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ENVY AND ITS CONSEQUENCES. But the apostle also designed to check their BY THE Rev. EDWARD HANSON, M.A. angry passions, and calm their perturbed Ashdon, near Saffron Walden.
spirits, to assuage their animosities, and re
concile their differences, by impressing upon No. I.
them the folly and wickedness of such a temWren St. James addressed his epistle to per and conduct, and by shewing them what “the twelve tribes of Israel,” they were di- would be the dangerous consequences if they vided into parties and factions ; they had persisted, for “where envy and strife is, there grievous disputes and quarrels one with an- is confusion and every evil work.” other, which not only destroyed all private Such, we find, were the consequences of tranquillity and enjoyment, but also endan- envy and strife, in the time of St. James ; gered the public peace and safety. False and will not the same principles invariably teachers of Christianity had crept in among produce similar results? Have they not the believing Jews, who perverted and cor- hitherto done so ? Let us consider the prinrupted the doctrines of the gospel; they ciple of envy more minutely. sadly misrepresented St. Paul's doctrine of There is implanted in the nature of man a justification by faith, affirming that it mattered consciousness of self-ilignity, which, not only little or nothing to a man's salvation what his preserves him from mean and unworthy acpractice was if he professed the true religion; tions, but also prompts him to the performthat, since all the sins of men were decreed of ance of honourable and noble deeds—deeds, God, there was no resisting his will, thus which, by benefitting society at large, gain for making God the author of evil. Part of the him the admiration and esteem of his fellowapostle's design was to confute these erro This principle is the source of every neous opinions, and to set them right on the commendable emulation ; it animates us to subject of justification by faith, proving that that exertion of our faculties which is necesthe faith of which St. Paul spoke was not a sary to excel in any branch of scientific knowmere barren sentiment of the head, such as ledge or literature. the devils are capable of, for “ they believe But it is a principle which has been greatly and tremble,” but à powerful operating prin- abused and perverted—it has degenerated into ciple on the heart. The faith, which justifies a sort of self-love, which leads us to regard and unites the believer to Christ, is a faith our own interests and happiness, to the excluwhich worketh by love, and overcometh the sion of the interests and happiness of others. world;—such a faith as Abraham's, who did Hence it not unfrequently follows, that, when not hesitate, at God's command, to offer his we see another superior to ourselves in repuson Isaac upon the altar, believing that, tation, in honour, in power, or in affluence, though he should sacrifice him, God would especially if he should have raised himself raise him up again, and fulfil his promise; above us by his own exertions, our hearts are and thus he declares, “by works faith is full of anger and malice, we feel a sort of demade perfect,” one cannot exist without the sire to reduce him in the opinion of the world, other, "- for, as the body without the spirit is and, if we do not misrepresent his actions ours dead, so faith without works is dead also.” selves, we are ready enough to listen with a VOL. VIII.-NO, CCXI.
(Loudon : Joseph Rogerson, 24 Norfolk-street, Strand.]
smile of satisfaction to any representations of himself, was to take away the sins of the an unfavourable nature, as if we ourselves world.” " And the Lord had respect unto should be exalted by his depression. And Abel and his offering, but unto Cain and his this we call envy. "Envy,” says a pious au- offering he had not respect. ” Cain was inthor, “ as existing in the soul, is a sense of censed at this preference shewn to Abela pain arising from the real or supposed excel- deadly hatred took possession of his soul-an lence of another, accompanied with a desire envious spirit manifested itself in his proud to deprive him of it, and possess it ourselves.” rebellious heart, and though we find God It is a most odious principle, but let me ask reasoning with him on the injustice of his is it not one which we are all more or less wrath, and though he must have known that addicted to, although we should be sorry to his own works were evil, and his brother's confess it?' We may contrive to hide the righteous,” so deeply rooted was this evil hideousness of it from ourselves, by giving it principle, that he heeded not God, but when some other name, which sounds less harshly talking with his brother in the fields, “he to the ear ; or by covering it with some other rose up against him, and slew him.” garment, which appears more specious to the And whence was it that Joseph's brethren eye; we may call it candour or equity in conspired against him to put him to death? one case, and a becoming pride, or a just in- When they saw that Jacob their father loved dignation in another, but in nine cases out him above all his brethren, “they hated of ten, it will have had its origin in envy. him, and could not speak peaceably to him.” By turning to the writings of St. Paul, we And when moreover they discovered that he shall find he has constantly classed this prin- was in greater favour with God than they ciple with the very worst feelings of man's were, and had received some remarkable nature, such as á debates, wraths, strifes, communications from him, though they probackbitings, whisperings, tumults.”' Indeed fessed not to believe him, and ridiculed him, he associates it with murder, for he speaks of calling him in derision“ a dreamer,” “they the natural man as being “full of envy, mur- hated him the more for his dreams, and der, debate, deceit, malignity;" and to the envied him," and took counsel together to Galatians he says " the works of the flesh,” slay him ; but God ordered it otherwise, for among many others, “ are hatred, variance, it so happened that some merchants were emulations, wrath, strife, seditions, heresies, passing by at the time, and they agreed to sell envyings, murders, drunkenness, revellings, him to them for twenty pieces of silver, who and such like.” Well then, may St. James carried him into Egypt where God was with say," where envy and strife is, there is con- him, and he was a prosperous man, and rose fusion and every evil work.”
from step to step, till at last "he was made And is it not too, a principle which has ruler over all the land of Egypt.” And existed in every age, since the foundation of again, look at Saul's conduct towards David! the world? Let us consider a few of the cases Why did he use every possible effort to dewhich we find recorded in Holy Writ. What stroy him? Was it not because Saul, as he caused the fall of our parents in paradise ? and David returned from the slaughter of the Was it not envy in Satan? He saw their Philistines, heard the women out of all the innocence and envied them for their happi- cities singing their praises, saying, “ Saul has ness, and could not rest till he had deprived slain his thousands, but David his ten thouthem of it, and reduced them to a state almost sands.” The wrath of Saul was roused at as low and debased as his own. And was it the comparison, he could not endure that not envy which caused Cain to rise up against another should receive greater praise than his brother and slay him? There was a day himself; he cried out in the bitterness of enappointed in which Adam and his offspring vy, "they have ascribed unto David ten thou. should make yearly offerings and sacrifices sands, but to me but thousands, and what can unto the Lord, in confession of their sins, and he have more than the kingdom ?" And, alin hopes of pardon through the promised though David had just delivered the king “seed of the woman.” When the day ar- from that enemy who had so long defied both rived, Cain, being a tiller of the ground, him and the armies of the living God, “Saul brought of the fruit thereof, thus making eyed David from that day forward." We merely an offering of thanksgiving to God, will not stop to consider whether Saul had as the giver of all good, but in no way hum- cause to look upon David in the light of a bling himself for his sin. But Abel, “ being rival—perhaps he had, as Samuel had prea keeper of sheep, brought an offering of the viously warned him that the kingdom should firstlings of the Hock, and of the fat thereof," be rent from him, and given to a neighbour thus not only confessing his sin, but also of his that was better than he, and he might pre-figuring, by the slaughtered victim, that suspect that Samuel had anointed David as “ Lamb of God, which, by the sacrifice of his successor be that as it may, it was no
less envy that caused Saul for the remainder | sects, some " preaching Christ of envy and of his life to seek the destruction of David. strife," and each rejoicing at any evil or dis
And we might instance many other cases sension which may befal their adversaries, of persecution in the Old Testament arising one would almost suppose that Christ came to from the spirit of envy, such as the casting of introduce division and enmity upon the earth, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego into the and not unity and good-will. But however burning fiery furnace, and of Daniel into the much the dissenters may disagree and differ lions' den: but without dwelling on these, we among themselves on religious opinions, they will pass on to the time of our Saviour. Was agree, and join hand in hand, yea, and even it not envy and jealousy which made “Herod yoke themselves, and enter into an unholy send forth and slay all the children that were alliance with the Romanists to attack the in Bethlehem from two years old and under," church; and were they to succeed in their so that Jesus might not escape? Was it not evil designs, and overthrow her (which I envy_in Satan which induced him to tempt pray God to avert), then this evil spirit our Lord from entering upon his ministry, would break out among themselves, and they and to urge him to cast hinself from a pinna- would turn and rend each other. cle of the temple, under the idea that a God Is it not, then, the duty of every man to would give his angels charge over him” be on his guard against the influence of this that he should sustain no injury? Were evil principle, this bad passion, which is so not the disciples of John envious and odious, that St. James declares “its wisdom alarmed for the honour of their master, when is devilish ;” and so common, that Solomon they heard that Jesus had made more asserts, “For every right work a man is. disciples than he had ? And did not envied' hy his neighbour;” and so powerthe 'insults and persecutions which were ful, that however “ cruel and outrageous heaped upon his head by the Jews arise from wrath and anger may be, who is able to stand disappointment and envy? Disappointment up against envy?" and so secret and deceitthat he was not as they expected, an earthly ful, that our Saviour told his apostles on conqueror, one who would come with the some occasions,“ they knew not what spirit sword and with the spear, to lead them forth they were of ?”'“Does, then, the scripture to battle and to victory, and thus restore say in vain, the spirit that dwelleth in us them to an exalted rank among the nations lusteth to envy?” Let us, then, not merely of the earth. And when they saw that he, with our lips, but in spirit and in truth, on who came as one of the lowest of the low, did our bended knees and from our very hearts, such miracles as never man did—that he join in that excellent prayer of our church gave sight to the blind, made the lame to
“From envy, hatred, malice, and all unwalk, the deaf to hear, the dumb to speak, charitableness, good Lord deliver us. and even raised the dead to life, and men were constrained to acknowledge that no man
MEMOIR OF BISHOP CHASE. could do the things which he did except God
(Continued from page 80.) was with him—the spirit of
On the day before Whitsunday Lord Kenyon took and enmity envy
Bishop Chase and Mr. George Marriott to the Rev. was provoked, and they determined to put Dr. Ward's, Rector of Great Horkesley, and afterwards him to death; and we are told by St. the Bishop of Sodor and Man. This visit excited the Matthew, when they delivered him, “ Pilate highest interest, especially among the young people, knew that for envy they had delivered him.”
one of whom treasured up the observations of the And were we to consider at large the suffer for the benefit of his diocese, and was afterwards plea
Bishop on various subjects, began different fancy works ings of St. Paul and the rest of the apostles, santly called by him, Mary Ohio, from the effusion of as we find them recorded in the New Testa- her zeal in his cause; amongst her memorandums she ment, and all the persecutions of the church has preserved the following account of his visit:from its earliest foundation to the pre- service at the church of Nayland, of which Mr. Jones
“ On Sunday morning the party attended divine sent time, the martyrdoms for the truth was the minister, when tutor to Lord Kenyon. After which have taken place, I doubt not they the service the Bishop wrote in a blank leaf of a book might be traced to the same evil principle as
of records which lay on the vestry table as follows: their cause.
On Whitsunday, 1824, A.D., Philander Chase, Bishop
of Ohio, in North America, attended morning service, And at the present day, too, this evil and received the Holy Sacrament at the Altar in this spirit prevails on religious matters to a great Church, and gave most sincere thanks to Almighty extent, not only between Romanists and pro- and especially that he has lived to sce the place where
God for all the mercies of our common redemption, testants, but among protestants themselves. the great and good William Jones ministered to the The churchmen and dissenters are as bitter Lord. The Bishop of Ohio leaves this church with the in accusing each other as the Romanists are most devout prayers for blessings on the present incumin proscribing both. When we contem- bent, and all who receive the Word and Sacraments
here for ever, through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.' plate the enmity which exists between them,
“They returned to Great Horkesley for the afternoon and when we behold the number of different service. In the evening the subject of visions, sleep,
walking, &c., happened to be started by some of the I know not, but I shall do all I can that way till our gentlemen, upon which the Bishop observed, God good Bishop returns, and then we do and will hope can shew us what he pleases, he can as easily transport for better times. Pray write often and tell us all that our minds to the world of spirits as I can walk from relates to him; I cannot but think that his preservathis room into that. I think it is a great mistake to tion from the perils of this storm is an carnest of future tell children there are no such things as spirits. I do
good, not think that there are bad spirits as ready to injure
“Your affectionate Nephew, us, as the blessed are to protect us. But God is stronger
“ INTREPID Morse." than the Devil and will not suffer them that trust in him to be touched by the Devil and his Angels. Trust
After leaving Great Horkesley Bishop Chase visited
Oxford, from whence he wrote letters to Mr. Marriott, in God and he will deliver you. I remember when I was a child, my mother used to say to me,“ Do you think,
from which the following extracts are selected:my dear, that if a wicked servant were to come into
“ Oxford, June 12, 1824. this room and attempt to kill you, I should give you “My Dear FRIEND,– Nothing occurred in my up into his cruel hands? No, I should spread my journey to this place, except that a young man arms over you to protect you, and dismiss that wicked of about twenty-five, complaining that it was too servant from my service. While you obeyed my voice cold on the outside, had placed himself within the and did not put yourself in the way of danger you coach. Having stopped to change horses, another would be quite safe, but the moment you quitted my gentleman of his acquaintance appeared at the protection you would be undone.” Thus while we trust door of the coach, and asked him to read a book in God and give ourselves to his direction no harm which he had been perusi with much pleasure. can touch us, but if we become rebellious children God He took it with some eagerness, and casting his eye will leave us, and his enemy will seize us.'
through the leaves, he threw it back again saying, “The evening was concluded by a short and impres- some canting methodism, I'll not read it.' Now this sive exposition of 1 Cor. xiii. delivered by the Bishop, book I had reason to believe from what the other genand the usual family prayer.
tleman said, was a very good one, but because it was “ The next morning, after much interesting conver- good this man evidently rejected it. • And do men sation, he blessed the family and departed; balancing dare,' said I to myself, to assign the reason, the true the sorrow which all felt, when he drove from the door, reason, for rejection of a good thing, viz., because it by the anticipated pleasure of a second visit.”
is good? No, but then it comes so near it as to be Whilst Bishop Chase was thus gladdening the hearts discernible to all but themselves. God knows, and of his friends in England, and stimulating their zeal as angels know, and all impartial by-standers know; for iron sharpeneth iron, the following extracts from a they see that they reject a good thing, simply because letter, written to Mrs. Chase by her nephew in the it is good. And what regions can such beings inhabit? ministry, will show how the work of the Lord was Can they dwell where there is nothing but goodness ? proceeding in his absence.
Suppose we were beholding insects flying from the From the Rev. Mr. Morse to Mrs. Chase:
fragrance of the rose as if it were pestilential to them, “ Steubenville, March 8, 1824.
could we expect that such insects would choose the “My Dear Aunt,-It is impossible to express the fragrant garden for the place of their dwelling? I trow interest we felt in reading the extracts you gave us
not. Men that hate goodness now, though they may from the Bishop's journal. He will be as desirous to
give it the nick-name of cant, will find it cannot change hear of our little Zion in the west, as we were to hear
its nature at their bidding, and that by despising it from him. Our scattered people are anxiously look- they are preparing themselves for a place where there ing and earnestly praying for the success of the
is neither goodness nor happiness, but misery and Bishop's mission, as the only means under God to gnashing of teeth for ever. keep the Church among us alive. Tell our pastor in
Trinity Sunday, 10 o'clock, p.m. the Lord his flock do not forget him. They are long
“King's Arms Inn. ing again to be fed from his hand in a green pasture, “I am much pleased in reflecting on what I have and beside still waters of comfort, and as an evidence seen and enjoyed this day. I breakfasted with Mr. of the sentiment which pervades our congregations, it Greswell, in company with several interesting young is scarcely hyperbolical to say that their bleatings will men, Mr. Pusey, Mr. Caldecott, the brother of Mr. reach his ear across the wide waves of the Atlantic. Greswell, &c. From some of these I heard that the
“I was employed on Missionary duties three months ordination of several candidates was to take place at and a half, commencing with the month of November, the Cathedral of Christ Church, and, being most during which all the vacant parishes south of the re anxious to see this solemnity in England, I went. Mr. serve, were visited and comforted, in their almost pe- Tyler of Oriel obtained me a seat at the left of the rishing condition with the word and sacraments. As Dean. The Rev. Mr. Dornford of Oriel preached a it would be difficult in the compass of a letter to detail very good episcopal sermon, and I was much affected all the particulars of this interesting tour, a few facts at the solemn scene, and the impressive manner of the must suffice. Several places were found in Morgan good Bishop of Oxford, from whose hands I received and Knox counties which had never before been visited the blessed Sacrament. I afterwards went to St. by a clergyman of our Church, where a great door of Mary's and heard a sermon from Mr. Bull, and in the usefulness is opened, and at Sanducky on the same afternoon attended divine service in the chapel of reservation several families of Indians were visited who | Magdalen. are members of our communion. The churches are “June 15th,-Yesterday I dined with that good man almost completed at Moristown, Beaver, and Perry, Dr. Macbride, in company with the Dean of Exeter, and some new ones are in prospect of being begun in the Vice-Provost of Oriel, Mr. Pusey, Mr. Duncan, of other places. St. James's Church, Piqua, was or New College, Dr. Barnes, and the Vice-Chancellor of ganized, on the 5th of January, under very favourable the University. prospects; Werner, New Lisbon, Worcester, and “This morning Mr. Bull sent me a note inviting me Mount Vernon would, it is probable, soon follow this to dine at Christ Church hall, in company with the example, could they be supplied with missionaries. Bishop elect of Barbadoes and others, but an engageFive new candidates have been raised up. Some pious ment made last night to dine with Mr. Duncan in the parents have also devoted their children to the Lord hall of New College, prevented me. like Hannah of old. We shall have no want of students “I attended the lecture on Geology, by Mr. Buckif we can obtain a school, and school we must have, if it land, this day, with great gratification. be a log cabin ; this is my settled opinion. Whether my “ 16th,-1 found all things well at New College exparishes will consent to my being missionary this year'cept the grace, which was said in too rapid and slovenly
à manner to give room for the exercise of that piety | break into factions, you will fall back and lose even and gratitude to God, which the instances of his bounty the comparatively little ground you have gained. If before us so forcibly suggest. The dinner passed off every Bishop will merit the same inscription on his most pleasantly, the deportment of the students and tomb which is on the marble that covers the grave of fellows was most agreeable, and the attention paid to the good Bishop Dehon, there never can be any schism your friend was much more than he deserves. Many in the American Episcopal Church. manifested a great desire to be of use to Ohio. With *Grant, O Lord, we beseech thee, that the course these gentlemen I attended the chapel service and of this world may be so peaceably ordered by thy gowas highly gratified. The anthems in choirs I think vernance, that thy Church may joyfully serve Thee in exquisite. The grounds and gardens attached to the all godly quietness, through Jesus Christ, our Lord, college are very pleasing.
Amen. “12 o'clock, I breakfasted with the Vice-Provost of “ Adieu, my dear Bishop, may the great Shepherd Oriel, Mr. Pusey, and three other gentlemen, after and Bishop preserve and prosper you ; your letter which I went to the Provost, Dr. Copleston, who shall be treasured by my children as a grateful memospoke most freely to me and with great friendliness. rial of you, and we shall never cease to love and bless
“I visited several of the public buildings and libra- you and your dear wife and children. ries, and was not a little delighted. That which was The God of peace be with you prays your faithful founded by Radcliffe I think in internal beauty scarcely friend,
W. WARD." to be exceeded. We went to the top froin which there
From Lord Gambier to Bishop Chase. is a commanding view of the adjacent country and the
“ Iver Grove, 25th June, 1824. colleges." Soon after this visit to Oxford the Bishop returned
“MY DEAR BISHOP,-I grieve to think that you
must depart for America so soon, but it seems to be to Great Horkesley to take leave of his friend Dr.
the will of God, therefore so best. I feel like the Ward. Much pleasing conversation ensued with regard to the manner of living in America, the immense all for the words that he spake, that they should see
Ephesians when St. Paul left them, sorrowing most of woods, the rapidity with which the seed may be sown in cleared lands, the richness of the soil, &c., &c.
his face no more. This is a mournful reflection, but
the hope of meeting in the presence of our Almighty He delighted the young people by a lecture on Astro- and gracious Redeemer, is a blessed consolation to a nomy, interspersed with many religious observations; believer, and cheers the heart above all that the world indeed his whole conversation left so salutary an im- with all its transient glory can give. My prayers shall pression upon them, that after making notes of the accompany you, that the Lord may prosper you, as he whole, immediately after his departure, the elder sister concluded them with the following prayer:
has graciously done, and accomplish all your designs “ May the memory of this beautiful example never
for his glory, and the everlasting happiness of thoube effaced from the minds of any of those who tasted abled to fulfil all your intentions as to your several
sands in generations to come. I hope you will be enthe blessing of his society, but may the seeds which he journeys through our favoured land, and that you has dropped upon our hearts by his conversation and will arrive at Liverpool in time to sail from thence on example be watered by the dews of God's grace and the 16th July, as you propose. established by the word of his power, till they shall
“I wish you to possess some little memento of me bring forth fruit for our Master's use and spring into
on your way, and a mark of my high esteem and everlasting life, that we may meet hereafter at the Christian love; I therefore beg you to accept a copy of throne of grace to part no more.”
the select works of Bishop Hall, edited by the good Before he left England he received and wrote the and pious Mr. Pratt, also the theological works of following letters:
Mr. Scott, the able commentator on the bible. There From the Rev. Dr. Ward to Bishop Chase: is a little bronze candlestick in the parcel containing “My Dear BISHOP,-It is impossible that yon them, which has been on my table for sealing my letcould be more gratified with the visit with which you
ters some years; it is an humble present indeed, but have honoured us than we have been.
if you will allow it a place on your table when you “I thank my God that I have lived to see an Ame- get home, it will serve to remind you of a sincere and rican Bishop under my roof; a Bishop whom my
affectionate friend on this side the ocean, and will be children will never forget, and whose words will re
gratifying to his cordial feelings towards you. main engraven on their memories and be transmitted,
“ There is a small number of tracts in the parcel perhaps, to their children long after you and I are in
which Lady Gambier wished to have given you before our graves. But are we indeed to see you no more?
you left us; she sends them with her kind regards toI had a thousand questions to ask you about America.
wards you, and every earnest wish for your prosperity. “Oh! my dear Bishop, strive and pray against dis There may be some among them that are new to you, union. It was the first thing that the Devil endea- | though you have in America most of those we have in voured to introduce in the Church between Paul and this country, with many more that are in your own Apollos. Heresy, heterodoxy, envy, ambition, and land. wordly-mindedness, are the implements he works with;
“ The letter for Mr. Clay I will send to meet you at let the servants of Christ be on their guard against Liverpool. Now, my dear Bishop, I bid you farewell, these, for they will be sure to meet with them. But so and commend you in prayer to the grace and love of long as they are one with Christ and Christ with them, our gracious God and Saviour, and that he may bless you they have nothing to fear. Bearing and forbearing, abundantly in time and eternity.-Your sincerely afand overcoming evil with good, is the great art of war
fectionate and faithful friend,
GAMBIER." in the Church militant. The meek shall inherit the From Bishop Chase to Master W-- M- of earth, even the earth lately reclaimed from the waste -- “Grace, mercy, and peace from God the Fain the province of Ohio.
ther, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost, through “Your political constitution holds your provinces Jesus Christ, our Lord, Amen. together in wonderful union; what a disgrace would “DEAR YOUTH,-The great kindness shewed me it be to the Episcopal Church if her constitution could | by your excellent father, prompts me to write you this not keep her together in still stricter union. If you are short Christian letter. united heart, hand, and worldly substance, in one holy “ Remember the covenant which God made with bond of truth, peace, faith, and charity, I am well per- you in baptism-a covenant of grace, mercy, and suaded your Church will gradually and rapidly in- peace on his part, and of holy faith and obedience on crease in numerical and spiritual strength, and spread yours. Remember that you have renewed, or will itself over that great quarter of the globe; but if you renew, this covenant in the holy rite of confirmation