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that his divinity supplied the place of the soul. Hence the Athanasian Creed declares him to be not only perfect . God, but perfect man, of a reasonable soul and human fesh subsisting.'
12. Whence does it appear that Christ was perfect man, composed of soul and body?
That Christ had a body is manifest from his endurance of the corporeal feelings of hunger and thirst, from the mention of his flesh and bones (Luke xxiv. 39.), and other bodily properties. That he encreased in wisdom as well as in stature (Luke ii. 52.), and that he speaks of the sorrow of his soui, are equally proofs that he was endowed with the spiritual part of man's nature.
13. Why was it necessary that Christ should be both God and Man?
In order to make atonement for the sins of the whole world, it was necessary that Christ should be sinless, and therefore God; while none but Man could suffer. It was therefore foretold that the seed of the woman, who should bruise the serpent's head, should be miraculously conceived and born of a Virgin (Gen. iii. 15. Isai. vii. 14.); and accordingly in the fulness of time the Virgin Mary was de‘livered of her first-born son.' 'God sent forth his son, made of a woman; and the Word was made flesh, and in all things like unto his brethren, yet without sin.' (Matt. i. 22, 23. John i. 5. Gal. ix. 4.).
14. Were the sufferings of Christ foretold, and in what did they consist; why is it said that he truly suffered; and how could he suffer being in his divine nature impassible ?
The Spirit of Christ which was in the prophets testified beforehand of the sufferings of Christ' (1 Pet. i. 11.); and if hunger, thirst, revilings, agonies mental and bodily, stripes, insults, and crucifixion are sufferings, Jesus truly suffered. It is said truly, because there have been those who maintained that he suffered in appearance only : but though in his divine nature he was incapable of suffering, he
suffered for us in the flesh' (1 Pet. iv. 1.); not in his impassible divinity, but in his passible humanity. His human nature suffered as much as if it were alone; his divine nature as little, as if it had not been present.
15. Shew that Christ was crucified, dead, and buried.
The crucifixion of Christ is related by all the four Evangelists; and that he really expired upon the cross, was manifest not only to his friends but to his enemies. A soldier also “pierced his side,' thereby fulfilling a prophecy of Zechariah (xii. 10.), and his death was proved by the result:-forthwith came there out blood and water. His burial also was not only a fulfilment of a most remarkable prediction (Isai. liii. 9.), but a yet more convincing proof of the certainty of his death; and as such it is minutely recorded by St. Matthew (xxvii. 60. sqq.).
16. Point out the necessity, nature, and extent, of Christ's atonement.
Mankind are represented in Scripture as being at enmity with God, but reconciled to him by the death of his son, The ceremonies and sacrifices of the Jewish dispensation, are emblematical throughout of the great final sacrifice of the Son of God, and of the expiation to be eventually wrought by his blood. Hence it is said that God 'made ‘him to be sin, that is, a sin-offering, for us, who knew no sing " that we might be made the righteousness of God in him (2 Cor. v. 21.); and that he gave his life a ransom for many, Núrpov ávri rollar. Compare Matt. xx. 28. Eph. ii. 16. 1 Tim. ii. 6. The redemption thus purchased is moreover universal, Tollwv being used for távrwv, as in many passages of Scripture; and extends to every species of guilt, with one exception, both actual and original. See John i. 29. Rom. v. 14. 19. 2 Cor. v. 18, 19. Col. i. 21, 22. Heb. ix. 13, 14. 26–28. 1 John ii. 2.
17. What do you mean by Original Sin ; and what is the sin for which there is no remission ?
See Articles Ix. and XVI.
18. What is the testimony which the early Fathers afford to the doctrines asserted in this Article ?
Justin M. Apol. I. c. 63. The Word, being the first begotten of God, is also God. Iren. I. 1. 20. Jesus, who suffered for us, and dwelt among us, is the Word of God. Ignatius ad Smyrn. c. 1. Jesus Christ, of the seed of David according to the flesh, is God ;-the Son of God, according to the will and power of God, truly born of a Virgin. Ad Polycarp. C. 3. Expect him who is before all time, eternal, invisible, yet visible for our sakes; impassible, yet for our sakes passible. Chrysostom de Cruce :-Not God only, or man only, but both together. Ignatius, ubi supra :His flesh was truly pierced with nails for us, under Pontius Pilate. Justin Martyr, ubi supra :-He endured to be set at nought, and to suffer, for those who believe in him. Clem. Alex. Quis dives salv. č. 37. He came down from heaven, and was made man; and being sacrificed for us, and offering himself as the price of our Salvation, he has left us a new covenant.
ARTICLE III. Of the going down of Christ | De Descensu Christi ad Ininto Hell.
feros. "As Christ died for us, ' Quemadmodum Christus and was buried, so also it is pro nobis mortuus est, et se'to be believed that he went pultus, ita est etiam credendown into Hell.'
| dus ad inferos descendisse.
1. What is the design of this Article, and what is the Scriptural authority upon which it rests ?
In order to prove yet more fully that Christ's death was not merely a trance, but a real separation of soul and body, this article asserts, in the words of the Creed, that he went
down into Hell.' The doctrine is not indeed built upon any express declaration of the Evangelists ; but it follows immediately from St. Peter's application to Christ of the words of David, Thou wilt not leave my soul in Hell. Now unless his soul had been in Hell, God could not be represented as not leaving it there. Compare Psal. xvi. 8. Acts ii. 22.
2. What different meanings are attached to the word Hell; and in what light has our Lord's descent into hell been consequently viewed ?
Hell is an old Saxon term, signifying what is unseen or concealed, and applied by the Translators of the Bible both to the place or state of departed souls, and to the place of torment. In the former sense it corresponds exactly with the original word, äong (=deidns), employed by St Peter in the Acts; but because it is also, though rarely, used in the latter, as the representative of the very different word yéeva, it has been sometimes thought that our Lord was detained, between his death and resurrection in the receptacle of condemned sinners.
3. What is the opinion generally received by English divines on this subject?
This article, in the reign of Edward VI, stood thus:* The body of Christ lay in the grave until his resurrection; but bis Spirit, which he gave up, was with the spirits which were detained in prison or in hell, and preached to them, as St. Peter testified.' See 1 Pet. iii. 19, 20. The interpretation of the passage, upon which this sense is grounded, is now very generally rejected ; and though our Church, with her usual moderation, leaves the question undecided, her most learned divines understand by Christ's descent into Hell, that his death was attended by all the circumstances of mortality. His body was laid in the grave, and his soul went to Hades.
4. Is the doctrine thus received sanctioned by the testimony of the early Fathers ?
Irenæus observes (Hær. v. 31.) that our Lord was in the middle of the shadow of death, where the souls of the dead were : Tertullian says (de Anima, c. 55.), that he went through the form of human death amongst those who are in the invisible world : and Cyprian (adv. Jud. II. 14.), that he was not to be overcome by death, nor remain in Hades.
Of the Resurrection of De Resurrectione Christi.
Christus vere a mortuis Christ did truly rise again | resurrexit, suumque corpus from the dead, and took again cum carne, ossibus, omnibushis body, with flesh, bones, que ad integritatem huand all things appertaining to manæ naturæ pertinentibus, the perfection of Man's na recepit ; cum quibus in coture; wherewith he ascended lum ascendit, ibique residet, into Heaven, and there sit- quoad extremo die ad juditeth, until he return to judge candos homines reversurus all Men at the last day. sit.
1. What are the doctrines asserted in the fourth Article ?
This Article asserts not only the reality and completeness of our Lord's resurrection, but those subsequent particulars made known in the Scriptures, of his ascension into heaven, and his exaltation to the right hand of God, there to remain until his second advent to judge the world.
2. In what light do ye regard the doctrine of Christ's resurrection; and how far is the belief in a general resurrection supported by the Old and New Testaments respectively?
The Resurrection of Christ is the great fundamental doctrine upon which the Christian system depends. “If,
says the Apostle (1 Cor. xv. 14. 19.), Christ be not risen, 'then is our preaching vain and your faith is also vain; for *if in this life only we have hope in Christ, we are of all men
most miserable : but now is Christ risen from the dead, and become the first-fruits of them that slept. His resurrection is therefore the pledge and earnest of a general resurection to an immortal life:-a truth, to which the obscure allusions in the Old Testament. (Job xix. 23. eqq. Psal. xvii. 15. Isai, XXV. 8. xxvi. 19. Ezek. xxxvii. 1. sqq. Dan. xii. 2. Hos. vi. 2. xiii. 14.) by no means obtained the unanimous assent of the Jews; but which in the New Testament is set forth in all the fulness which its importance demands (1 Cor. xv. 20. sqq. Phil. iii. 21. 1 Thess. iv. 14. Rev. xx. 13.).