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to have the sanction of the Apostles, all who are 'conse'crated or ordered according to the rites' thereof, are to be considered rightly, orderly, and lawfully consecrated and * ordered.'

3. Account for the retrospective view of the last clause of this Article.

In the reign of Queen Mary, the Ordinal of Edward VI., included in the Book of Common Prayer, was condemned by name; but when the Prayer Book was again authorized under Elizabeth, the office of Ordination, as forming part of it, was not expressly specified. Bishop Bonner, however, contended, that as it had been condemned by name, and not since revived by name, all ordinations conferred according to its rules were null and void; and, an act of Parliament having been passed to obviate the objection, a clause to the same effect was introduced into this Article.

4. Shew that our Ordinal agrees with the forms and Canons of the early Church ; and the statements of the primitive Fathers.

No very early form of Ordination is now extant; but it will appear by comparing it with the most antient that are still in being, that the English Ordinal has omitted nothing which was formerly deemed essential to render ordination complete. By the fourth Canon of the Council of Nice (A. D. 325.) it was decreed that, if possible, a bishop should he constituted by all the bishops of the province, but at all events, that three should meet together for the purpose, and the rest certify their assent in writing. The second Canon of the Council of Carthage (A. D. 399.) directs that, when a Bishop is ordained, two bishops are to hold the book of the Gospels over his head; and one pronouncing the blessing upon him, the others who are present are to lay their hands on him. According to the second Apostolical Canon, Presbyters and Deacons are to be ordained by one Bishop. At the Ordination of a Priest, the Council of Carthage (Can. 3.) directs that, while the bishop blesses him and lays his hand on his head, all the presbyters present are to place their hands upon his head by the hand of the bishon; and that, at the Ordination of a Deacon (Can. 4.), the bishop only is to lay his hand on his head, because he is not admitted to the priesthood. In the first Council of Constantin

nople, and in the Council of Sardis, Presbyterian Ordination was declared invalid; and thus Athanasius (Apol. 11.) asserts that all persons, who had been ordained by Colluthus, a presbyter, were still laymen. See also Iren. Hær. III. 3. Tertull. Præscr. Hær. cc. 28. sqq. Jerom. Epist. 85. ad Evagr. Cyprian. Epist. 66. Chrysost. in Tit. 1, 5.


Of the Civil Magistrates. | De Civilibus Magistratibus.

THE Queen's Majesty hath REGIA Majestas in hoc the chief power in this realm Angliæ regno, ac cæteris of England, and other her ejus dominiis, summam habet dominions, unto whom the potestatem, ad quam omnium chief government of all es- statuum regni, sive illi Ectates of this realm, whether clesiastici sint sive Civiles, in they be Ecclesiastical or omnibus causis suprema guCivil, in all causes doth ap-bernatio pertinet, et nulli expertain, and is not, nor ought ternæ jurisdictioni est subto be, subject to any foreign jecta, nec esse debet. jurisdiction.

Cum Regiæ Majestati Where we attribute to the summam gubernationem triQueen's Majesty the chief buimus, quibus titulis intelgovernment, by which titles ligimus animos quorundam we understand the minds of calumniatorum offendi, non some slanderous folks to be damus Regibus nostris aut offended, we give not to our verbi Dei, aut SacramentoPrinces the ministering either rum, administrationem; quod of God's Word, or of the etiam Injunctiones, ab' ElizSacraments ; the which thing | abetha Regina nostra, nuper the Injunctions also, lately editæ, apertissime testantur; set forth by Elizabeth our sed eam tantum prærogaQueen, do most plainly tes tivan tify; but that only preroga- turis a Deo ipso omnibus piis tive, which we see to have Principibus videmus semper been given always to all godly | fuisse attributam : hoc est, ut Princes in Holy Scriptures omnes status atque ordines by God himself that is, that fidei suæ a Deo commissos. they should rule all states sive illi Ecclesiastici sint sive and degrees committed to Civiles, in officio contineant,

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their charge by God, whether et contumaces ac delinquenthey be Ecclesiastical or tes gladio civili coerceant. Temporal, and restrain with Romanus Pontifex nullam the civil sword the stubborn habet jurisdictionem in hoc and evildoers.

regno Anglia. The Bishop of Rome hath Leges Regni possunt no jurisdiction in this realm Christianos, propter capitalia of England.

et gravia crimina, morte The Laws of the Realm | punire. may punish Christian men Christianis licet, ex manwith death, for heinous and dato Magistratus, arma porgrievous offences.

tare, et justa bella adminisIt is lawful for Christian trare. men, at the commandment of the Magistrate, to wear weapons, and serve in the wars.

1. In whom, and upon what ground, is the supreme authority in these realms vested ?

By the laws of the land the Queen is constituted the supreme Governor of all states and conditions in this kingdom; and she claims allegiance from her subjects as the minister and vicegerent of Him, 'by whom king's reign and

princes decree justice' (Prov. viii. 15.). (See Leges Edvardi Confess. c. 17. Statutes at large : 16 Rich. II. A. D. 1392. c. 5. ; 28 Hen. VIII. A. D. 1536. c. 7. Canon. Eccles. 11.). For the maintenance of public peace and order it is necessary that there should be different degrees of established authority; and it is not only agreeable to reason, but sanctioned by Scripture, that the ruling power over all should be vested in the Sovereign.

2. Shew that this supremacy is necessarily Ecclesiastical, as well as Civil.

Since it is clearly the moral duty of Sovereigns to promote the welfare and interests of their subjects, it would be taking a very low estimate of this duty, to confine it to their worldly interest alone. Now in order to advance their spiritual as well as temporal welfare, it is necessary that they should be invested with a power in all causes, ecclesi'astical as well as civil, supreme. This Ecclesiastical supremacy is vindicated in this Article to the English Throne; and it is agreeable with the Scriptures both of the Old and

New Testament, and many practical examples of former times. Indeed, ecclesiastical and civil matters are frequently so closely connected, that it would be impossible to make a distinction between them.

3. Shew from the Old Testament that the kings exercised supreme authority in the Jewish Church.

There are many circumstances which prove that, under the Mosaic dispensation, the kings of Judah exercised the chief authority in religious matters, and that their authority was recognized by the Church. The high-priest Abimelech appeared before Saul to answer certain charges alleged against him in his sacerdotal character (1 Sam. xxii. 11.); David distributed the priests into twenty-four courses (1 Chron. xxyii. 6.), and made a variety of regulations for the devout celebration of the Temple service ; “Solomon

thrust out Abiathar from being priest unto the Lord' (1 Kings ii. 26.); Jehoshaphat invested some of the priesthood with certain judicial powers (2 Chron. xix. 8, 9.); and Hezekiah commanded the priests and Levites, on more than one special occasion, to offer sacrifices, and to minister and give thanks in the house of the Lord (2 Chron. xxix. 21. xxxi. 2.). With respect to the Church of Christ also. Isaiah (xlix. 23.) foretold that 'kings should be her nursing ' fathers, and queens her nursing mothers;' which implies rule and government as of the parent over the child.

4. What appears from the Books of the New Testament to have been the intention of Christ and his Apostles respecting magisterial authority ?

It does not appear to have been the intention of Christ or his Apostles to interfere with the established government of any country; but that, on the contrary, they enjoyed obedience to every ordinance of man, for the

Lord's sake; whether it be to the king as supreme, or "unto governors, as unto them that are sent by him for the punishment of evil doers, and for the praise of them that do well' (1 Pet. ii. 13, 14.). Compare also Matt. xxii. 21. Rom. xii. 1-7. These precepts, be it observed, are delivered in general terms, without any distinction between the Clergy and the Laity; so that both one and other are equally bound to obedience, in all things which are not forbidden by the word of God. St. Paul 'appealed unto

Cæsar' (Acts xxv. 11.) as his lawful sovereign; and indeed it should seem that the Clergy, who are to put others in ‘mind of their subjection to principalities and powers' (Tit. iii. 1.), are more especially bound to support their doctrine by their examples.

5. To what extent, and under what circumstances, is this obedience inculcated; and what is the inference?

The reverence due to Sovereigns, and those in authority under them, is altogether apart from any consideration of their private conduct. The Scribes,' said our Lord, sit ‘in Moses' seat. All, therefore, whatsoever they bid you • observe, that observe and do : but do not ye after their

works; for they say and do not' (Matt. xxiii. 2, 3.). Even in a case of flagrant illegality, St. Paul excused the warmth with which he had resented an act of violence on the part of one, who does not seem to have been justly entitled to the office which he held :-'I wist not that he was the High• Priest; for it is written, Thou shall not speak evil of the 'ruler of thy people' (Acts xxiii. 5.). At the time too, when these precepts were thus given and exemplified, the ruling powers were heather; 80 that a peculiar obligation must necessarily lie upon Christian subjects to honour and

obey their King. In short the command is at once most explicit, and exempts neither Clergy nor people :- Whoever resisteth, resisteth the ordinance of God; and they that resist, shall receive to themselves damnation' (Rom. xiii. 2.).

6. Why is it necessary that the Queen's power in this realm should be subject to no foreign jurisdiction.

The interference of any foreign power in the internal government of a kingdom must be entirely subversive of its independence; and more especially any external allegiance on the part of the Clergy must inevitably tend to introduce disorder and confusion into that branch of the universal Church, over which, under Christ as the supreme head, the sovereign of each country is ordained of God to preside.

7. What changes were introduced into this Article in the reign of Elizabeth ; and why?

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