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4. What is the teaching of the Church of Rome on the subject of Sacramental validity ?
The Church of Rome allows that the clerical functions are not affected by the character of the officiating priest: but she holds an opinion far less tenable, that the intention the minister is essential to the validity of a Sacrament; and that if he repeat the form of words, without intending to administer the rite, the rite is not administered. A notion so absurd carries its own refutation along with it; but a decree to that effect was made in the Councils both of Florence and of Trent.
5. Is it not essential that clerical delinquencies should be punished; and with whom does the power rest, of adjudging and inflicting the penalty ?
Although the ministerial functions are not impaired by personal wickedness, and the office, not the individual, is to be regarded in their exercise ; still the vices of ministers are calculated to create extensive scandal and mischief in the Church, and it is necessary to guard against the pernicious effects of their evil examples. St Paul directs that an accusation is not to be received against an elder, “but be
fore two or three witnesses and it is essential to the interests of religion that if, upon 'enquiry made,' the accused
be found guilty,' he be rebuked before all, that others also 'may fear' (1 Tim. v. 19, 20.); or, should the case require it, 'be deposed.' Authority to this extent has always been vested in the Church ; and it is absolutely necessary to the maintenance of order and discipline that it should be so.
6. Shew that the Article is confirmed throughout by the opinions and practice of the primitive Church.
God sometimes works, says Chrysostom (in 1 Cor. Hom. 8.), even by those who are unworthy : nor is the grace of Baptism at all impaired by the life of the priest. According to St. Ambrose (Epist. 1. ad Chromat.), the merits of the individuals are not to be regarded, but the functions of the minister. Gregory of Nazianzum (Orat. de Bapt.) maintains that the Baptism of Peter is no better than that of Judas, illustrating his assertion by the fact that a seal of iron gives as perfect an impression as a seal of gold ; and so Augustine (Lít. Pet. Ill. 67.) :-A minister of the Gospel, who is also a dispenser of the Sacraments, if he be a good man, is a partaker with the Gospel; but if he be a bad man, he is not therefore no dispenser of God's word. Peter preached it, as likewise did other good men ; Judas, also preached it, though unwillingly : for the dispensation of it was committed to him together with them, although they alone have a good reward for dispensing it. And again (c. 110):-The conduct of evil men does not hinder the Sa ments of God, so as to annul them, or make them less holy. See also Tract. in Johan. Ev. v. 18. With respect to the latter part of the Article, St Cyprian writes as follows (Epist. 41.) :--As to Felicissimus the deacon, let him know that he is cast out from among us ; inasmuch as, besides the frauds and robberies of which we know that he is guilty, he is also charged with adultery: and this charge some of our brethren, who are grave men, have pledged themselves to make good.
De Baptismo. BAPTISM is not only a BAPTISMUS non est tansign of profession, and mark tum professionis signum, ac of difference, whereby Chris-discriminis nota, qua Christian men are discerned from tiani a non Christianis discerothers that be not Christened, nantur, sed etiam est signum but it is also a sign of Rege- | Regenerationis, per quod, neration or New 'Birth, tanquam per instrumentum, whereby, as by an instru- | recte Baptismum suscipienment, they that receive Bap- tes Ecclesiæ inseruntur ; protism rightly are grafted into missiones de remissione pecthe Church"; the promises of catorum, atque adoptione forgiveness of sin, and of our nostra in filios Dei per Spiriadoption to be the sons of tum Sanctum, visibiliter obGod by the Holy Ghost, are signantur; fides confirmatur, visibly signed and sealed ; et vi divinæ invocationis Faith is confirmed, and | gratia augetur. Grace increased by virtue of Baptismus parvulorum prayer unto God.
omnino in Ecclesia retinen
The Baptism of young dus est, ut qui cum Christi children is in any wise to be institutione optime congruat. retained in the Church, as most agreeable with the institution of Christ.
1. In what manner, and to what extent, is Baptism a sign of the Christian profession?
As the Jews were distinguished from all other nations by Circumcision, so are Christians distinguished both from the Jews and all others by Baptism; and, according to the express declaration of Christ himself, who ordained Baptism as the sacrament of admission into his Church, none are Christians, and entitled to Christian privileges, who have not been baptized.
2. Is not Baptism a sign of something more than mere external profession?
Baptism is also a sign of Regeneration or New Birth; or, according to the Church Catechism, the thing signified by Baptism is a death unto sin, and a new birth unto righteousness; for, being by nature born in sin, and the children of 'wrath, we are thereby made the children of grace.'
3. What promises are visibly signed and sealed to the Christian by Baptism?
St. Peter connects with ‘Baptism in the name of Chrisť the promise of ‘Remission of sins. (Acts ii. 38.) Of this promise the outward washing is the visible sign and seal, as well as of our adoption to be the sons of God. "For we are all the children of God by faith in Jesus Christ; for as many as have been baptized unto Christ, have put on Christ.' (Gal. iii. 26, 27.)
4. Shew that Baptism was never administered in the name of Christ only.
From these and other passages, where Baptism in the name of Christ is mentioned, without reference to the prescribed form of administration, it is not to be inferred that the rite can be duly administered without that form. Not only was it always performed in the primitive Church in the name of all the three persons in the blessed Trinity; but there is a striking incident recorded in the Acts, which clearly marks the Apostolic practice. The question, 'Unto what then were ye baptised ? put by St. Paul to certain Ephesian converts, who had not heard of the Holy Ghost, implies that,-if they had received Christian Baptism, they could not have failed to hear of him; and accordingly it appeared that they had only been baptized unto John's baptism.' (Acts xix. 3.).
5. What are the benefits conveyed by the right use of this Sacrament?
Inasmuch as Baptism is the appointed means of admission into the Gospel Covenant, the right use of the Sacrament will necessarily tend to a confirmation of our faith in the promises of God; and a well-grounded faith, accompanied by fervent and constant prayer, will as surely produce an increase of grace, resulting in a daily advance towards Christian perfection.
6. What is the purport of the prayer which our Church offers up in behalf of those who are baptized ?
Our Church invokes a blessing upon those who are baptized to the effect that the old Adam may be so buried, that
the new man may be raised up in them; that all things belonging to the Spirit may live and grow in them; that they may have power and strength to have victory, and to triumph against the devil, the world, and the flesh; and that, being endued with heavenly virtues, they may be ' everlastingly rewarded through God's mercy in Christ.'
7. Prove that the doctrine of Baptismal Regeneration, and the Baptism of Infants, are confirmed by the writings of the early Fathers.
St Barnabas (Epist. c. 11.) observes that we descend into the water full of sins and pollutions, and ascend out of it full of good fruits, having fear in our hearts, and hope towards the Lord in our spirit. Justin Martyr (Apol. 1. c. 66.) relates that those who believed the Gospel, and undertook to
live in conformity therewith, were brought to a place where there was water, and regenerated after the same manner of regeneration, as those who had previously embraced Christianity; and he adds that in the water they obtained the redemption of all their past sins. Theophilus of Antioch (ad Autol. II. 16.) says that men obtain remission of s water, and the laver of regeneration, even as many as come to the truth, and are born again, and receive the blessing of God. The Apostolical Constitutions (VI. 15.) direct that children should be baptized, and brought up in the nurture and admonition of the Lord. Irenæus (Hær. II. 39.) teaches that Christ came to save by himself all who are born again to God through him, whether infants, children, boys, youths, or old men. See also Tertull. de Bapt. c. 4. De Cor. Mil. c. 1. Adv. Prax. c. 26. Chrysostom. Hom. in. Joh. 85. Cyprian. Epist. 64. Origen. in Luc. Hom. 14. Augustin, de Pecc. Mor. I. 19.
Of the Lord's Supper. De Coena Domini.
THE Supper of the Lord CENA Domini non est is not only a sign of the love tantum signum mutuæ benethat Christians ought to have volentiæ Christianorum inamong themselves one to an- ter se, verum potius est Saother, but rather is a Sacra- | cramentum nostræ per morment of our Redemption by tem Christi redemptionis : Christ's death: insomuch atque adeo rite, digne, et cum that to such as rightly, wor- fide sumentibus, panis, quem thily, and with faith, receive frangimus, est communicatio the same, the Bread which corporis Christi; similiter powe break is a partaking of culum benedictionis est comthe body of Christ; and municatio sanguinis Christi. likewise the Cup of blessing | Panis et Vini Transubis a partaking of the blood of stantiatio in Eucharista ex Christ.
sacris literis probari non Transubstantiation, or the potest; sed apertis Scripturæ change of the substance of verbis adversatur, SacramenBread and Wine in the Sup- ti naturam evertit, et mulper of the Lord, cannot be tarum superstitionum dedit proved by holy Writ; but is occasionem.