here being a juicy pomegranate. Upon shewing the

were not mythical : they were nothing more phenomenon subsequently to an accomplished Orientalist, his remark was, “What precious senses Golins

than Kandhaurs, or emigrants from Kandabas preserved in his lexicon ! I can assure you, you har, (which last word is derived from two might read sixty Arabic authors through without once roots, the one signifying a country, and meeting the word you in that sense.”

the other being identical with “the far-famed We quite agree with Mr. Forster's accom Hurrah of our native country, and the warplished friend, who evidently belongs to that cry of our forefather the Rajpoot of Britain, class of men who are familiarly called dry for he was long the denizen of this island, and dogs.

his shout was Haro! Haro!") Did Mr. PoThus, Mr. Forster, who is ignorant of cocke ever hear of the old Norman laws, and Arabic, its idiom, its grammar, nay, even of the clamor de Haro? If not, we recomits alphabet-who knows no more of it than a mend him a trip to Jersey, where he will find little boy knows of Greek, when, after his first the old Norman invocation still in full force. lesson in the alphabet, he has his diatesseron But this by the way. The Lapithæ were not and his Donnegan put into his hand-this mythical, but a real people of Thibet, who, it utterly uninformed and unmistakeably ignorant seems, call themselves L'hopatai. The AtheMr. Forster actually undertakes, from his in- nians were not, as they themselves boasted, timate knowledge of the genius of the Arabic, indigenous aútoyBoves-sprung from their own to reproduce an aboriginal Arabic, long since very earth-Autochthons: they were, as Mr.

of our

Pococke is quite sure, Attacthans; that is, of another thousand years, we English shall be people of Attac-land : and what land does talking the exact vernacular of the time of the reader suppose Attac-land was? Not Chaucer, and the citizens of the United States barren Attica, famed for horses, heroes, and will be conversing only in pure Mohawk. demagogues. Attac-land was a little province Thanks to Mr. Pococke's fortunate disconear Cabul, and the real aboriginal Athenians very, that gentleman is no longer puzzled were the white-robed, scantily-clad, Asiatics, with “myths;” and he can, and has done so, who lately shot down our countrymen in the draw a map of the exact route which the early Khyber pass. The Attic symbol of a grass- Grecians adopted in their passage from the hopper was not, as Aristophanes certainly old Attac to the new. It is as clear and wellthought, originally intended to express their defined as the way from Old York to New indigenous descent. Mr. Pococke at once York. explodes so vulgar an error.

Phil-ippos was not a lover of horses, as the This ingenious people, who compared themselves to usual Greek derivation imports, but the BhiliTettiges, or grasshoppers, could they have referred to pos, or Bhil-Prince. It seems unaccountably the original cradle of their race, would have discovered to have escaped Mr. Pococke's observation, that, while the northern section of their tribe dwelt that, in addition to our obligation in the matter on the Attac, adjoining the magnificent valley of Cashmir, with whose princes their tribe was connected by

Hurrah,” we are indebted for an policy and domestic alliances, and whose lineage long endearing diminutive in our own mother tongue ruled over the brilliant Athenians, by far the greater to the same august source. For the famipart of that primitive community, whose descendants liar abbreviation of William we have direct raised the glory of the Attic flag above all the maritime powers of Hellas, dwelt in a position eminently befit- authority in the historic fact that “these same ting their subsequent naval renown. They were the

Bhils-that is the Bhil-Brahmins-planted the “people of Tatta," or " Tettaikes."

oracle of Hamman in the deserts of Africa, So of all the other Grecian states. They all and founded there the city of the Bhils.” came from the northern parts of India, and the Mr. Pococke is silent as to the name of mythology of the polished Greeks was but the Alexander, although he stands up stoutly for distorted traditions of distant Indian tribes. the Macedonian's right to the title of Jupiter

We thus at once arrive at a satisfactory Ammon. Might we hint to our learned solution of the fable of Castor and Pollux, author that he could easily supply this defiwhen we are told that Castwar and Balik ciency, by recourse to that little tract upon the were the people of Cashmir and the people of antiquity of the English tongue from which Balk, and that both sprang from Ladakh, or we have already quoted ? He will find therein Leda. Mr. Pococke does not explain the a derivation of Alexander quite as natural as swan, yet he was a necessary party to the that he has assigned for the name of Alexancompletion of the fable.

der's father. Dean Swift had investigated this same myth When the Greeks wrote kakos they fancied before Mr. Pococke brought his powerful intel- they meant a bad man. They really but relect to bear upon it. “Leda," says that great peated the Brahminic for Cow-killer “Goetymologist-we mean the Dean -“was the ghos.”* That the Spartans were named after mother of Castor and Pollux, whom Jupiter" Sopur,” a small town in Cashmir, and were embracing in the shape of a swan, she laid a thence called S’poortans, we could hear with couple of eggs, and was therefore called Laida, equanimity, although we may not go so far or Leda.” Without pledging ourselves to go as to say with Mr. Pococke, that “the plain to the stake for either theory, we confess that fact is evident;" but we may be permitted, of the two we prefer that of the dignitary of perhaps, in the interest of Lycurgus, Leonidas, our Church.

and Agis, to protest against the statement, that We are glad at least to have some point as Lacadai-men’ they formed a perpetual whereon we can agree.

The marvellousness and the correctness of the preservation of this ancient language are doubtless quite upon a

We would not rashly accuse so learned an author of

plagiarism, but we have found a passage in " the Antipar. There is one thing, however, still more

quity of the English tongue" so very parallel to this, marvellous, and that is its entire loss by the that we cannot forbear quoting it. The very reverend Greeks. The Indians who stayed at home etymologist discourses thus : "Achilles was the most have retained it so uncorrupted that Mr. Po

valiant of Grecians. This hero was of a restless, unquiet cocke can write history by its syllables at a

nature, never giving himself any repose either in peace

or war; and therefore, as Guy of Warwick was called distance of four or five thousand years : the a Kill-cow, and another terrible man a Kill-devil, so Indians who came away, and became Greeks, this general was called A-KILL-Ease, or destroyer of lost it so entirely, that at the end of one thou- ease, and at length, by corruption, Achilles.” If this is sand years there was not a word of it left in makes for Afghanistan, we renoupce all claim to skill

not as good a case for Warwickshire as Mr. Pococke their language. Perhaps, however, at the end in etymology.

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subject of banter to their more polished neigh- the Cherookce equivalents for those intentions, bours of the south.” Whenever we may in whence it will immediately follow, that arrowfuture times be startled with Swift's derivation heads, in particular positions, express particular of the name of Mars, or be tempted to dissent corresponding meanings. The rest will be easy. from his etymology of Ajax, we shall think of The only difficulty will be, that as, in Mr. the Lacadai-men of Mr. Pococke, and humble Pococke's present volume, it is left doubtful, ourselves before the Dean.

at least to the reader, whether the Peruvians As to the Romans, our author is clear that were descended from the Affghans, or the Affthey came from Oude. Rama was the patriarch ghans from the Peruvians, so, from his arrowof the children of the sun, while Bud’ha was head interpretations, a doubt may arise whether the great head of the lunatic worshippers. Sardanapalus was a Cherookee, or the CherooThe disciples of Rama became the Romani of kees were descendants of Sardanapalus. Italy, just as the more northern tribe of Too Mr. Grote, as we might well expect, is, in rooschỉ became Etruscans, and the Hooschis the eyes of Mr. Pococke, an 'exceedingly slow became Oscans.

person.

His assertions “rest,” says Mr. P., Seeing that the word Mahomet is written “on that feeling which, thirty years since, would and pronounced differently in ten English equi- have classed the railway locomotive, and its valents

, and that every English traveller in the glowing eye of night, with the eye of the East thinks his originality will be doubted Cyclops." "" The case,' our author adds,“ may unless he bring back a new spelling for Arabic, be stated as follows:- THE PICTURE IS INDIAN, Coptic, Persian, or Hindú expletives, one might THE CURTAIN IS GRECIAN, AND THAT CURTAIN have expected to find even so bold an explorer is NOW WITHDRAWN.” as Mr. Pococke treading cautiously over such If truth, like widows, were best wooed by treacherous and shifty ground, and speaking impudence, Mr. Pococke would be the man with some reservation of air-drawn resemblances to win her. to unwritten dialects, which he supposes might It

may be thought that we have dwelt too have been spoken in an age so distant as to long on a book so palpably absurd; but the have faded into fable when Herodotus wrote. Vallancey school of etymologists seems to be Not at all: he gives you the latitude and coming into vogue again, and we deem it our longitude of Tartarus, and is ready to set out bounden duty to lose no opportunity of exthither to-morrow. He scorns the imputation posing it. Not long since, a M. Gibelin pubthat he is indebted to Indo-classical affinities, lished in Pondicherry a comparative view of and he smiles at the idea of his being aided the laws of the Hindús, of Athens, and of by etymology. No; all that Mr. Pococke Rome, so completely disfigured by fantastic writes is “ History—history as marvellously derivations from the Sanskrit, that an otheras it is correctly preserved,” What Muir, and wise valuable book becomes actually painful in Grote, and Thelwall, and ten thousand others the perusal. He employs the same means as have abandoned in despair, Pococke explains Mr. Pococke, but arrives at somewhat different at once—not by an hypothesis, not by a pro- results, e.g. the Centaurs are Kentura “homme bable argument, but simply by recounting its et cheval;” Sparta and the Spartans, Sparddha, history. Mr. Pococke should go out to Nim- Sparddhata, “ les rivaux, les émules;" the roud, and help Colonel Rawlinson. That enter- Oscans, Osha, “les guerriers du feu," and prising conjecturer is getting into some discredit Rome—what do our readers think to be the just now by his great versatility in correcting his origin of the word Rome? Let us hear Gibelin translations when they happen to turn out to be Pandita. “Il ne faut pas oublier, enfin, que obviously absurd. The Colonel, after making le nom de Rome, vient également du Sanscrit a present of a very handsome inscription to Sar- Roma, eau, parce qu'elle était bâtie aux bords danapalus, has recently rather churlishly taken it du Tibre; d'ou Romulus lui même tira son nom, away from that monarch, and gives it to Jehu. Roma-la, qui donne l'eau, à cause de l'asile qu'il Now if Mr. Pococke is half the man avait ouvert.' take him to be, he will commit no such faults But enough, and more than enough, of such of indecision. Having learnt a little Cherookee, nonsense. The etymologies of Pococke and be will probably find out that that intelligent Gibelin may go down to the waste-paper basket tribe place their arrow-heads in a different posi- hand in hand. Still, however, we must claim for tion, according as their intention may be to our countryman the palm of impudence. The fight or to run away, to shoot, or to clean out Frenchman, with singular modesty, did not their pipes with them. He will discover, also, dedicate his lucubrations to Eugène Burnouf.

we

FALSIFICATIONS OF FOOD.*

The higher society advances in civilization the are therefore due to those who, unaided from more artificial does its state become. This is the public purse, and notwithstanding the hosso obvious an aphorism, that few will be pre- tility they incurred, have chivalrously stepped pared to question its truth. Still there can be forward, bravely and disinterestedly, to do batno valid reason why a corollary on the above tle against the secret foes of the public. proposition should be equally susceptible of de Armed with those unerring powers and monstration. It is, that the character of all guided by that light which enable us to track the various articles by which life is sustained is the devious footsteps of crime, whatever guise rendered more and more artificial in proportion it may assume, no ingenuity could baffle, no to the increased civilization and demands of the duplicity elude, their scrutiny. community. It would almost seem as though At the same time that we applaud the “ Lanan infinite number of evil influences were ever cet” for its labours, we cannot conceal our disat work amongst us, engaged in the earnest en- gust at the enormous amount of immorality, deavour to turn to a pernicious purpose each and the utter lack of principle, disclosed among new discovery in art, or in perverting the utility what are conventionally termed the “respectaof every gift of Nature or of Science to man. blemiddle classes.” Our readers will share Were it not for the grave consequences that with us these sentiments of indignation when hence ensue, the subject upon which we are they learn to what an extent their health has about to touch would not have occupied our been assailed, and what irreparable injuries attention, inasmuch as it comes not necessarily their constitutions, in too many instances, must within our ordinary scope. We are simply im- have sustained. pelled to adopt our present course from a desire They will almost be disposed to conclude that to award a tribute of merit, to give extended the bulk of the metropolitan retail tradesmen publicity, to the exertions of an able contempo- who deal in such goods as we have adverted to, rary, and to awaken the public to a sense of are little better than a set of unprincipled rogues, the danger they incur from the infamous ma- utterly regardless of the frightful mischief they chinations of those in whose integrity they have occasion to others, so long as they increase their hitherto been accustomed to confide.

own nefarious gains. The revelations, indeed, that have of late been Scarcely prepared for the astounding disclomade, and that are daily being dragged reluc- sures of the “Lancet,” we have ourselves taken tantly to light, unquestionably disclose so widely the trouble to follow up those researches, in too extended a system of fraud, so organized a con many cases, we regret to say, with almost idenspiracy against the health and lives of our fel- tical results; while in others we have been low-subjects, that we should be wanting in an enabled to establish even still stronger cases essential duty did we hesitate to denounce in against divers bakers, grocers, and publicans. the loudest terms of reprobation the iniquities So universal, indeed, is the depravity of these to which we allude. Without further preface, trades, that society would probably sustain no then, we may state, that some months ago the loss were the majority of them to undergo im“ Lancet” appointed a body of scientific gen- mediate expatriation. And yet it is from matlemen, entitled an “Analytical Sanitary Com- terials such as these that parochial officers are mission,” who were deputed to examine with formed and common juries selected. Need we the test-tube and the microscope numerous spe- wonder any longer at the iniquities constantly cimens of all liquid or solid articles vended for perpetrated by both these denominations of human food.

officials? Boards of Health and Sewer Commissioners In the vicinity of this dingy capital many already presided over mephitic gases, grave- well-kept, forid, stucco residences may be olent drains, fætid streams, and all the varied pointed out, of considerable external pretensupplies of impure water that are doled to the sion, and rejoicing usually in magniloquent unhappy Londoner; but as yet, with the single names. These are the suburban retreats of exception of an officer appointed to examine those “fat and greasy citizens” whose practices and condemn meat and fish unfit for sale, no have been already laid bare by the “ Lancet," check whatever existed to limit the amount of and are now about to receive the further applidisease and death engendered by the systematic cation of our cautery: Were these dwellings and general adulteration of almost every article rightly named, instead of their present appellaof food or drink. The thanks of the country tions they would be more properly designated

as Chicory Hall, Alum Villa, Red-lead House, * Lancet, 1851-52. The Analytical Sanitary Com

or Arsenic Grove. Their purchase-money, in mission.

too many cases, has been wrung out of the

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