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offering ;" nor is the animal slain in any of the various kinds of peace offering, whether in the votive, the free-will, or the sacrifice of thanksgiving, ever “ said to be killed on account of sin.” In other words, one species of sacrifice is not the same with, nor to be called by the name of another. I
with Dr. Priestley in this position; and shall not dispute with him any conclusion he may draw from so productive a premiss.
But so evident is it, that the Passover was truly a sacrifice, that even Sykes himself, (whose work on Redemption has been the great armory, whence Dr. Priestley and the other combatants of that doctrine have derived their principal weapons of attack,) found it impossible to deny the position. He accordingly fully admits the point. (Essay on Sacrifices, p. 41.) And indeed whoever considers what are the essential characters of a sacrifice, can have little difficulty upon this head, as the Passover will be found to possess them all.
1. It was a Corban, or offering brought to the Tabernacle or Temple, as we find it expressly enjoined in Deut. xvi. 2. 5, 6. and exemplified at the solemn passover in the reign of Josiah, 2 Chron. xxxv. 5, 6. 10, 11. That the tabernacle, or temple, is intended by the expressions used in the passage of Deuteronomy above referred to, and not Jerusalem at large, is evident from this, that the very same expressions are employed,
when speaking of all the sacrifices and offerings, in Deut. xii. 5, 6. 11. 14. where it is manifest, that the temple, the peculiar habitation of God is necessarily meant.
This still farther appears from 1 Kings, viii. 29. and 2 Chron. vii. 16. Moreover, we find the Passover expressly called a Corban (Numb. ix. 6, 7. 13): and it is certain that nothing was so called, but what was brought and offered up to God at the tabernacle or temple —see Cudw. Int. Syst. Discourse, &c.
13. We may also add that it is actually specified by Maimonides, as the reason why the Jews of later times cannot kill the Paschal lamb, that they have no temple to offer it in*-see Ainsw. on Exod. xii. 8.2. The blood of the paschal lamb was poured out, sprinkled, and offered at the altar by the Priests, in like manner as the blood of the victims usually slain in sacrifice, as appears from
* Bishop Patrick in a note on Exod. xii. 21, makes the following observation_“ Here it may be fit to note, that the lamb being first killed in Egypt, it was killed in every man's house, for they had no altar there, nor any other place where they had liberty to kill it. But after they came to the land of Canaan, it was not lawful to sacrifice it any where, but in the place which God appointed for his worship, Deut. xvi. 2. From which Maimonides concludes, that whatsoever they did with other sacrifices, yet this could not be offered in the high places, but only at the temple. And it is likely they did so in the wilderness, the tabernacle being newly erected at the keeping of the second passover, Numb. ix. 5."
Exod. xxiii. 18. and xxxiv. 25.-2 Chron. xxx. 15, 16. and xxxv. 11. And in this sprinkling of the blood consisted, as we are told by the Jewish doctors, the very essence of a sacrifice-see Cudw. ut supra, p. 10.----3. The fat and entrails were burnt upon the altar, as may be collected from the accounts given of the ceremony of the Passover in the passages already referred to; as also from the declarations of the Jewish doctors, the descriptions of the paschal sacrifice in the Misna of the Talmud, and the testimony of the Karraites, who are known to reject all the Talmudical traditions not founded on Scripture.* Thus then, all the distinguishing characters of a sacrifice,
* See Cudw. Int. Syst. Disc. &c. pp. 12. 14, 15, 16.-see also Beausobre's Introd. pp. 134, 135. ed. 1790-and Sykes's Essay on Sacrifices, p. 41.
+ 6 Pascha nimirum erat sacrificium proprie dictum, Exod. xxiii. 18. xxxiv. 25. Hinc Pascha Qurobas dicitur, Marc. xiv. 22. Sed præcipuum est, quod sanguis agni a sacerdote spargebatur, 2 Par. XXX. 16. xxxv. 11. in quo radix, seu essentia, sacrificii est, inquit canon Judæorum notissimus. Adde quod in Egypto ubi nullum erat altare ad quod spargeretur sanguis, huic tamen analogum fuit, quod postes illinebant sanguine agni. Deinde Pascha in loco sacro mactari oportuit, Deut. xvi. 5.”—Poli Syn. in Exod. xii. 27.-In like manner Bishop Patrick expresses himself on the subject of the Passover. “It is” (he observes) “ frequently called by the name of a sacrifice, Exod. xxiii. 18. xxxiv. 25. Deut. xvi. 4, 5, 6.-And it is called a Cor. ban; which is a name given only to those things which were brought to be offered up to God. See Numb. ix. 13. where,
we find to belong to the offering of the Paschat lamb. It was brought to the temple, as a Corban, or sacred offering to the Lord. It was slain in the courts of the temple ; and the blood was received by the priests, and handed to the High Priest ; who pouring it forth, and sprinkling it before the altar, offered it together with the fat and entrails, which were burnt upon the altar.
One circumstance indeed has been urged, which wears the appearance of an objection ; namely, that the Paschal lamb was slain not by the priest, but by the person who brought it to the temple. Philo, in his Life of Moses, (p. 686) has stated this, as distinguishing the Passover from all other sacrifices (which, by the way, clearly implies that he considers that to be a sacrifice as well as the rest ; and so indeed he expressly calls it, Ilevonuos ØTEIA--De Sept. & Fest. p. 1190.) In this, however, as in many other particulars of the Jewish rites, Philo is manifestly mistaken, this being by no means peculiar to the Passover: for that, in every kind of sacrifice, the individual that offered it might kill the sacrifice, is evident from the instance of the burnt-offering, in Levit. i. 4,
as it is called Corban, so the same word is used for bringing it, which is commonly used about other sacrifices. And it further appears to have been properly a sacrifice, by the rites belonging to it: for the blood of it was sprinkled by the priests, 2 Chron. xxx. 16. xxxv. 11." Patr. on Exod
$ ; from that of the peace-offering, iii. 2 ; and from that of the sin-offering, iv. 24: the proper duty of the priests being only to sprinkle the blood, and to place upon the altar whatever was to be offered. *-It must certainly be admitted, that the ceremony of laying hands upon the head of the victim, which was usual in other sacrifices, was not adopted in that of the passover. This distinction, however, at the same time that it is noticed by Sykes, (Essay, &c. p. 41.) is suffi . ciently accounted for by that writer, inasmuch as “ the paschal lamb was the sacrifice of a company : and where a company are concerned, no one can act for the whole, unless there be a proper representative ; as the elders of a congregation are for the congregation, or persons deputed , are for those who depute them, or governors may be for their people."
If farther confirmation can be yet wanted to shew that the Passover was truly a sacrifice, we are supplied with this by the express testimony of Josephus; who in the third book of his Antiquities, treating of the subject of sacrifices, calls it the sacrifice which the Israelites had been ordered to sacrifice when leaving the land of EgyptTV ΘΥΣΙΑΝ ην τοτε εξιoντας Αιγυπτε ΘΥΣΑΙ προειπον
* See Levit. i. 4–9. ïi. 2-5. iv. 24–26.-see also the Jewish doctors, as quoted by Cudworth, Discourse, &c. pp. 11, 12, and Jennings Jew. Antiq. vol. ii. p. 191.