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evidence, conviction is necessarily followed by faith, and that no man can believe what he will, but only what appears to him to be true. The Dominicans advanced the contrary opinion, and asserted that belief is entirely in man's power. With regard to the consent of the will to the grace of God, the members of these two bodies were similarly opposed to each other. The Franciscans said, that as it is in the power of the will to prepare itself for grace, it is yet much more so in accepting or rejecting grace when it is offered. The Dominicans denied that those works which precede calling can be deemed preparatory, and maintained that the grace of God is the first cause of all good.*
The last inquiry that engaged the attention of the fathers was predestination. Eight propositions were produced, said to contain the views of Zuinglius and other reformers on this subject. There was little difference of opinion respecting any of them, the first excepted—viz., “that the cause of predestination and reprobation is in the will of God, and not in man.” There were three varieties of sentiment. The majority held, that before the creation of the world, God, in his infinite mercy, chose some from the mass of the human race, for whose salvation he had made ample provision ; that the number was fixed and determined; and that those whom God had not predestinated could not complain, as he had provided means for their salvation, though, in fact, none but the elect would ever obtain it. Others exclaimed loudly against this doctrine, as cruel, inhuman, and impious; they said, that it represented God as partial and unjust towards his creatures ; and they affirmed that his mercy wills the salvation of all men, and has provided sufficiently for it; that man is at liberty to reject or refuse grace; and that the Divine Being, foreseeing the use that would be made of his goodness, had predestinated to life those who should accept it, and to misery those by whom it should be rejected. Catharine proposed a middle scheme-viz., that God has chosen a certain number, for whose salvation he has infallibly provided; that he wills the salvation of the rest, and has furnished them with sufficient means, leaving it to themselves to accept or reject his grace; that a great number will receive mercy and be saved, though they are not of the elect; and that
* Sarpi, ut sup.
unreproved, hved in rendering
the lost are the authors of their own ruin, by voluntarily refusing to embrace the offered pardon. These details will remind the reader of some modern controversies.*
The debates being ended, nothing remained but to prepare the decree, according to the sense of the majority, and in such a way, that while the heretics were condemned, the opinions of the Catholics, though often varying and opposed to each other, should be left unreproved. This was excessively difficult; and to the immense labour employed in rendering the decree unexceptionable must be ascribed much of the obscurity that so frequently veils its meaning. Seripand's revision was so thoroughly revised again that he refused to acknowledge his own work. That the council might not only condemn error, but explain and establish truth, it was resolved to divide the decree into two parts, one containing the Catholic doctrine, and the other anathematizing those who opposed it. In preparing it, the legate Santa Croce took incredible pains, that he might avoid inserting anything that was disputed, and at the same time, express every sentiment so carefully that none should have just reason for complaint. From the beginning of September till the end of November he was almost incessantly employed : scarcely a day passed without some addition, suppression, or alteration. When he had finished, copies were given to all the fathers for their examination, and also sent to Rome, when so many observations were made, so many hints of improvement suggested, that the whole was gone over again before it assumed the form in which it was finally published to the world.+
Meanwhile, the negotiations for a transfer, or suspension, of the council were resumed. The legates retained their former impressions; they foresaw the perplexities they would be involved in when the question of reformation came on; and the submission of the Protestants was hopeless. The Pope was willing to forward their views : there was a majority of prelates on the same side; but the repugnance of the emperor baffled all their projects. The prosperous issue of his plans appeared to depend on the continuance of the council. He was anxious for a still further postponement of the session, as the publication of the impending decree could not fail to exasperate the Protestants. Writing to the legates to that effect, he told them, that while he hoped in a little time to compel all Germany to submit to their decisions, it would be in vain to expect so desirable an event, if the council were either suspended or transferred. *
* Sarpi, ut sup. Pallav. c. 13. + Pallav, ut sup, c. 13. s. 4. Sarpi, ut sup.
Notwithstanding the Emperor's wish for longer delay, a day was fixed for the session. Long and warm discussions intervened respecting episcopal residence, and the utmost variety of sentiment was expressed. The legates had been ordered not to suffer the cardinals to be included in the decree; whatever abuses existed among them, the Pope himself would reform. His Holiness gave strict injunctions not to permit the question of the divine right of residence to be debated; since, if it were carried in the affirmative, men would conclude, that the exemptions sometimes granted at Rome were null and void. Nevertheless, the subject was immediately introduced by the Spanish bishops, and it was not without some trouble that they were silenced. It was soon ascertained that it would be impossible to proceed far with the business, and that the near approach of the session would compel them to be satisfied with an imperfect and short decree, which was accordingly prepared.+
The sixth session was held Jan. 13, 1547. The following decree, passed on that day, contains the final sentiments of the church of Rome on the subject of justification :
66 Seeing that in this age many errors are disseminated concerning the doctrine of justification; errors destructive to the souls of many, and highly injurious to the unity of the church; the sacred, holy, oecumenical, and general council of Trent, lawfully assembled, &c., seeking the praise and glory of Almighty God, the tranquillity of the church, and the salvation of souls, doth intend to explain to all the faithful in Christ that true and wholesome doctrine of justification which Christ Jesus, the sun of righteousness, the author and finisher of our faith, hath taught, the Apostles delivered, and the Catholic church, instructed by the Holy Spirit, hath ever retained; strictly enjoining, that henceforth no one dare to believe, preach, or teach otherwise than is appointed and declared by the present decree. “ CHAP. I. Of the inability of nature and the law to
* On one occasion the legates had written, advising that the session should be held, and the council suspended immediately after; and that the Pope should summon the fathers to Rome, and then by their advice enact such reforms as he should judge proper by a papal bull! The following fact is also curious : when the legates were blamed that business was not in a more forward state, scarcely anything having been done respecting reformation, they replied, that it was not their fault, for they had written to the Pope, and he hud not yet informed them how far he was willing that the demands of the prelates should be indulged !- Pallav, ut sup. C. 15.
+ Pallav, ut sup. c. 18. The Pope had sent a brief to the legates em powering them to make such concessions as might be deemed advisable,-i. e., to permit a free council to do as it pleased !
justify men. “ In the first place, the holy council maintains that it is necessary, in order to understand the doctrine of justification truly and well, that every one should acknowledge and confess, that since all men had lost innocence by Adam's prevarication, and had become unclean, and, as the Apostle says, .by nature children of wrath,' as is expressed in the decree on original sin, they were so completely the slaves of sin, and under the power of the devil and of death, that neither could the Gentiles be liberated or rise again by the power of nature, nor even the Jews, by the letter of the law of Moses.* Nevertheless, free will was not wholly extinct in them, though weakened and bowed down. “ Chap. II. Of the dispensation and mystery of the advent
of Christ. " Whence it came to pass, that when the blessed fulness of time came, the heavenly Father, the Father of mercies and God of all comfort, sent to men Christ Jesus his Son, who had been spoken of and promised by many holy men, both before the law and during the time of the law; that he might redeem the Jews, who were under the law, that the Gentiles
*“ Per ipsam etiam literam legis Moysis," Father Paul observes, that at first it was written, " per ipsam etiam legem Moysis," but that as some of the divines thought that circumcision procured the pardon of sin, the word “ literam” (letter) was introduced to please them. Lib, ii. s. 80.
who had not followed after justice, might attain to justice, and that all might receive the adoption of sons. Him hath God set forth as a propitiation for our sins, through faith in his blood; yet not for our sins only, but also for those of the whole world.
“ CHAP. III. Who are justified by Christ. " But though he died for all, yet all receiye not the benefit of his death, but those only to whom the merit of his passion is imparted. For as men could not be born unrighteous, were they not the seed of Adam, contracting real guilt by being his posterity; so, unless they were renewed in Christ, they would never be justified, since that renewal is bestowed upon them by the merit of his passion, through grace, by which [grace] they become just. For this blessing the apostle exhorts us always to give thanks to God the Father, who hath made us worthy to be partakers of the lot of the saints in light, hath Worthy to delivered us from the power of darkness, and hath translated us into the kingdom of the Son of his love, in whom we have redemption and the remission of sins. (Col. i. 12–14.)
6 CHAP. IV. A brief description of the justification of the un
godly, and the manner thereof, in a state of grace. “In which words is contained a description of the justification of the ungodly, which is a translation from that state in which man is born, a child of the first Adam, into a state of grace and adoption of the children of God, by Jesus Christ our Saviour, the second Adam. Which translation, now that the gospel is published, cannot be accomplished without the laver of regeneration, or the desire thereof; as it is written, • Unless a man be born again of water and the Holy Ghost, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God.' (John iii. 5.)*
* “When justification is attributed to faith, without mention of good works, or other Christian virtues or sacraments, it is not meant to exclude any of the same from the working of justice or salvation ; for here (Gal. iii. 27, we learn, that by the sacrament of baptism also we put on Christ, which is to put on faith, hope, charitie, and all Christian justice..... And the adversary's evasion, that it is faith which worketh in the sacrament, and not the sacrament itself, is plainly false; baptism giving grace and faith itself to the infant that had none before.”-Roman-catholic Version, note on Gal. iii. 27.