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powers of this humble insect; and apprehensions of jumping run, which proved inordinately faare seriously entertained that, by its injuring the tiguing. “ These rocks," he writes, “ appear timber-work of the dams, the day may come solid in the distance, but on examination, they when the country will be flooded. The authors were found to be full of fractures in every direcof the “ Introduction to Entomology" tell us that tion, so that it was with difficulty that a specimen the piers of Bridlington harbor, in our own coun- of five or six pounds in a solid mass could be obtry, are going rapidly to ruin by the attacks of a tained. The least movement sent floods of stones little wood-louse! In three years they reduced down the rock. Cliffs of a thousand feet were a three-inch plank to less than an inch in thick- found fissured in every direction; and toward ness. What will be thought of our subject when the sea edge, stones weighing more than two or we state that a ship of the line, a British man-of-three ounces each could not be obtained. Darwar, was attacked by insects, and the vast struc- win makes the same observation on Terra del ture more roughly handled than she had been in Fuego and within the Andes. Here, he says, he the severest action ? So seriously, indeed, had often observed that where the rock was covered she been injured, that it was only by firmly lash- with snow, its surface was shivered in an extraing her together that she could be saved from ordinary manner into small angular fragments. foundering with all on board ! And lastly, the On the Cordilleras, the rock crumbles in great termites, or white ants, are worse still. Think of quantities, and masses of detritus slide down evan army of puny insects sweeping away every ery spring like great avalanches. There can be relic of a village, or reducing a monarch of the no doubt that this enormous destruction of rock forest to the thickness of brown paper; or, more is due to a very simple cause. Many of our audacious still, threatening the gorgeous palace public buildings suffer in a similar manner; and of the governor-general of India with ruin! We in the severe winters of Quebec, the most serious may well join, then, with Mr. Lyell, while won- damage is done to the granite piers by the same dering at the vast and often suddenly-created force. Yet the power which thus levels the great powers of the insect world, in saying, “ If, for mountains by degrees, and brings them to comthe sake of employing on different but rare occa- munion with the dust of the lowly earth, is but sions a power of 200 horses, we were under the the expansion of water, which, becoming infilnecessity of feeding all these animals at great trated into their substance, or dropping into cost in the intervals, we should greatly admire crevices, rends thein asunder, when it is in the the invention of such a machine as the steam- act of freezing, with a force nothing can resist. engine, which was capable at any moment of ex How important an agent this is in the work of erting the same degree of strength without any renewing the earth we need scarcely say. consumption of food during the periods of inac From certain experiments made in America tion. The same kind of admiration is excited by a gentleman of practical scientific research, it when we contemplate the powers of insect life, appears that it is impossible, in countries having in the creation of which the Author of Nature a variation of more than 90 degrees Fahrenheit bas been so prodigal. A scanty number of mi. annual temperature, to construct a coping of nute individuals, to be detected only by careful stones five feet long in which the joints will be research, are ready in a few days, weeks, or water-tight. Mr. Lyell, proceeding on the cal. months, to give birth to myriads: but no sooner culations arrived at in these experiments, states has the destroying commission been executed, that if we can suppose a mass of sandstone a than the gigantic power becomes dormant." mile in thickness to have its temperature raised

Our final illustrations may be taken from the 200 degrees Fahrenheit, it would lift a superinkingdom of inorganic nature. Our endeavor is cumbent layer of rock to the beight of ten feet. to show the vast energies of the expansive force “But suppose a part of the earth's crust 100 of such an insignificant thing as a drop of frozen miles thick, and equally expansible, the temperwater, or a foot of beated rock. Whoever has ature of which was raised 600 or 700 degrees. read Scoresby's interesting and valuable work on This might produce an elevation of between 2000 the arctic regions, must have been struck with and 3000 feet. The cooling of the same mass, the account he gives of the broken state of the again, might afterwards cause the overlying rocks rocks in Spitzbergen. On landing, he ascended to sink down again, and resume their original the beach towards several hills of some elevation; position. By such agency we might explain the but he found that climbing was almost impossi- gradual rise of Scandinavia.” Calculations have ble, in consequence of the excessively loose state been made by geologists which appear to account of the stones on the surface. It was in vain to for the elevation of land in Sweden by a rise of attempt to walk, as the feet lost their hold, and only 3 degrees temperature (Reaumur,) supposthe traveller came down in a shower of stones. ing the stratum to be 140,000 feet thick. Upon The only pace to be adopted was that of a sort a similar supposition, the rise and fall of the wa

ters of the Caspian Sea might be explained, sup- by rambling over many other equally interesting posing its bed subject to alternate elevations and fields of study. But to give a complete view of depressions of temperature. Again, if the strata the subject is neither within the scope, nor is it were principally clay, as it is well known that the legitimate object of an " article.” It appears, that substance contracts when heated, we might indeed, as if the wisdom and power of the Creaaccount for the subsidence of land on the suppo- tor were in nothing more manifest than in the sition that the clay strata were contracting under astonishing force He has committed to the charge, the influence of heat. No one at all acquainted not of the great and mighty of this world of nawith the enormous, the, in truth, immeasurable ture, but to the humble and individually feeble force of contraction and expansion under the insect or animalcule. The remark of Sir John influence of caloric, will feel a doubt that the Herschel forms an apposite conclusion to our pacause assigned is at least adequate to the effects per:-“ To the natural philosopher there is no produced. Yet how insignificant a thing an natural object that is unimportant or trilling. icicle! how apparently inappreciable the amount From the least of nature's works he may learn of increase in a heat-expanded stone !

the greatest lessons.” — Chambers' Edinburgh When all creation inculcates the same truth, Journal. it would be manifestly easy to multiply examples

COLLECTANEA.

TIIE EMPEROR NICJIOLAS AND THE ACTOR.

there are good schools, not only do the parents

of children and the owners and managers of It is not unusual for the Emperor to stop and factories, with comparatively few exceptions, address a person in the street ; but the luckless willingly send them, but the children make good individual has little to boast of in so flattering a progress: their three hours' daily attendance, distinction : in a moment he is arrested by one

from eight to thirteen years of age, is found of the ubiquitous agents of the police, and charged sufficient to give them a very considerable with the offence of having addressed the Em- amount of instruction, and I have visited schools peror. He is authoritatively required to repeat where some of the half-time children have been the substance of what he bad said; and a con

amongst the best scholars. Thus in a late visit finement of some days inevitably follows; which to a British School at Lees, near Oldham, esthe administration of a bribe, or the exertion of tablished mainly by the exertions of Mr. William some powerful influence, can alone terminate. Halliwell and Mr. Atherton, owners of mills This occurred to a celebrated French actor, who there, and admirably taught by an able and having been ill, and unable to perform for some

zealous master, Mr. Atkins, I heard a large class time in consequence, was accosted by the Em- of factory children go through an excellent peror, who inquired after his health, and urged examination in English history, geography, and him to resume his theatrical functions as soon as

on the cotton plant, its properties, and applicapossible. The unfortunate actor was immedi- tions; the chief monitor and examiner being a ately arrested, and had some trouble in getting factory half-timer of twelve years of age. I liberated. The circumstance reached the ears

found in the same manufacturing town similar of the Emperor, who, wishing to make him some proofs of factory children making good progress, reparation, desired to know in what manner be in another well-taught school established by the could oblige him. “In nothing, sire," replied Moravians there, and conducted on the plan of the comedian, “ but that your Majesty will never the British School by an intelligent master condescend to speak to me in the street again." trained at the Borough Road School.” — ManThompson's Life in Russia.

chester Examiner, June 27, 1848.

FACTORY EDUCATION IN LANCASHIRE.

OLIVER GOLDSMITH. The following is an extract from the recent The simplicity of his nature was shown in too report of Leonard Horner, Esq., inspector of many things not to be credited in this. It is factories :—" It has been often said that the related of him that when he presented himself attempt to educate the children proposed by the for ordination, at the time when he thought of factory acts has been a failure : it is only so the Church, he was rejected because he apwhen good schools are not within reach ; where peared before the bishop in a pair of scarlet

556

Collectanea. - Short Reviews and Notices. Recent Publications.

ENGLAND.

breeches. All this is reconcileable with that stances of time, place, and condition. The best want of foresight which led him to contemplate reinarks in the little book are on the power of setting up to teach English in Holland, without habit in modifying the constitution ; so that the knowing a word of Dutch; and that story which open air, or thorough ventilation, is really noxis told of him by Dr. Farr, to whom he commu- ious to a person accustomed to confinement. nicated a scheme he had in view of going to decipher the inscriptions on the Written Moun

RECENT PUBLICATIONS. tains, though he did not understand a syllable of Arabic. It was this guilelessness, and thoughtlessness, and innocence of character, which no Egypt's Place in Universal History: an Hisdeceits or injuries could deform into selfishness, torical Investigation, in five Books. By Chrisor strain into practical sagacity in his dealings tian C. J. Bunsen, D. Ph., and D. C. L. Transwith the world — this extraordinary union of lated from the German, by Charles H. Cottrell, wisdom as an observer of mankind, and inca

Esq., M. A. pacity to turn his wisdom to advantage on his with its Past Condition. By James Whiteside,

Italy in the Nineteenth century, Contrasted own account - that made the beauty of his Esq., A. M., M. R. I. A., one of her Majesty's life, and kept it pure. And it is remarkable Counsel. In three volumes. that, with feelings so impressionable and impul.

Chronicles of the Crusades ; being Contemposive, this easy-natured and most tender of human rary Narratives of the Crusade of Richard Cæur beings appears never to have fallen in love. A de Lion. by Richard of Devizes and Geoffrey de passing emotion of that sort flitted over him in Vinsauf; and of the Crusade of Saint Louis

, by

Lord John de Joinville. With illustrative Notes Dublin, but left no permanent trace. But the and an Index. (Bohn's Antiquarian Library.) truth was that his nature was too diffusive, his The Prose Works of John Milton. Volume affections too comprehensive, to be narrowed to I. With a Preface, Preliminary Remarks, and a passion that finally reverts to, and concentrates Notes. By J. A. St. John. (Bobn's Standard in self. And his life was unfavorable to its Library.) indulgence, and opened few opportunities for its

The Bee-Hunter; or the Oak Openings. By awakening in a heart so shy, and weak in its

the author of “The Pioneer," &c. In three

volumes. self-reliance. - Bentley's Miscellany.

The Origin of the English, Germanic, and

Scandinavian Languages and Nations; with a SIIORT REVIEWS AND NOTICES.

Shetch of their Early Literature, and Short

Chronological Specimens of Anglo-Saxon, FrieTHE FresciI REVOLUTIONS FROM 1789 sic, Flemish, Dutch, German from the MasTo 1818. By T. W. REDHEAD. Part I. Goths to the present time, Icelandic, Norwegian,

and Swedish; tracing the Progress of the LanThis publication, forming one of Chambers's guages, and their Connection with Modern Eng; 'Books for the People,' sets out with high pro- lish; together with Remarks on the Oriental fessions of philosophy and original research, and Origin of Alphabetic Writing, and its extension supports them far better than might be expected to the West. A Map of European Languages from a speculation that gives 160 pages of orig. is prefixed, with Notes, &c. By the Reverend inal writting for a shilling. Mr. Redhead seems

Joseph Bosworth, D. D., F. R. Š., F. S. A. &c. to have consulted the original authorities on the Day. By the Honorable Adela' Sidney, author

Sadness and Gladness; a Story of the Present first Revolution, and to have extracted their of * Home and its Influence.” In three volumes pith, without allowing himself to be encumbered Roberts's Sketches in Egypt and Nubia. With by matier good in itself but unavailable for his Histori al D.'scriptions, by William Broekedon, purpose. He also takes a fair view of his sub- F. R. S. Lithographed by Louis Haghe. Part ject in the main, though perhaps allowing too

XI. little for circumstances and national character in some of the Mountain party. The writing is Les quarante-cinq; par Al. Dumas. Tom close ; and the work seems likely to form a very III. et IV. Paris, Cadot, $2. useful book at a very cheap rate.

Recherches sur le culte public et les mystères de Mithra en Orient et en Occident, par Fel.

Lajard. 1. Livr. Paris, $2.50. CHANGE OF Air: Fallacies regarding it. De la rhetorique attribuée à Denys d'HalicarBy John Charles Atkinson, Esq. Mem nasse, par M. A. Sadous. Paris, 85c. ber of the Royal College of Surgeons.

Etudes sur Salluste et sur quelques-uns des The chief " fallacies” pointed out by Mr. At- principaux historiens de l'antiquité, considérés

comme politiques moralistes et ecrivains, par kinson, regarding “change of air," are the no

C. C. de Gerlach. Bruxelles, $2.25. tion that it will cure incurable disease, and that Résumés des observations météorologiques it ought to be tried under improper circum- / faites dans l'étendue de l’Empire de Russie,

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CONTENTS.

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North British Review,
The Knightlye Tale of Sir Guy ot' Normandye, Dublin University Magazine,
Young Freedom,

Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung,
The True Account of the Surrender of Milan, Douglas Jerrold's Newspaper, .
An Account of the First Steam Voyage on the
British Seas,

Fraser's Magazine,
How Revolutions are Managed,

Spectator, Nautical Blunders and Manslaughters,

Tuit's Edinburgh Magazine, Importance of the Insignificant,

Chambers' Edinburgh Journal,
COLLECTANEA. — Leap-Frog,

Steffen's Adventures,
Talmudical Parable, Jewish Chronicle,
Music of the Nightingale,

Izaak Walton,
Steel Pens,

The Land we Live in,
A Plea for Hedge and other
Birds,

Farmer's Journal,
The Emperor Nicholas and
the Actor,

Thompson's Life in Russia,
Factory Education in Lan-
cashire,

Manchester Examiner, June 27, 1848,
Oliver Goldsmith,

Bentley's Miscellany,
Short Reviews and Notices,
Recent Publications,
To our Subscribers,
Acknowledgments,

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