« PoprzedniaDalej »
wiser part exhorted their brethren to let it alone. But all were astonished at the arrogance of the Emperor, a secular prince, in presuming to dictate in matters of religion, which had been for ages considered the sole prerogative of the priesthood. As for the Pontiff, though he was somewhat agitated by this new attempt to infringe upon his authority, he soon perceived the folly and futility of the measure, and foresaw that, like many other attempts to reconcile opposite systems and interests, it would displease all parties. And so it proved. Both Protestants and Roman catholics wrote against the Interim, and refused to submit to it; it was altogether a mortifying failure.
Almost two years had now elapsed since the translation of the council, and there was less hope than ever of healing the breach which was then made. Fear of the Emperor, and concern to preserve the friendship of his new ally, the King of France, kept the Pope in a state of hesitation, and prevented him from taking any decisive step. But the assembly at Bologna had dwindled into utter insignificance; scarcely any were left but the avowed pensionaries of the apostolic see; to dignify it by the appellation of “General Council,” was too ridiculous to be permitted any longer. The reputation of the Roman-catholic church required the dissolution of that body; and De Monte was informed (Sept. 17th, 1549) that as the Pope intended to have the question of reform discussed at Rome, the labours of the fathers were no longer required. In obedience to this message, the few remaining prelates left Bologna.*
Paul III. did not long survive the suspension of the council. He died November 10th, 1549. In his last moments he bitterly bewailed the ingratitude and neglect with which he was treated, and wished he had never been born.t But it may be easily imagined that few popes have found a death-bed easy.
* Pallav. 1. xi. c. 4. + Thuan. 1. vi. s. 10. The curious reader may be diverted by the perusal of an amusing pasquinade, purporting to describe the reception of the Pontiff in the infernal regions.-Wolf. Lectiones Memorabiles, tom. ii. pp. 554–559.
Election of Julius III. to the Papal Chair-Negotiations between the Pope
and the Emperor respecting the Resumption of the Council-Publication of the Bull-Objections of the Protestants—The Council re-opened -ELEVENTH SESSION—TWELFTH SESSION-Exhortation of the Legates - Protestation of the King of France-Debates on the Eucharist, and on Appeals to Rome—THIRTEENTH Session-Decree on the EucharistPostponement of certain Articles till the arrival of the Protestants—Safeconduct granted them-Ambassadors from the Elector of Brandenburg.
When the cardinals entered into the conclave to choose a new pope, they prepared and signed a series of resolutions, which they severally bound themselves by solemn oath to observe, in the event of being elected to the apostolic chair. The resumption of the council, the establishment of such reforms as it might enact, and the reformation of the court of Rome, were included.* It was long before they could agree, so powerful was the influence of party feeling and conflicting interests, producing complicated intrigue, and thereby extending their deliberations to a most inconvenient and wearisome length. At last the choice feel on De Monte, the former legate at Trent, who was publicly installed into his high office, February 23rd, 1550, and assumed the name of Julius III.
The well-known character and previous conduct of the new Pontiff gave little hope of an amicable adjustment in matters of religion. Proud, passionate, and unyielding, he could not endure to be opposed or thwarted, and counted those his
* Le Plat, iv. pp. 156—159. † Histoire des Conclaves, tom. i. pp. 101–110. Julius bestowed his cardinal's hat on a young man named Innocent, the keeper of his monkey, of whom he was suspected to be too fond. When the cardinals remonstrated with him on occasion of this promotion, he replied, “ And what merit did you discover in me, that you raised me to the popedom ?” They could not easily answer such a question.--Vide Thuan. Hist. ut sup. Du Pin's Ecclesiastical History, cent. xvi. book iii. ch. 6.
enemies who resisted his will. He who in a subordinate capacity had manifested such a haughty bearing, could not be expected to lower his lone when raised to so high an exaltation, and regarded as a god upon earth. Nevertheless, the proudest minds must sometimes stoop, and circumstances will often force concessions which the character and constitutional tendencies of the individual would have induced him indignantly to refuse. The difficulties of a new and untried situation, and the injury already sustained by the Roman see, through the late contentions, led Julius to think of conciliation. Probably, too, this disposition was nurtured by his inordinate love of pleasure, for which he would scarcely have found time, had he resolutely opposed the remonstrances and demands of the Emperor.*
Charles thought this a favourable opportunity to press the resumption of the council, and sent Mendoza to Rome to carry on the negotiation. On his arrival, the matter was referred to a committee of cardinals, who, after long deliberation, recommended the Pope to accede to the Emperor's wishes, and to convene the council again at Trent, on the following conditions:-1. That the co-operation of the King of France should be obtained. 2. That as great expenses were incurred by the maintenance of the Italian prelates, who were generally poor, arrangements should be made to bring the council to a speedy conclusion. 3. That the decrees already passed at Trent should not be disturbed. 4. That the papal authority should be entirely preserved. Julius adopted these suggestions, and gave instructions to his nuncios at the courts of the Emperor and the King of France to inform those monarchs of his intention. At the same time, he wrote a private letter to Charles, reminding him that for this compliance he expected a suitable return, and that it would be mutually advantageous to consider themselves under reciprocal engagements to preserve each other's authority and rights. The sagacious pontiff had no thought of playing an uncertain game. He had no objection to amuse Christendom with the imposing solemnities of a general council, but he would first be saved harmless. The Emperor might enslave Germany, persecute the Protestants, and do anything else he pleased, so that he left the papal prerogatives untouched, and repressed those busy intermeddlers who were always urging the reformation of manners and discipline. Charles was too ready to further his views.*
* Julius's love of luxury and pleasure is attested by all the historians.Sarpi, 1. iii. s. 29. Pallav, l. xi. c. 7. s. 4. Onuphrius in vit. Du Pin, cent. xvi. book iii. ch. 6.
A diet was held at Augsburg in the autumn, when the Emperor informed the assembled states of the projected re-opening of the council, and required on their part an unreserved submission to its decrees. But the Protestant princes and cities refused to bind themselves in such an unqualified manner, unless their demands at the previous diet were conceded. The Emperor was much embarrassed, and wrote to the Pope, stating his difficulties, and requesting that he might see a rough copy of the bull for convening the council before it was published, that if it contained anything likely to offend the Germans it might be altered. Julius, however, deemed such a proceeding beneath his dignity. Instead of complying with the Emperor's wish, he caused the bull to be immediately prepared, and sent it to him in its complete state, signed and sealed, though not published. Nor did he deign to shew any moderation in the style and temper of the document; on the contrary, it contained expressions that could not but be obnoxious and offensive, even to many Roman catholics. The Pontiff asserted that he possessed the sole power of convening and directing general councils; commanded, “in the plenitude of apostolic authority,” the prelates of Europe to repair forthwith to Trent; promised, unless prevented by his age and infirmities, or the pressure of public affairs, to preside in person ; and denounced the vengeance of Almighty God, and of the apostles Peter and Paul, on any who should resist or disobey the decree.t
* Pallav. ut sup. c. 8—10. Sarpi, s. 30—31. “Sa Magisté a promis qu'on ne procédera à la réformation, qu'autant que le Pape le trouvera bon, et qu'elle fera ensorte que les evêques ne s'opposeront point à sa sainteté, et qu'ils laisseront passer tout ce qu'elle voudra.”—Vargas, p. 76.
+ Pallav. ut sup. c. 11. s. 3. Sarpi, 1. iii. s. 33. Le Plat, iv. p. 167. The bull was re-published by Vida, accompanied with a severe and sarcastic commentary.-Wolf. Lect. Memorab. tom. ii. pp. 640-644. Wolfius says, that a new coinage was issued by Julius III., with this motto_" Gens et regnum quod mihi non paruerit peribit- The nation and kingdom which will not obey me shall perish.”
The Emperor's perplexity was greatly increased by the arrival of the bull. There was just cause to apprehend the effects it would produce on the Protestants, and that they would be so exasperated as to refuse submission to the council. To avert that evil, instructions were sent to the imperial ambassador at Rome to use his utmost efforts to persuade Julius to revise the bull, and expunge the most objectionable passages. But his Holiness was inflexible. It was evident that he wished to hinder the Protestants from going to Trent, and was determined by this means to prevent the discussions which would result from their appearance there; for that reason he had employed the expressions so loudly complained of, nor could any arguments or remonstrances induce him to consent to the least alteration. In short, to get rid of the importunities of the ambassador, he published the bull in due form, January 27th, 1551, and transmitted it to the archbishops, to be by them communicated to the prelates, and all other parties concerned.
When the bull was presented at the diet, it produced exactly the effects that were anticipated. The Protestants declared, that such arrogant pretensions precluded the hope of conciliation, and that they must retract any promise they had given to submit to the council, since it could not be done without wounding their consciences and offending God. The catholics said, that, as there was no probability of reconciling the Protestants, it would be useless to waste their time and money by going to Trent. Charles had enough to do to allay the agitation. He entreated them to consider that the bull was drawn up in the style usually adopted in convening general councils, and assured them that, as far as related to Germany, he would take care that nothing was done prejudicial to their interests. He promised also to repair in person to Trent, or some neighbouring place, to watch over the proceedings of the assembly. Upon these assurances, the effervescence of feeling partially subsided. In the recess of the diet, published February 13th, the Emperor engaged that everything transacted at the council should be done in a legal and orderly manner; that its decisions should be according to the doctrine of Scrip ture and the fathers; and that none should be prevented fro. proposing whatever they conscientiously judged conducive •