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suffice: that whereas God hath in Scripture delivered us so many patterns for imitation when we pray; yea, framed 'ready to our hands, in a manner, all suits and supplications, which our condition of life on earth may at any time need; there is not one, no, not one to be found, directed unto angels, or saints, or any save God alone.'

32. Shew that the Invocation of Saints is plainly forbidden in the New Testament.

Although the examples of the pious dead are proposed in the Scripture for imitation, yet in no case are we directed to worship them. On the other hand, it is expressly declared that there is one mediator between God and man, the man • Christ Jesus' (1 Tim. ii.5.), 'through whom we have access

to the Father' (Eph. ii. 18.). "Let no man beguile you, says the Apostle (Col. ii. 18.), in a voluntary humility and worshipping of angels ;' and the angel in the Apocalypse (Rev. xix. 10.) rejecting the worship of St. John, as being

his fellow servant,' enjoined him to 'worship God. If then Angels are not to be worshipped, much less are the Spirits of holy men.

33. Adduce the testimony of the early Church against the several errors denounced in this Article.

Tertullian affirms (adv. Marc. Iv. 34.) that the souls of the righteous are refreshed in Abraham's bosom, until the consummation of all things shall complete the general resurrection with the fulness of reward. St. Cyprian (Epist. 55.) urges the sinner, while it is yet in his power, and while yet a spark of life remains, to make his peace with God. For, he continues, when once we have departed hence, there is no more place for repentance, neither any means of satisfaction. It is here that life is either lost or secured. Chrysostom observes (in Gen. Hom. 36.) that to such as live virtuously death is a change from worse to better, from this transitory life to one that is immortal and eternai. While we are in this world, says Jerome (Comment. in Galat. c. 6.), we are able to help one another either by our prayers or our advice; but when we come before the judgment-seat of Christ, neither Job, nor Daniel, nor Noah, can entreat for any one, but every one must bear his own burden. Clement of Alexandria teaches (Quis Div. saly. C. 40.) that of all beings the Father is the only one who can undo those

things that are done, and who only, by his mercy, and by the dew of his Spirit, can blot out our former transgressions. Lactantius maintains (Instt. Div. II. 19.) that wherever there is an image, there is no religion : because there can be nothing heavenly in what is made out of earthly things. Augustine (de Oper. Monach, c. 28.) condemns those who traffic in the limbs of martyrs, if indeed they be genuine relics ; and again (de vera Relig. c. 55.) he lays down a caution against making it a part of religion to worship men that are dead : for if they lived well, they are to be honoured for imitation, not to be adored for religion.


Of Ministering in the De Ministrando in Ecclesia. Congregation.

Non licet cuiquam sumere It is not lawful for any man | sibi munus publice prædito take upon him the office candi, aut administrandi Saof public preaching, or min cramenta in Ecclesia, nisi istering the Sacraments in prius fuerit ad hæc obeund the Congregation, before he legitime vocatus et missus. be lawfully called, and sent Atque illos legitime vocatos to execute the same. And et missos existimare debemus, those we ought to judge law- qui per homines, quibus pofully called and sent, which testas vocandi ministros, atbe chosen and called to this que mittendi in vineam work by men, who have pub- Domini, publice concessa est lic authority given unto them in Ecclesia, co-optati fuerint in the Congregation, to call et adsciti in hoc opus. and send Ministers into the Lord's vineyard.

1. What are the subjects of which this Article treats ?

Two distinct propositions are maintained in this Article:in the first of which it is asserted that no man can exercise the functions of the Christian ministry, unless he be law· fully called and sent to execute the same;' and in the second, that his commission must be received from those

who have public authority to call and send him. [Both these points are fully illustrated in the Questions on the Liturgy, Sect. XVI. "See also Sect. I. qq. 6,7.].

2. Shew that the positions maintained in this Article, are in accordance with the sentiments of the early Fathers.

Clement of Rome (Ep. ad Cor. C. 44.) observes that, as Christ was sent by God, and the Apostles by Christ, so the Apostles, when preaching the Gospel in countries and cities, chose persons, of whom they had a perfect knowledge, and invested them with the pastoral care; in order that after their deaths other men also, having first been tried and approved, might succeed them in their office. Jerome (Proem. in Matth.) teaches, that in those who come uncalled, there is presumption and temerity ; but in those who are sent, the obedience of servants. See also Ignat. ad Ephes. c. 3. Cyprian. Epist. 69. Augustin. adv. Faust. Manich. XVI, 12. Ambros. Epist. 44.


Of speaking in the Congre- | De loquendi in Ecclesia lingation in such a tongue as gua, quam Populus intelthe people understandeth.

ligit. It is a thing plainly re- | LINGUA Populo non inpugnant to the Word of God, tellecta, publicas in Ecclesia and the custom of the Primi- preces peragere, aut Sacrative Church, to have public menta administrare, verbo Prayer in the Church, or to Dei, et primitivæ Ecclesiæ minister the Sacraments, in consuetudini, plane repuga tongue not understanded nat. of the People.

1. Was this Article originally expressed in the same terms as at present?

In 1552, this Article stood thus : It is most fit and “ most agreeable to the word of God, that nothing be read

or rehearsed in the Congregation in a tongue not known ' unto the people; which Št. Paul hath forbidden to be done, ‘unless some be present to interpret it.'

2. What may have been the motive for introducing a change into the wording of the Article?


In all probability the change was made with a view to mark more expressly the object of the Article, as directed against the use of the Latin Liturgy in the Romish Church, which is continued even to the present day, although perfectly unintelligible to the great majority of wors After the fall of the Roman Empire this language ceased to be spoken, and Sermons were necessarily preached in the vernacular tongue; but, in order to keep the people in a state of ignorant dependence, Pope Hildebrand, (Gregory VII) interdicted the reading of the Scriptures altogether, and enjoined the Mass to be still celebrated in Latin.

3. Shew that the practice of praying in an unknown tongue is both irrational and unscriptural.

As religious worship is essentially an act of the mind, to engage in it without the spirit and the understanding, is both impious and absurd : and, although St. Paul fully appreciated the value of the gift of tongues as a means of pr

hing the Gospel among all nations, he prohibited its use for any other purpose than that of edification (1 Cor. xiv. 5.); arguing at length, throughout the whole chapter, on the importance of offering prayers in the language of those who are to join therein.

4. What do you infer from the manner in which the books of the Old and New Testament were written and read ; and from the teaching of our Lord and his Apostles ?

The books of the New Testament were written in the Hellenistic or Alexandrian Greek, which, at the time of their composition, was universally spoken in the countries, where they were intended to be read; and the books of the Old Testament, originally written in Hebrew, were not only explained by the Chaldeě Paraphrases after the Babylonian

Captivity, but subsequently translated into Greek, when that language became more generally understood. Hence it was to this, the Septuagint translation, rather than the original, that our Lord and his Apostles commonly referred; and indeed he seems to have employed, on all occasions, the ordinary language of his hearers.

5. Shew from the Fathers, that divine service was always performed in the primitive Churches in a language with which the people were acquainted.

Justin Martyr (Apol. I. C. 67.), in giving an account of the public service of the Church as it was performed in his days, manifestly implies that it was conducted in a language understood by the congregation; and all the early Liturgies were composed in the vernacular tongue of those for whom they were designed :-for instance those of St. James and Chrysostom in Greek, and the old Syriac and Coptic Liturgies. Indeed Origen expressly says (c. Cels. VIII. 13.), that the Greeks use Greek words in their Prayers, the Romans, Latin ; and every one prays to God in his own Language: and He that is Lord of every tongue hears that which is asked in any tongue. It is also observed by St. Cyprian (De Orat. Dom.) that we ought to pray, not only with the sound of the voice, but with the sincere earnestness of the spirit and the understanding. [See also Questions on the Liturgy; Sect. 1. qq. 8-10.]."


Of the Sacraments.

De Sacramentis.

SACRAMENTS ordained of SACRAMENTA a Christo Christ be not only badges or instituta non tantum sunt tokens of Christian men's notæ professionis Christianprofession, but rather they be orum, sed certa quædam pocertain sure witnesses, and tius testimonia, et efficacia effectual signs of grace, and signa gratiæ, atque bonæ in God's good will towards us, nos voluntatis Dei, per quæ

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