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Greeks. They had, he says, been universally credible rapidity of vegetation, which buries vildescribed as thieves and robbers, but they ap- lages and rice fields in a thick jungle ; elepeared to him to be "joyous, good-humoured, phants and the dangerous method of hunting kind-hearted people.” The second letter trans- them; and the wild natives, who know of no ports us into the middle of Egypt, to Cairo, religion, and obey no law. Thence they visit which they had reached by way of Syra, Alex- the celebrated Adam's-peak, which thousands of andria and the Nile. We must omit the various Mabometans and Buddhists ascend with infinite incidents of travel, resembling those which labor and at a great expense, but which did not, other travellers have experienced, but narrated as was anticipated, afford a very fine prospect. in a pleasing manner. “ Cairo numbers now At a short distance from the town of Ratnapura scarcely 150,000 inhabitants, instead of its for- is a “ fishery for precious stones,” where rubies mer 800,000;” they visited as many of the two and topases, and sometimes good sapphires are hundred yet remaining mosques, as the well obtained. known intolerance of the Moslems permitted. The English war-steamer, the Spiteful, transAn audience which the Viceroy granted to them ported them from Ceylon to the island of Trinoffered no peculiar interest. A visit to the comalee, and thence to the “ wonderful city" of pyramids of Gizeh, the Sphinx, the mighty Madras. Here they remained but a few days, ruins of the ancient Memphis, the royal tombs, and after a visit to the temple of Mamalaipoor, in all of which travelling amateurs have made which is hewn in the solid rock, they proceeded terrible havoc, and an excursion to Heliopolis, to Calcutta, and reached that city on the third appear to have made no very deep impression of January, 1845. upon the author. In the hotels of the desert, On their journey thence to Patna, they visited which have been erected by an English Transit the temple of Vishnoopadda, the largest in India; company, the charges appear to have been exor- it is equal to a village in extent, and is served bitant;- a guinea and a half for coffee and by priests whose faces presented an appearance eggs! Suez is described as a dirty bole, Aden of extraordinary depravity and ignorance.
“ It as a burnt-out crater.
is heartrending to see ragged women, with halfWith the third letter commences the real starved children in their arms, bringing their interest of the book. The travellers were now last dish of rice as an offering to the temple, and breathing the aromatic breezes of the spice inconceivable that the English suffer this abuse island, Ceylon, “where the magnificence of to continue.” Two thousand priests with their India is united with all the symptoms of com families are here supported by the gifts of pilfort and content, and where no sad face is to grims. Patna has 52,000 houses, and 300,000 be seen.” Everywhere is visible the rich exu- inhabitants, and is very largely engaged in the berance of a tropical nature, the trees in the manufacture of opium, of which 13,000,000 dark night illuminated by countless swarms of pounds are here annually prepared for the Chiluminous beetles, and the whole enlivened by a nese market. concert of grasshoppers and crickets of various The sixth letter is dated from Kathmandoo, kinds. The sketches of nature which this book the beautiful capital of Nepaul, which for a long offers rival in originality those which relate to time had not been visited by any European. the inhabitants. The natives appear not to The journey through dense forests, the meetings have been able to comprehend " the simplicity with numerous Fakeers, the lovely valley of the of a German prince,” who was everywhere sub- Rapti, the pass of the Siswagorri at an elevation jected to ceremonious festivities. Thus they of 6000 feet, the reception at court, where, in travelled through the cinnamon groves of Cey- spite of extreme magnificence, the rajah and lon, visited Colombo, and Candy the capital of his father looked like rascals, a great hunting the old Singhalis. The country is so populous excursion, and the scenery of the Himalaya that for miles and miles one dwelling touches mountains, afford materials for many original another. The English governor resides in the and interesting observations. Their route is palace of the former kings, and a table full of thence directed towards Delbi. Benares, the nicknacks was standing where for five hundred most beautiful of the cities of India, Allahabad, years the “godlike king of Candy” had sat and Lachno, lie in their road, and are described upon his golden throne. We refer the reader with great minuteness. The rajah of the latter to the very valuable information contained in place was very hospitable and ceremonious; and this and the following letter; the subjects are a visits to beautiful mosques, magnificent tombs, temple which contains a relic of the true Buddha; splendid, but not tasteful, gardens and palaces, a voyage into the interior, to a sanitory station in which there are dozens of statues in every for the British troops, where the temperature corner," are followed by dinners “at which all in the morning was only ten degrees; the in- | the dishes are spoiled by a superabundance of
fat, spices, and dyes," hunting parties and other Lipay was a very animated place, of original festivities. At Agra, which they reached on appearance; there was here a Llama temple the fifth of April
, the thermometer stood at with a gilded idol, whose priest though he prayed thirty-five degrees (Reaumur); and yet there unceasingly did not display the least degree of were balls taking place here! They paid a very devotion. interesting visit to the Rajah of Bhurtpoor, and In the twelfth letter is described the entrance on the 26 April reached Delhi, the ancient resi- into Chinese territory; the inhabitants, though dence of the Great-Mogul. The neighbourhood forbidden to supply the strangers with food unof the city is a complete wilderness covered with der the penalty of being ripped up, brought the ruins of former magnificence, but still pos- them abundance of milk and apricots; two sessing monuments which are as interesting as native physicians also came but they were all the pyramids, and of very great antiquity. distinguished by avarice and ugliness and but
But the most valuable part of the work is ill repaid the travellers for the laborious journey contained in the next letters, which describe the which had been undertaken on their account. journey to the boundaries of Thibet, and their On the 30th of August they reached the resiresidence in that cool mountainous region. They dence of two German missionaries at Kotghoor, first reach the chain of Gagher, inhabited by where they have established a large school for legions of monkeys, but also by tigers, which the Hindoos. even on the borders of the snow are as danger Here terminates the mountain tour, and they ous as in the torrid plains. The foaming moun- returned to Simlah, where festivities took place in tain-streams can only be crossed on rope-bridges, honor of the Prince. The thirteenth letter deand thus they passed the Mundagree, and scribes the campaign against the Sikhs, but only reached the sacred springs of Gaurikund, where briefly; for within a few days the brave and a great number of pilgrims were bathing; the active physician received his death-wound at heat in the meanwhile had risen to forty-one Ferozeshah at the side of the prince, who volundegrees. Yet more celebrated is the temple teered to take part in that hard-fought battle. Kedernath, where Vishnoo is buried; it lies 11,- On the previous day he had concluded a letter 800 feet above the level of the sea, and the tem- with these words: “ tomorrow the army is to perature was only five degrees. Thus the tray- advance and I am confident of success ; may we ellers penetrate into the recesses of the moun soon meet again." tains, and the Rajah of Ghurwal expresses a fear There is an appendix which shows how much lest the prince should be followed by an army to we have lost by the death of Dr. Hoffmeister. lay waste and destroy the country. The dan- From Simlah he wrote to Humboldt on the gers of their journey are multiplied as they draw geographical distribution of the coniferæ on the near to the falls of the Ganges, which there is Himalaya mountains, and reports eleven or scarcely twenty feet wide; they soon reach the twelve species which flourished at an elevation frontier of Thibet, but “intrigues” delay the of 12,000 feet. We find also remarks on the further prosecution of their journey, and at last vegetation and on the birds of the Himalaya compel them to take another road. Few travel mountains, and tables of the temperature at diflers have endured such hardships as now fell to ferent heights
, and lastly seven maps which inditheir lot. During thick fogs, rain, and frost, cate the courses of the mountain-streams among they had to make their way over naked and which this novel and interesting journey was slippery rocks, or over rolling stones and made.- Leipziger Repertorium. blocks of granite, until they had attained an elevation of 15,000 feet, and then to descend over precipices of snow and ice, in which they had first to cut steps with the axe, in order to DR. CHALMERS. - A correspondent of the reach the valley of the Sutley. The English Daily News writes as follows:—" Phrenology is sanitory station at Simlah offered a very welcome rather at fault regarding Dr. Chalmers. From haven of rest. The villages built in the crevices the largeness of his head externally and the of these mountains are said to resemble swallows' peculiarity of his mental temperament, the leadnests; the inhabitants are Llama-worshippers, ing craniologists have long spoken of him as of and clay vases of peculiar form were observed necessity possessing a large brain; but the post to be set up as objects of worship in many places, mortem inspection of the encephalon has disbut the exact meaning of these could not be abused this idea. Thus, the weight of brain in ascertained. The mountains of Purgeul on the Dupuytren was 64 oz., in Cuvier 63, in AberChinese frontier presented a splendid Alpine crombie 63, in Chalmers 53 — the average panorama, but a nearer approach showed only weight in persons from fifty to sixty years of bare and broken rocks covered with snow. age being 50 oz. 2 drachms." — Athenæum.
HISTORY AND OBJECT OF JEWELLERY.
The History and Object of Jewellery. By limited to the royal jewels. Lions' heads were
objects of honor, for the flood of the Nile was
at the full when the sun was in Leo. The If treated in due form and order here is a sub- signs of the zodiac, referring to the agricultural ject which would afford scope for the voluminous events of the year, formed a collection of populabors of a James in place of such a curt book lar symbols. A star would suggest astronomical as Mr. John Jones has devoted to it. To indi- movements, and is the leading idea in the forcate a few of the obvious lights in which it mation of almost all flowers : Cowley calls them
stars of the earth :' precious stones were genmight be set :- There is the currency Question; erally disposed into stars. If ornamental form, with all its manifold ramifications and civiliza- for its own sake, were at all admired, it was tions since the primitive days when Peace could chiefly in geometric figures, a taste cultivated be ratified by the present of a “great balas ru- by the physical necessities of the country; yet, by” and a famine stayed by a loan upon a car
even here, the symbolic association was not forkanet! Then, the History of Bribery, largely gotten; the square for strength, the circle for embracing the philosophy of Political Conscience, eternity, and so forth.” would offer not a few richly instructive chap- Who knows, then, to give a moment's play to ters. Subservient to these in moral importance fanciful speculation, of how many things besides would come the chronicle of such showy mat- their mere gold and precious stones the Israelters as Royal Progresses, Princely Bridals, &c., ites, when breaking from their captivity, may &c., - in which crowns, sceptres, and necklaces have spoiled the Egyptians ! have always played brilliant parts. Nor should The Greeks (still to bear company with Mr. the historian overlook the employment of jewels Jones) showed less wealth and less mysticism in Medicine and in Magic :- the last (by poeti- than the Egyptians in the matter of gold and cal licence) bringing him within the domain of precious stones, but more skill. The Artist rose Beauty's sieges, “ stratagems and spoils.” In as the Priest waned on the horizon of the jewelshort, it would not require the assumptions or ler's shop. Engraved rings, in which the device exaggerations of a Munchausen to prove that or posy counted for as much as the ornament, the great world (no inconsiderable portion of " came up:” - and hence the Jewel, by becom" the great globe itself”) would have gone on ing a document and a token, gained a new and till the present time tamely and lamely, without precious significance. Jewellery! Here we have a few of the above topics even
“It is through an engraving on an emerald
that we have the likeness of the founder of our touched upon. But Mr. John Jones manages religion; it was taken by command of Tiberius to set many “sparks” of inforination and enter- Cæsar, and became deposited in the treasury of tainment within the compass of his threescore Constantinople, whence it was given by the Émand ten pages. First: the ignorant wearer of peror of the Turks to Pope Innocent VIIIth as rings, “owches,” and bracelets may learn that
a ransom for his brother, then a prisoner to the “ jewellery derives its name from the Hindoo useful in determining facts of history or biog
Christians. Not only have gem engravings been stanee jouhur,' a gem — and is of Oriental ori-raphy, but they have formed the school in which gin.” So that Hunt and Roskell
, — Kitching modern genius has been trained. Raphael is and Abud, - M. Herz, with his ingenious known to have been indebted to them for many Egyptian counterfeits, — the curiosity merchant, graces of figure and expression which animate Herr Piklert (?) of Eüath, near Nurember, his productions. : : . The oval form, as being &c., &c., &c., all take style and title from “
that which bounds the range of vision, was used allegory on the banks of the Nile.” We read,
as the field on which their engravings were cut.” further, that the Egyptian scarabæi and other Under the Romans, brute jewels, so to speak, ornaments in gold and blue earthenware were returned to favor - being used by them, it would “ emblems of spiritual principles or charms seem, more sensually and in more lavish profuagainst evil;”— that the brooch of Pharaoh's sion than they had been by Egyptian or Greek. daughter was no trifle; the head-tire of the wife The wanton disrespect of every thing but their of Sesostris not an affair of mere chance and nominal value reached its acme in Cleopatra's fantasy.
far-famed draught. From the origin of Antony's “ The sphynx, being the compound of human
“wrangling queen" one might have expected intelligence and the lion's strength, was the em- greater reverence for her trinkets ; but as a problem of royalty, it is presumed that its use was saic writer of the Fordyce school once expressed
himself with regard to her, -“Who, after all, tastically rather than characterized it succinctly, went such lengths as she ?” We leave Mr. Jones for the purpose of convincing any one capable to tell what use the Saracen and the Goth made of treating the subject anecdotically and in a of the Casket of precious stones: also, how these larger compass, how pleasant a companion to the were restored to something like their old mys- general reader (not liable, it must be premised, tical importance in the early days of the Chris- to covetous hankerings after the Monte Christo tian Church - when significance and symbol emerald or the Pigot diamond,) a History of played so large a part in its influences over Jewellery' might be made. — Atheneum. popular imagination. In this, as in many other matters, the traditions of the East were more
SARAH MARTIN.- An article in a recent strictly retained than it would at all suit the number of the Edinburgh Review has had the Mediævalists to allow.
effect of directing attention to the philanthropic " The following are some of the virtues attrib- labors of Sarah Martin,
a poor sempstress of uted to stones, as borrowed from a Persian man Yarmouth in Norfolk, who devoted her life to uscript, translated by Raja Kalikishen, in the the instruction and reformation of the prisoners East Indian Magazine, in which the similarity in Yarmouth Gaol. It is proposed to record the between the virtues of the stones, and the ideas services of this energetic and benevolent woman which they originally represented, will even now be traced.
by the erection, in the parish church of Yar“Diamond preserves from lightning, cures mouth, of a memorial window, to be called “The madness and vain fears.
Martin Window." A subscription bas been "Ruby purifies the blood, quenches thirst, opened, - to which the Bishop of Norwich, Mr. dispels melancholy, insures honor and compe- Dawson Turner, and other gentlemen are contence. “The Emerald averts bad dreams, gives cour- and the Rev. Mr. Mackenzie, the minister of
tributors, — and of which Mr. Baron Alderson, age, cures palsy.
"The Turquoise, in its Persian name, · Aber the parish, are the treasurers. Is'hagi, Father of Isaac,' contains reference to a mental principle, particularly valuable, since KICKING DOWN THE LADDER. — We copy at Nishapur, in Khorasan, is the only known the following statistics from a French paper, for turquoise mine in the world. It brightens the the benefit of the happy Historian who may eyes, and is a remedy for the bites of venomous animals.
have to write the Life of Louis-Philippe : “ And in other traditions it is maintained, that
Since the Revolution of July, “ Pearls refresh the spirits and obviate pas 1. There have been 1129 prosecutions against sions. · Sapphire preserves from enchantments.
2. There have been 57 newspapers sup“ Chrysoprase will make one out of love with gold.
pressed. “ Agates preserve from tempests.
3. There have been 7,110,500 francs drawn, “ Amethyst prevents inebriation.
in the shape of fines, from editors and propri“ Corals change color with the mind of the etors of journals. wearer.”
This is not bad for a King who was carried to Coming nearer our own times, the history of the throne on the shoulders of the very men he Jewellery expands over a surface so wide, that has since thrown down, and lifted into his presto touch a point in one quarter or mention a
ent position by the very papers he has since fact in another would serve us little better than
crushed. The Charte
may “ vérité,” but it would serve our musical critic to cite an insu- then it is a Truth, which keeps itself very prilated note from Meyerbeer's scores by way of vate at the bottom of the Puits de Grenelle, for illustrating the master's style. Mr. Jones ram
there is not the smallest taste of it to be had at
- not for love, bles pleasantly from the Anglo-Saxon period to the Tuileries, for love or money the times of the Medici, - thence, by way of at all events. What a noble epitaph the above Sir Paul Pindar's “ pendant diamond cut faucit- statistics would make! They would read adwise” purchased by King Charles the Martyr, mirably, just after the words " universally reto the treasury of Messrs. Rundell & Bridge on gretted.” - Punch. Ludgate-hill, the splendor of which has thrown so many a country visitor into strange confu A RULE WITHOUT AN EXCEPTION.- It is sion, - making him feel himself a Cogia Hassan often said that there is no rule without an excepredivivus in a valley of diamonds, though all the tion; but there is one rule to which I never knew while within hearing of Bow Bell -- In short, an exception. I never knew a respectable perthis little book is full of suggestions and glimpses son that did not behave with decency in a place of information: and we have trifled with it fan- 1 of public worship.
RALPH WALDO EMERSON; OR THE “COMING MAN.”
BY GEORGE GILFILLAN.
American literature has been long a moun which pervades much of the American press in tain in labor,” and might have been expected to reference to Emerson, which, at the mention of bring forth either a mouse or a monster. Many his name, elicits in each journal a long list of will deem the mouse amply typified by the nu- illustrious-obscure, (like a shower of bats from merous small poets and essayists who abound in the roof of a barn on the entrance of a light) that country; and some will see the monster in in its judgment superior to him - as though a the strange, eccentric, and untameable son of Cockney, insulted by a panegyric on Carlyle, as the wilderness before us. It is not, however, in one of the principal literary ornaments of Lonthis light that we regard Emerson. We look on don, were to produce and parade the name of him as a genuine man, whose mistakes as well as the subordinate scribblers in the Satirist, Litermerits unite in stamping on his character the ary Gazette, &c., as the genuine galaxy of her ineffaceable marks of sincerity, dignified sim- mental firmament. With occasional exceptions, plicity and independence, as well as of a pecu- the great general rule is -- how does a name liar and powerful genius.
sound afar? - does it return upon us from the Elsewhere we have spoken shortly, but sin- horizon ?- what impression does it make upon cerely, of Emerson, and even at the risk of ego those who, unprejudiced either for or against tism, we must say, that we have been not a little the author personally — uncircumscribed by amused at the treatment which our remarks have clique or coterie- unaltered by adverse, unmet with from the press of America. So far as softened by favorable criticism, have fairly we can judge from periodicals and newspapers, brought his works to the test of their own truefrom Baltimore to Boston, a cry of universal feeling and true-telling souls ? reprobation has assailed that article. It has This has been eminently the case with Emerfallen between two stools — on the one hand, son. To him Britain is beginning to requite the Emerson’s detractors are furious with us, for justice which America, to her honor, first awardplacing him at the head of American literature, ed to Carlyle. Sincere spirits, in every part of and so far they are right — though a most na- the country, who have, many of them, no symtional writer, to American literature he does not pathy with Emerson's surmised opinions, delight, belong. He is among them, but not of them – nevertheless, to do him honor, as an earnest, a separate state, which no Texas negotiation will honest, and gifted man, caught, indeed, and ever be able to annex to their territory. On the struggling in a most alien element, standing other hand, the school of Transcendentalists almost alone in a mechanical country, and teachcontend that we do him less than justice, that ing spiritual truth to those to whom Mammonour lines are unable to measure or to hold this not Moses — has become the lawgiver, and Cant leviathan ; and the opinion of one American not Christ - the God, but as yet faithful to author to this effect, deeply humiliated us, till the mission with which he deems himself to be accidentally falling in with her own criticisms, fraught. and finding that, among other judgments of the Alike careless and fearless of the judgment same kind, she preferred Southey, as a poet, to which may be passed by any party here or in Shelley, we were not a little comforted, and America, on ar opinions, we propose now to began to think that, perhaps, we had as good a extend our former estimate of Emerson — an right to think and speak about Emerson as her-estimate which has at once been strengthened self. “Verily, a prophet hath honor, save in and modified by the volume of poems he has his own country, and among those of his own recently issued. house" — an expression containing much more
And first of his little volume of poems. They truth than it at first seems to imply; for, indeed, are not wholes, but extracts, from the volume of the honor given in one's own country is often as his mind. They are, as he truly calls some of worthless as the neglect or abuse; and, notwith them, “Woodnotes," as beautiful, changeful, standing the well-known French adage, the vilest capricious, and unfathomable often, as the song and commonest of hero-worship is that of valets of the birds. On hearing such notes we someand parasites, who measure their idol by the times ask ourselves, “What says that song standard of his superiority to their own little which has lapped us in such delicious reverie, ness. Hero-worship, however, even in its worst and made us almost forget the music in the form, is preferable to that spirit of jealousy | sweet thoughts which are suggested by it?”