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This cleause was introduced to set aside, in the outset, the claim to infallibility; for if it were admitted, all the other doctrines of Romanism would be established at once : since the teaching of an Infallible Church must be true.

14. Illustrate, by quotations, the light in which the Church was regarded by the early Fathers.

Irenæus, in Hær. I. 3. 46. The Church, having received the same preaching and the same faith, though dispersed throughout all the world, carefully preserves them; and believes, and teaches, and preaches the same things, as having one mind, one heart, and one mouth. Tertullian de Præscr. C. 20. So many and great Churches are nothing else but that primitive one, from which all the rest proceed. T'hus all are primitive, and all are Apostolical, whilst they all agree in one and the same truth ; whilst there is among them a communication of peace, an appellation of brotherhood, and a league of hospitality, which are only to be preserved inviolable by a constant participation of the same holy Sacraments. Augustine, c. Faust. Man. XII. 15. As there were clean and unclean animals in the Ark, so both good and bad partake of the Sacraments of the Church. Jerome, ad Galat. I. The Church is twofold : that which has neither spot nor wrinkle, and is truly the body of Christ; and that which assembles in Christ's name without full and perfect goodness. Augustine, Epist. 48. The Church is sometimes obscured, and as it were clouded over, with the multitude of offences. See Iren. Hær. v. 20. Tertull. de Bapt. c. 8. August. de Civ. D. xv. 27. Ambros. Hexaem. iv. 8. Theophylact. in Joh. III.


Of the Authority of the l De Ecclesiæ Auctoritate.

Church. THE Church hath power HABET Ecclesia Ritus to decree Rites or Cere- sive Caremonias statuendi monies, and authority in jus, et in fidei controversiis Controversies of Faith ; and auctoritatem ; quamvis Ecyet it is not lawful for the lclesiæ non licet quicquam

Church to ordain any thing instituere, quod verbo Dei that is contrary to God's scripto adversetur, nec unum Word written, neither may Scripturæ locum sic exponere it so expound one place of potest, ut alteri contradicat. Scripture, that it be repug- Quare, licet Ecclesia in dinant to another. Wherefore, vinorum librorum testis et although the Church be a conservatrix, attamen ut adwitness and a keeper of holy versus eos nihil decernere, Writ, yet, as it ought not to ita præter illos nihil credendecree any thing against the dum de necessitate salutis same, 80 besides the same debet obtrudere. ought it not to enforce any thing to be believed for necessity of Salvation.

1. Is there any circumstance connected with the first clause of this Article, which may raise a doubt whether it formed a part of the original Articles; and what appears to be the real view of the case ?

There is a MS. copy of the Articles in the Library of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, signed, it should seem, by the Bishops, before they had agreed upon the insertion of the first clause of this Article. The clause appears, however, to have formed part of the Articles, as originally published; though it is wanting in some other transcripts. The copy containing it, which was afterwards signed by the Bishops in the place of that which Archbishop Parker left to his College, was deposited in the Register Court of the Province of Canterbury, and was burnt in the fire of London.

2 Upon what principle is it necessary that a certain degree of power and authority should be vested in the Church ?

All assemblies of men are necessarily regulated by certain established rules, without the observance of which their harmony and consistency would be destroyed; and upon the same acknowledged principle the Church, in the person of her rulers, has power to prescribe those forms by

which order is maintained, and to decide those controversies which unsettle her members, and undermine her peace.

3. Distinguish between rites and ceremonies ; shew from the Scriptures that the Church has authority to prescribe them, as well as to decide in controversies of faith ; and mark the limits of that authority.

See Questions on the Liturgy, Sect. III.

4. Had the Jews any institutions and observances which rested only on human authority; and what is the example which Christ has left us with respect to compliance with the ordinances of the Church?

The Jews had many institutions, such as the feasts of Purim and of Dedication (Esth. ix. 24. sqq. John x. 22, 23.) and certain observances in the celebration of the Passover, which were not commanded in the Law. None of these were censured by our Lord, who seems, indeed to have conformed to such traditional usages and ceremonies, as did not tend to encourage superstition; thus leaving an example which Christians will do well to follow in complying with those rites and customs which are adjudged, by the authority of the Church, to be conducive to public decency and religious edification.

5. In what sense is the Church a witness and keeper of Holy Writ ; and upon what basis are her decrees to be founded ?

To the Church are committed the oracles of God; and, by the practice of reading them publicly in the congregations from the earliest times, they have been preserved free from all material errors and corruptions. Hence she derives all her doctrines; upon them she founds all her decrees; nor would she be justified in departing from them as the rule of her faith and practice, either by ordaining anything contrary to God's written word, or requiring anything, as necessary to salvation, which is not contained therein.' [See also the Questions on Art. VI.]

6. Upon what principles, and to what end, is the Church to interpret the word of God ?

She must be careful not to interpret one passage 80 as to contradict another ; for, as all Scripture is given by inspiration, there must be a perfect harmony and consistency in all its parts, so connected as to form one uniform and comprehensive whole. Doubtless there are some things in Scripture hard to be understood, which they that are unlearned and unstable wrest to their own destruction' (2 Pet. iii. 16.). Against such perversions, the Church, under the influence of divine grace, is the legitimate bulwark; giving stability to the faith once delivered to the

saints,' and upholding the truth as it is in Jesus' (Jude 3. Eph. iv. 21.)

7. Shew that the primitive Fathers, in maintaining the authority of the Church, looked upon it as built upon that of the Scriptures.

Clem. Rom. I. 40. We must do all things in order, and make our prayers and oblations at the stated seasons ; not irregularly and by chance, but at the times and h appointed. Tertullian adv. Hermog. I do not admit what you assert on your own authority without the Scriptures. If you are an Apostolic man, think with the Apostles. Clem. Alex. Strom. VII. 15. We must by no means transgress the canon of the Church. Augustine, de Merit. et Rem. Þeco. I. 22. Holy Scripture can neither deceive, nor be deceived. See also Euseb. Hist. Eccl. v. 24. Iren. Hær. IV. 45. Tertull. de Præscr. Hær. c. 21. Cyprian de Laps. Epist. 27. Augustin. de Doctr. Chr. II.


Of the Authority of Gene- | De Auctoritate Conciliorum ral Councils


GENERAL Councils may | GENERALIA Concilia sine not be gathered together with jussu et voluntate principum out the commandment and congregari non possunt: et will of Princes. And when , ubi convenerint,quia ex they be gathered together, - hominibus constant, qui non forasmuch as they be an as- omnes Spiritu et verbo Dei sembly of men, whereof all be reguntur, -et errare possunt, not governed with the Spirit et interdum errarunt, etiam and Word of God,they may in his quæ ad Deum pertierr, and sometimes have nent. Ideoque quæ ab illis erred, even in things pertain- constituuntur, ut ad salutem to God.

d. Wherefore necessaria, neque robur hathings ordained by them, as | bent neque auctoritatem, nisi necessary to salvation, have ostendi possint e sacris literis neither strength nor author esse desumpta. ity, unless it may be declared that they be taken out of Holy Scripture.

1. What is an Ecclesiastical Council ?

An Ecclesiastical Council is an assembly of divines, convened for the purpose of deciding some weighty matter of doctrine or discipline.

2. Distinguish between the several kinds of such assemblies; and give the name by which they are otherwise designated.

These assemblies are of four kinds :-1. General ; consisting of prelates of all nations, summoned to consult for the unity and well-being of the Church at large. 2. National ; which are composed of the bishops and dignitaries of a single nation, as was that convoked by Cardinal Pole, in 1555. 3. Provincial ; confined to a single province, and attended by the Metropolitan and his Suffragans. 4. Diocesan; at which the Bishop of the diocese meets his Clergy, either to enforce the decrees of General Councils, or to adopt regulations for the particular guidance of themselves. Properly speaking, the first alone are called Councils ; and all others are disignated Synods.

3. Give a brief account of the English Convocation.

The Convocation is a National Synod of the English Clergy, convened to discuss and regulate the affairs of the Church, during the session of Parliament. It has an upper

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