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his text, that they should be rooted up, if it could be done without injury to the wheat. When complaints were made, and the preacher was interrogated respecting his assertions, he boldly vindicated himself. It was his decided opinion, he said, that heretics ought to be exterminated, by fire, by sword, by the halter, or in any other way in which their destruction might be safely accomplished ; but he had taken care to employ only general terms, not mentioning the Protestants by name, and he had said nothing in contravention of the safe-conduct recently granted by the council. This impudent excuse was accepted, and the fellow went free.* Doubtless, the monk's sermon expressed the feelings of a large proportion of the fathers at Trent. But it augured ill for reconciliation or union that such an outrage should be committed with impunity. And small hopes of reform could be indulged when an office in the gift of the Pope was put up for sale by public auction, in the city of Rome; and that, too, while a general council was sitting, avowedly for the purpose of retrieving the lost honour of the church, by the removal of its manifold corruptions and abuses !t
Six Protestant divines arrived at Trent in the month of March; four from Wirtemburg, (Brentius was one of them,) and two from Strasburg; notwithstanding the acknowledged deficiency of the safe-conduct, they had ventured to the council to explain and defend their confession of faith, should the fathers give them opportunity. They had brought with them printed copies of their confession, which were eagerly sought after by the bishops and divines, much to the annoyance of the legate, who had contrived that very few should see it in manuscript, though it had been publicly presented to the council.I
Various ineffectual endeavours were made by the imperial ambassadors to procure a hearing for the Protestant divines; but some excuse for delay was always at hand. They would have consented to any method of discussion which the legate might prefer; they were willing to re-examine the former decrees of the council, or to discuss separately the articles of their confession, or to proceed in any other way that their adversaries might choose to adopt. But it had been already determined that they should not be heard ; difficulty after difficulty was placed in their way, and at length it was so evident that there existed no sincere desire to effect an amicable adjustment of the differences between them, that the divines resolved to return home. The Protestant ambassadors had already departed, in consequence of the serious aspect of political affairs, and the rumours of approaching war.*
* Sleidan, p. 392. † Vargas, p. 531. Manners and morals were at a low ebb at Trent. The imperial ambassador confesses having indulged too freely with the bottle ; and the Spanish bishops had taken the precaution to secure good cooks: unfortunately, they had forgotten to provide themselves with a physician, and they suffered for their neglect.--Ibid. pp. 509, 547,
| Sleidan, p. 394.
Charles V. had aimed a deadly blow at the civil and religious liberties of Germany. For many years he had prosecuted his favourite scheme of becoming uncontrolled despot of that country. But the day of retribution was now come. An event for which he was totally unprovided dissipated all his plans, and dashed to the ground the edifice on which he had spent so much time, and treasure, and blood, just when he expected to lay the last stone and enjoy the reward of his toils. Nor could it fail to be observed that his defeat was the more signal, inasmuch as it was accomplished in such a way as deeply to mortify his pride at the same time that it crushed his power. By detaching Maurice of Saxony from the Protestant cause, he had ensured his former success. When that same individual, perceiving the imminent danger of his country, took up arms against Charles and declared himself the avenger of the wrongs of Germany, he who had so often valued himself on his skill in the arts of worldly policy was foiled and overreached in the sight of all the world, and “ the wise was taken in his own craftiness.”
As almost every day brought fresh intelligence of Maurice's success, and his forces were known to be moving in the direction of Trent, the necessity of suspending the proceedings of the council was generally confessed. The cardinal of Trent wrote to the Pope, stating that he could not answer for the safety of the city; and at the same time Pighino, who had presided since the latter end of March in consequence of the dangerous illness of the legate, sent to Rome for explicit
* Sleidan, p. 395. Le Plat, iv. p. 542.
directions how to act. At a congregation of cardinals it was unanimously decreed that the council should be suspended for two years. Still the nuncio hesitated to execute his orders, on account of the opposition of the Spaniards, who affected to disbelieve the extent of the danger. But before he could receive further instructions, the consternation had become so general that all difficulty was removed. On the 28th of April the sixteenth session was held, but with much less pomp than ordinary. No sermon was preached. Instead of the gospel for the day, the following passage from the gospel of John was chanted, “ Yet a little while, and ye shall see me,” &c. The decree was then read, declaring the council to be suspended for two years, with this proviso, that whenever peace should be restored, whether before or after the termination of that period, the suspension should be considered at an end. Meanwhile, Christian princes and prelates were exhorted to observe, and cause to be observed, within their respective kingdoms, dominions, or dioceses, all the decrees and enactments of the council.*
Immediately after the session the prelates separated, anxious to secure their personal safety by getting as far as possible from the seat of war. Crescentio, though very ill, had sufficient strength to reach Verona, where he died three days after his arrival.
It was asserted, that great dissatisfaction was expressed at Rome on account of that part of the decree in which the observance of the enactments of the council was enjoined, but without any reference to their confirmation by the Pope, which was supposed to be essential to their validity. Some went so far as to say, that according to the canons, a censure had been incurred by the nuncios for infringing on the authority of the holy see. They alleged in their defence that the decree only exhorted to the observance, but did not command it. It would have been much better, as father Paul observes, to confess the truth,—viz., that the Pope had seen and confirmed everything beforehand.
* Pallav. I. xiii. c. 3. Sarpi, 1. iv. s. 50. tested against the suspension.
Twelve Spanish bishops pro
COMMUNION IN ONE KIND.
Abortive Project of Reform at Rome-Death of Julius III.-Election of
Marcellus II.-His Death—Election of Paul IV.-Peace of PassauArrogant Behaviour of the Pope His pretended Anxiety for ReformProceedings of the Inquisition in Italy-State of Affairs in Europe in 1559—Death of Paul IV.-Election of Pius IV.-Re-assembly of the Council projected—Negotiations on that Subject- Nuncios sent to Germany and other Countries—Appointment of Legates—Re-opening of the Council-SevENTEENTH SESSION—The Prohibition of Books considered -Historical Notices-EIGHTEENTH SESSION-Decree on prohibited Books—Safe-conduct issued to the Protestants—Debates on the divine Right of Residence-NINETEENTH Session-Arrival of the French Ambassadors—their Reception—Treatment of the reforming Bishops TWENTIETH SESSION—Debates on Communion in one Kind, and the Concession of the Cup to the Laity-Efforts of the Bavarian, Imperial, and French Ambassadors to procure that Privilege-Postponement of the Question—TWENTY-FIRST SESSION-Decree on Communion in one Kind
-Observations-Decree on Reform. It was decreed that the council should be suspended for two years. Ten years, however, elapsed before it was re-assembled. The events that occurred in the interval must be briefly detailed.
When the Pope saw that he was delivered from the council, he affected to think that the best means of preventing the disquietude which the existence of such an assembly always occasioned in the minds of the Roman Pontiffs would be to set about ecclesiastical reform. With this view he appointed a committee or congregation, composed of a large number of cardinals and prelates, to whom this important affair was entrusted. But the hindrances and objections that arose in the papal court were so great, and the opposition of interested persons so powerful, that this project shared the fate of its predecessors, and was almost entirely unproductive of good.*
* Pallav. 1. xiii. c. 10. Sarpi, 1, v. s. 1.
At the expiration of the term for which the council was suspended, a meeting of the consistory was held, and the propriety of summoning that assembly again was debated. The majority were of opinion that a dormant evil should not be roused, and that since both princes and people seemed to have forgotten the council, the best policy would be to say nothing about it. To this the Pope agreed, and a profound silence was observed on the subject. *
Julius III. died March 23rd, 1555. His character requires no comment. Proud, crafty, fierce, luxurious, dissolute, and profane, he lived without honour, and died unlamented.t
The choice of the conclave fell on Marcellus Cervinus, the Cardinal Santa Croce, one of the former legates at Trent. It soon appeared that his views differed greatly from those of his predecessors, for he signified his intention to re-assemble the council as early as possible, and avowed the conviction of his mind that the interests of the church would be best promoted by a vigorous and extensive reform, in prosecuting which, he purposed that the luxury and pomp of the prelates should be effectually retrenched. In furtherance of these designs a congregation of cardinals was appointed, and the well known sincerity and uprightness of the Pontiff induced the belief that his would be a pure and energetic administration. But these expectations were disappointed by the early and sudden death of the Pope. The excessive fatigue attendant on the burdensome ceremonies of Easter week was more than his feeble frame could bear. An attack of apoplexy was the result, and Marcellus died April 30th, having enjoyed the pontificate but twenty-one days.
Cardinal Caraffa was chosen to succeed Marcellus, and assumed the name of Paul IV. This election was viewed by many with great alarm. Caraffa had always affected severe sanctity, and was equally noted for the austerity of his manners
* Sarpi, ut sup. s. 11. + Pallav. ut sup. The cardinal is sadly perplexed with Julius's character, and labours hard to modify the censure he feels compelled to pass upon him : his concluding words are, “ipsius quippe vitia majora quidem ad speciem erant quam virtutes, sed non fortasse ad pondus.”_See also Thuan. Hist. 1. xv. s. 7 ; Wolf. Lection. Mem. ii. p. 638.
| Pallav. 1. xiii. c. 11. Sarpi, 1. v. s. 14.