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appeared when the prevailing party had left for Bologna; and the world soon saw that the whole was a crafty manoeuvre to check the spirit of reform, and bring the business of the council more fully, if possible, than before, under the dictation and control of the Pope.*
The news of the translation was received at Rome with undisguised pleasure. The Pope did not fail to express his
duobus his proximis annis nusquam in plerisque Germaniæ locis pestis esse desierit; quæ ingentem hominum copiam abstulit, atque absumpsit; certè Tridentum nullo morbo non dico populari, sed qui aliqua ratione timeri posset, perturbatum est, usque adeò, ut ex quadringentis fere Episcopis et presbyteris, doctis hominibus, qui magna ex parte, anois graves, ætate confecti, affectaque valetudine ex studiis atque negotiis, Tridenti adsunt, vix unus aut alter interierit. Nisi hoc summo Dei beneficio hæretici adscribant, qui eos servare vult, qui in unum convenerunt, ut Ecclesiæ suæ causam agant, et hostibus fidei, ac religionis gladio spiritus resistant, quod est verbum Dei.
“Duas æstates integras, duasque hyemes egimus Tridenti, sed neque æstate usquam molestus fuit, atque gravis calor, neque hyems ullo modo sæviit, quæ in Germania atrocissima et exteris inimica nimis esse solet : quin imo quodam veluti temperamento, et vitali atque cælesti aura videmur fuisse semper recreati, ut vitam, sine ullis temporis incommodis transigeremus.”—Disputationes adversus protestationem triginti quatuor hereticorum Augustana confessionis; habita a Gasparo Cardillo, Villalpandeo, p. 54. Venetiis, 1564.
* De Thou says of Fracastorio's deposition, "ad id, uti creditur, a Pontifice inductus.”—Hist. sui temp. 1. iv. s. 18.
The following curious particulars are stated by an eye-witness :—“ There were some remarkable circumstances, not observed by the generality of people. The first is, that as the sitting held for the translation of the council was on the 11th of March, I believe that it must have been by the advice of some astrologer, on account of the approaching equinox. The second, that on that day, at the mass, they chanted the gospel, Into whatever city ye enter, &c. where it is said, Shake off the dust of your feet, fc., which is, in a manner, to execrate this city. The third is, that when they started for Verona, some of them looked back, saying, There you may stay, ye swine! alluding to the Spaniards. The fourth is, that some Italian bishops, speaking of the translation, and how the Spaniards opposed it, observed, that as the latter had spent two years in a land of heretics, they were not disposed to go to that of Christ. The fifth, that they took so little notice of the reasons given by the bishops against the removal, of their protests against the evil consequences which might ensue therefrom, and of their determination to continue the council at Trent, in the absence of those who chose to go, that these votes and protests, written and signed, were left thrown about on the floor, though it was necessary that all should appear in actis.”—Practical and Internal Evidence against Catholicism, p. 323.
entire satisfaction with the proceeding, which he affirmed was “ necessary, prudent, and lawful.” By the members of his court it was regarded as a deliverance demanding thanksgivings to God. But the Emperor was excessively enraged. He foresaw that the Germans would not be persuaded to submit to a council held in one of the papal cities ; he felt it as a high affront to his dignity that the removal to Bologna had taken place without consulting him ; he denied the validity of the reasons alleged for that measure, and maintained that it had been procured by false evidence; and he scrupled not to say that the Pope was an obstinate old man, and would ruin the church, but that he himself would take care that a council should be held, which would give satisfaction to all parties, and correct whatever needed correction. Meanwhile, he commenced a series of negotiations for the return of the prelates to Trent.* The Pope, however, who had fortified himself by an alliance with the King of France, cared little for the discontent and anger of Charles, and received his remonstrances with frigid indifference, bordering on contempt.
On the arrival of the legates at Bologna, the divines who had accompanied them commenced discussions on the eucharist and penance, in order to prepare for the approaching session. A bull was issued by the Pope, declaring his approval of the translation, and guaranteeing the security of all who should repair to Bologna, and a letter was sent to the prelates at Trent, inviting them to join their brethren, and resume the business of the council. The invitation was not accepted, as the dissentients had been directed by the Emperor to remain where they were ; but they abstained from all public acts, lest a schism in the church should result, and contented themselves with studying in private the subjects which yet remained to be decided.t
No ambassadors had arrived at Bologna, and none but Italian bishops were there. It seemed hardly consistent with the dignity of the council to issue any decrees under such cir. cumstances, and accordingly a prorogation till the second of June was agreed upon, in compliance with directions trans
* Pallav. ut sup. c. 17-19. Sarpi, s. 99. † Pallav. ut sup. c. 20. Sarpi, 1. iii. s. 1.
mitted by the Pope. This was published at the ninth session, held April 21. After the session the fathers continued their labours. A decree on the eucharist was prepared ; considerable progress was made in framing one on penance; extreme unction, orders, the mass, matrimony, purgatory, and indulgences were successively studied, besides various questions of reform. The debates and decisions were carefully preserved, that they might be in readiness whenever it might be thought proper to publish another decree. In addition to these exercises, a funeral service was performed for the late King of France, (Francis I., who died March 31, 1547,) and solemn thanksgivings were offered for the victory obtained by Charles over the Protestants at the fatal battle of Muhlberg, fought April 24.*
As the Pope and the Emperor were still at variance, nothing was done at the tenth session (held June 2), save that another prorogation, till Sept. 15, was announced, and power was given to enlarge or contract the period at a general congregation. In the meantime, the discussions on doctrine and discipline were to go on as before. Besides these discussions the fathers busied themselves in various ways. Many of the bishops and divines preached before the council, in the cathedral church. Dominic Stella, Bishop of Salpi, is said to have discoursed several months on the “ infusion of righteousness.” Florimente, Bishop of Sessa, translated into Italian various sermons from the works of Augustine, Chrysostom, Basil, and other fathers, which were afterwards published.t On Sept. 14th the session was again prorogued for an indefinite period.
Having humbled and subdued the Protestants, Charles summoned a diet of the empire, which met at Augsburg, in September. He was extremely anxious to obtain a general submission to the decrees of the council, but he had much difficulty in accomplishing that object. The ecclesiastical electors being Roman-catholics, had no scruples; they were willing to yield unconditional subjection, provided that the assembly was again convened at Trent. Maurice of Saxony, the Elector
* Pallav. ut sup. c. 20; 1. x. c. 2. Sarpi, ut sup. s. 2. Le Plat, iii. pp. 608—644. Robertson's Charles V., book ix.
+ At Venice, in 1556 and 1564, in two volumes, 4to. Fleury, 1. cxliv. s.53. Palatine, and the Elector of Brandenburg, declared that they would submit only to a free council, in which the Pope should pot preside, either personally or by his legates, and in which the Protestant divines should have a deliberative voice; and in order to secure perfect liberty, they demanded that the prelates should be released from their oath of allegiance to the Pope, and that the decrees already passed at Trent should be re-examined. Charles spared no pains to induce them to comply with his wishes; and at length, on his assurance that he would use all possible efforts that their conditions should be granted, and that at any rate the Protestant divines should have full liberty of speech, they gave consent. The ambassadors of the imperial cities were far less tractable; they resolutely refused to yield to the council, and all the negotiations and attempts of the Emperor's ministers to procure a different decision were unavailing. After several fruitless conferences, being summoned before the Emperor and again urged to submission, they presented a paper, containing the conditions on which they would submit. Charles took no notice of the document, but thanked them for following the example of Maurice and the others, and thus they were dismissed, without any further explanation on either side! The remaining members of the diet acceded to the council, and required that all should be obliged to obey its decrees; only they wished that the Protestants should be furnished with an ample safeconduct, and be permitted to state and defend their opinions.*
Nothing now remained but to persuade the Pope to remove the council back again to Trent; but his holiness was inexorable. He pretended that he had not interfered in the translation: the council had voluntarily removed to Bologna, and must voluntarily return to Trent; he left it to their unfettered decision. On the other hand, they were sufficiently aware of his inclinations, and refused even to consider the question till the dissenting prelates had joined them. Various plans were suggested, in the hope of effecting conciliation or mutual compromise; but every effort was unsuccessful, and it was evident that a resolution was formed to refuse all the Emperor's
* Pallav. ut sup. c. 5,6.
Thuan, 1. iv. s. 17.
requests. Perceiving this, he ordered solemn protestation to be made in his name against the translation, and against all the subsequent proceedings of the council. This was done, both at Bologna and Rome, according to the usual forms.*
The publication of the Interim followed. It was a bold and extraordinary step. A system of doctrine decidedly Romancatholic, though framed and expressed with studied ambiguity, and a scheme of ecclesiastical discipline, comprising some useful innovations, were imposed upon Germany, and both were to remain in force till the decisions of a satisfactory general council had restored peace and unity to the church.t By this act, the Emperor openly set at defiance the authority of the assembly at Bologna ; and the papal party saw, that it was necessary to settle the dispute respecting the translation, since otherwise the long-agitated question of reform would probably be decided in a manner little palatable to the Roman see.
At first, great excitement was occasioned by the publication of the Interim. Before it was issued to the world, copies had been sent to Bologna and Rome, that it might be examined by the papal divines. Catharin and Seripand, who were charged with the examination, complained that in the statement of those doctrines which had been already decided at Trent the language of the decrees was not adopted; and on the remainder they made sundry unfavourable remarks and criticisms. Some proposed to declare the translation to Bologna lawful, in direct opposition to the Emperor, and then to suspend the council till happier times. De Monte was much exasperated; he earnestly requested the Pope to transfer the whole business of the assembly to Rome, where it might be managed under his own inspection, without fear of interference. Others wished that legates might be sent into Germany with all possible dispatch, in the hope that they would be permitted to mould the Interim into some more tolerable form before it was published. The
* At Bologna, January 16th, 1548, by Vargas and Velasco : at Rome, by the ambassador, Mendoza.—Pallav. ut sup. c. 11. Sarpi, s. 16. Le Plat, iii. p. 684–727. The narrative is curious and interesting, but too long for insertion. Vargas says, that he was in danger of his life at Bologna, and owed his safety to the Bishop of Venosa.—Lettres et Memoires, p. 378.
+ Pallav, ut sup. c. 17. Sarpi, s. 21-24. Le Plat, iv. p. 32—101.