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we shall devote as much space as possible to falls of the Merrimack and Concord rivers extracts, that our readers may judge for them- might be readily made use of. After changselves.

ing hands once or twice, this factory was pur

chased by a company, in 1826 - one of the LIMITED PARTNERSHIPS.

firms formed on the principle of limited part“ Partnerships en commandité or in commen- nership. The success of this factory in the new dam; that is, limited partnerships, where the hands was so marked, that it led to the formation contract is between one or more persons who of other associations on the same principle and are general partners, and jointly and severally for the same purpose. Mr. Buckingham, who responsible, and one or more other persons, who visited Lowell in 1841, writes, there are now merely furnish a particular fund or capital stock, ten companies or corporations, with a capital of and are thence called commanditaries or part- about 10,000,000 dollars, occupying or working ners en commandité, the business being carried thirty mills, giving employment to more than on under the social name or firm of the general 10,000 operatives, of whom 7,000 are females, partners only, composed of the name of the and paying out 150,000 dollars a month in general or complementary partners; the part- wages, for the manufacture of more than 8.000,ners en commandite being liable to losses only 000 dollars' worth of gools in the year. There to the extent of the funds or capital furnish- are upwards of 52,000,000 yards of cotton cloth ed by them, but their names must not appear worked here in the year, 14,000,000 yards of in the style or firm of the partnership; nor which are dyed and printed, and about 18,000,must such partners interfere in the business of 000 pounds of cotton are used for this purpose, the partnership (though they may assist in its besides a large quantity of wool. This repredeliberations) under the penalty of being con sents Lowell seven years ago. Since then, her sidered general partners and of becoming per manufactures have very largely increased, parsonally responsible for the debts and engage- ticularly during the year 1847. The mills at ments of the firm.”

Lowell are worked by water power. It is pro

duced by a canal, completed in 1823, which is a From this description it is obvious these part. mile and a half long, sixty feet wide, and eight nerships are extensions of the associative and feet deep A portion of the water of the Mercoöperative principle applied to commerce, and rimack river is forced through this canal by a their utility has been practically tested in France, dain at the head of Pawtucket Falls, and is Belgium, Ilolland, and the United States. When distributed in various directions by channels the funds are yielding a low rate of interest, branching off from the main canal, and disthose who have small sums of money by them

charging into the Merrimack and Concord riv

The entire fall is thirty feet, and the vol. are tempted to lend them on foreign securities, ume of water which the canal is capable of by which this country has permanently lost very carrying is estimated at 1250 feet per second, considerable amounts ; but if our laws were furnishing fifty mill powers of twenty-five cubic changed so as to admit of partnerships with lim-feet per second. Mr. Buckingham says, “ This ited liabilities, the author of the work before us

water power is held to be of sufficient force to presumes that these sums would in future be carry. 286,000 spindles with all the necessary saved and vested in such a form as would stimu- spindles employed in 4,800 looms, there is yet

machinery; but as there are only as yet 150,000 late native industry. He points to the United power sufficient for 136,000 spindles more, or States as chiefly indebted for her rapid and pro-enough to turn ten large mills more than the digious rise to this system of commercial associ- present number, making forty in all, before the ation, especially in the extraordinary growth of present water-power shall be exhausted, or it her manufactures, in which £6,000,000 sterling In 1848 these anticipations of 1841 are reali-ed;

necessary to have recourse to steam.' are now invested, giving employment to more than 100,000 persons, exclusive of those engaged employed, a new cotton-city to be called Law.

and as the water-power of Lowell is now fully in the cultivation of cotton.

rence, situated on the Merrimack, about eight miles above Lowell, is now being built; and the

intention is to make it the metropolis of the cot. “ Lowell, in Massachusetts, (twenty-five miles

ton manufactures - the Manchester of America." from Boston) has at present the greatest number of cotton factories in the United States. This We have extracted this passage from the city is a remarkable instance of the rapidity chapter entitled, “ American versus British with which settlements are formed, and cities Trade," and, though somewhat long, it did not built and peopled in America. In 1813 there admit of being curtailed. We were the more was not even a single dwelling on the spot where inclined to give it in full, because it confirms Lowell now stands with its busy and increasing with irresistible evidence the arguments we have population of 10,000 persons. The war between Great Britain and the United States, depriving always insisted upon as to the policy of our the latter of the necessary manufactures, induced seeking out new outlets for our industry in our two speculators to erect a small cotton factory at colonial possessions. In confirmation of these Lowell, where the water-power given by the views our author observes, in chapter on “ Com

ers.

be

FACTORIES AT LOWELL.

petition and decline of Trade,” that, “ while in three hundred of the finest vessels afloat. He 1831 the quantity of cotton kept for consumption saw the necessity of providing Belgium with in the United States was estimated at no more

manufactures, as he had provided Holland with than 17,000 bales — in 1846-7, the quantity a fleet. Therefore he encouraged limited partthus retained was 427,967 bales, or one fourth nership throughout his dominions, and did him

self become a limited partner in various underof the entire growth of that year. Already the takings for the encouragement of manufactures, exports of heavy cotton cloths (called domestics) and particularly (to the personal amount of 2,from the United States to South America and 000,000 florins, or £166,666 13s.) with Mr. China are important and increasing. We are John Cockerill, at Seraing. The iron works of in a fair way of losing our export trade to the Belgium sprung from this; and thus have limitUnited States, and of also being supplanted in ed partnerships made Belgium next to England

for iron and coal. So well combined were all other markets by their successful rivalry.”

these operations that, at present, Java so much On these statements it beboves our manufac

consumes the exportations from Holland, that turers to ponder deeply, the more so as Lord great source of wealth to the mother country, Dalhousie has most insanely permitted the cotton that three hundred ships are constantly engaged fabrics of America to come into the ports of in the traffic.” British India on equal terms with our own which has already put the largest mill at Glas

As a proof of the wisdom of this Government gow on half-time.

interference it may be stated, that from 1812 to Among other principles we have advocated, 1815, during which period Sir Stamford Raffles in opposition to popular prejudices, and the dic- was the English Governor of Java, the deficit ta of political economists, is the duty of Govern

was £833,333 6s. 8d., whereas now the net inment to find employment for those who cannot

come of Java is £1,333,333 6s. 8d. For the obtain it from private capitalists by the encour

statistics of Java we must refer our readers to agement of private works; and in the book before the volume before us. They prove the highest us we find an ample justification of our doctrines prosperity; and if our Government would apWhen the island of Java was restored by Eng-ply similar principles to our colonies, the results gland to Holland in 1824, under the treaty of could not fail to be equally gratifying. Vienna, an influential party in Belgium and

There is an excellent chapter on the “ CirHolland proposed to se 1 the Dutch East India culation of Wages,” which the advocates of possessions, as they did not pay their

cheapness and fettered currency would do well

expenses. This was over-ruled ; and we now present to

to study, and another scarcely less recommendaour readers the results of the policy of king

ble on the “ Industrial Resources of Ireland.” We may also specially direct attention to the

chapter on “ Colonies and Commerce." “ The King commenced his system of working his colonies conjointly with Belgium and Hol- in England, France, and America, and contains

An appendix explains the law of partnership land. He concluded a loan of 9,000,000 florins (£ 760,000) from Mr. Palmer, of Calcutta, for the the evidence for and against limited partnerships use of his colonies. He formed the great Bank taken in 1844 before the Parliamentary Comof Brussels, giving the crown lands and woods mittee on Joint-Stock Companies. It contains of Soinsie, valued at 27,000,000 florins (£225,- also “ Heads of a Proposed Bill, regulating 000) as security for the issue of bank notes, partnerships, communicated by the lion. Francis taking himself three fourths of the shares. He Baring." — Douglas Jerrold's Newspaper. founded the Dutch East India Company, guaranteeing four-and-a-half per cent interest upon all the shares for twenty-five years ; and, finding

The Dying CITIZEN. - A citizen dying that the ships formerly used in the trade to the east had been taken during the war or broken greatly in debt, Farewell,” said one of his up (there remaining in 1824, as the whole ma- creditors, “ there is so much of mine gone with rine of his kingdom fit for this service, the vessels him.” " And he carried so much of mine," said at Rotterdam and two at Antwerp), he guaran- another.” A person bearing them make their teed to the owners of new-built vessels of 1,000 several complaints, said, “ Well, I see now,

that tons nearly £16 per ton for four voyages. No though a man can carry nothing of his own out man better understood the advantage accruing to a country from circulation of money in payment of the world, yet he may carry a great deal of of wages. He anticipated that by ihe increase other men's.” of the mass of circulation in Java, its inhabitants, with augmented means, would naturally consume a more considerable quantity of the products of

Every virtue carried to an excess, approaches the mother country, principally those of Belgiun. its kindred vice. The encouragement given by the King since 1824 If you can be well without health, you can be bad created for Holland a commercial fleet of happy without virtue.

Burke.

WILLIAM OF THE NETHERLANDS.

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COLLECTANEA.

PADDY REDIVIVUS.

THE RACES OF MAN. Whatever may have been formerly the quality No race will amalgamate with any other; they of Irish humor, the only humor which Ireland die out, or seem slowly to become extinct, as the has evinced of late has been dreadfully sour. It Copt of antiquity and the Coptic portion of the is pleasant, therefore, to find a few stray sons of modern Jews; perhaps even the whole Hebrew Erin emitting even the faintest flashes of that family: or they destroy each other : but nations drollery which was wont to set us in a roar. The of mules, or mulattoes, as they are called, nature three following instances of Hibernian pleas- will not support. Whilst I now write, the papers antry are quite refreshing, and remind us agree- say that the Blacks and the Browns are carryably of other and better times.

ing on a war of extermination in Hayti. It must On Tuesday night, at the Chartist meeting at always come to this. But why go to the Blacks Clerkenwell Green, Mr. Daly, of the Irish Con- and the Browns of Hayti? This is the shallow federacy, declared that

view of the surface politician, the surface think

er, the surface ethnologist, and statesman, who “ He came there as one of the Irish Confed- affect not to see a solid distinction in race unless eration, for the purpose of asking his fellowcountrymen to form an offensive alliance with it be as wide as is the Negro from the Saxon. the Chartists of England.”

The Sarmatian and the Sclavonian differ as

widely from the Celt and the Saxon as does the Admirable! What alliance could be more Negro from the Mongol, the Bosjesman from the

Ten centuries ago thoroughly offensive than the combination pro- coppercolored Chenook. posed by Mr. Daly?

and more the Sclavonian race, under various Mr. Grattan, on the same evening, complain names - Huns, Goths, Croats, Bohemiansing of having been misrepresented in the Morn- broke into central Gerinany and Italy, and ing Post, asserted that our peculiarly fashionable founded the so-called German empire. They contemporary

pushed their race into Austria and Flanders,

where traces of the blood still exist : they “ Was mischievous, but perfectly harmless." reached the shores of the Baltic, and peopled

Finland; their Government and leading men Imagine the effect of this proposition on the used every endeavour to be mistaken for GerCollective Wisdom. We understand that rany mans, to be identified with the classic Germans members have not yet recovered from it yet, of Northern Europe, to represent the German and that several of them - not, however, in-nations; and now, after ten centuries of false cluding Mr. John O'Connell were in real

pretences, look at them now. Have they amaldanger of dying on the floor of the House –

gamateu ? Have they become Germans? No; with laughter.

the real Germans keep aloof from them; they Lastly, Mr. Doheny, at a public dinner at repudiate them. — Dr. R. Knox in the Medical Dunboyne, in allusion to the present condition Times. of Ireland, said

RASH JUDGMEST.

" And if we do not better that condition, and prepare, we should only insult the memory of those patriots who sleep in their glorious graves,

The judgment human beings pass on each and who watch for the dawn of Ireland's inde other has often more to do with the outrage ofpendence."

fered to the idiosyncracies of personal taste and

feeling, than to their dereliction from abstract Sure Ireland, then, is the land of patriotism. principles of morality. When people commit In what other country upon earth are there pa- sins with which we individually have no sympatriots who sleep and watch at the same time, and thy, and which press inconveniently upon us, that in their graves

patriots dead and buried, we are apt to give them over to absolute reproand alive and kicking, and asleep and wide bation ; they are utterances of humanity we do awake? By the powers, we should like to be not comprehend. But if it were possible that any acquainted with these patriots, and go with Mr. one man should arise, who could thoroughly know Doheny and plant laurels on their graves, and all that was in man, we would be struck dumb shake hands with the gentlemen under the roots

with the immense tolerance, sympathy, power of the daisies ! - Punch.

of reconciliation, and of guiding to good, which

he would manifest for all orders and degrees of elist possesses it adds another. Covered as his men - from the Pharisee, with bis broad pha- breast is- with orders and ribbons

- so that at lactery of respectability, down to the most har. the head of his corps of National Guards he dened outcast of Norfolk Island, who has sinned blazed like some Marshal of the Empire – it afhimself down to the level, and almost to the fixes one distinction more the Cross of the likeness of a brute. Meanwhile it is a great Legion of Impudence." The reviewer here procomfort to believe that there exists a higher ceeds to quote from the book; and the damning judgment, which will revise the rash and com extracts bring home to M. Dumas the guilt of a pendious mode by which so many are given long course of literary theft. He has lived by calmly over to reprobation by their fellows. robbing the living and the dead; authors in garMiss Jewbury's Half-Sisters.

rets and authors in coffins. We feel it to be the duty of every man who acknowledges the high

purpose of literature to do his share in the exWHAT IS THY DUTY ?

posure of such literary felony. Mr. Jeffs is the Development, Growth, and Sacrifice. — De English publisher of the book; and we recomvelopment of all the capabilities of thy nature; mend its perusal to those whose questionable growth of thy nature, ever higher and higher, taste may hitherto have made them admirers of toward the divinest ideal thy soul can contem- | M. Dumas, the Captain Macheath of the literary plate ; development and growth that thou mayest road. The effrontery of the man bas hitherto be a helper, a worthy servant of humanity, a fit made him ridiculous; he is now something worse and acceptable offering in the great temple of than contemptible. We can hardly believe life to propitiate the future. This is duty. — So after what we have read — that a pocket handto develope one's powers, so to grow that one's kerchief would be safe from the fingers of M. life may be useful to the world, the present a

Dumas, if there was a story printed upon it. sacrifice worthy of the Eternal. A sacrifice:the joyful rendering of that which thou hast acquired, — the giving to the world the fragrance VALE'S GLOBES AND CELESTIAL SPHERE. of thy own beautiful nature, the fruit that has ripened on thee, the golden grain of thy devot

(From a correspondent.) – This useful inven. ed life. All sacrifices, - not denials, but offer- tion combines two globes in one instrument, the ings on the altar of progress, at the shrine of terrestrial within and the celestial without. An humanity. So bear thy days even as a wreath artificial traveller or ship is by a simple contrivof flowers upon thy brows: the fillet of sacrifice,

ance made to move on the surface of the globe the wreath of triumph! The joyful sacrifice be within, and carries with it a movable horizon, dithine, the triumph the Eternal's! Ay! even

viding the celestial sphere into the visible and when the sheaves are scattered, and the life invisible part to such traveller, and affording a beaten out, and the very straw consumed, and rutional means of performing all the problems on the plough gone over thý place, some grain will both globes; thus the traveller can be placed over yet be sown for the world's future harvesting; any city, and the outer sphere turned to the and thy spirit bruised and ground down for the hour of the day, presenting the exact face of the

heaven to such traveller or place, with the corfood of humanity, will haply then be consii us of the joy to which it was abandoned. — Cause rect altitude and bearing of the sun, moon, planof the People.

ets, and stars for such time (the places of the moon and planets being previously noted or

marked down from the Nautical other almaLITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE. nac). The outer sphere of this instrument con

sists of brass circles, as the equator, meridians,

&c., but on these are placed segments of the ceIn its last, the Atheneum reviews Les Super-lestial globe, engraved, and rendered beautifully chines Littéraires Dérvitées, written by M. Qué- transparent, or rather semi-transparent. The rard. The reviewer observes: _“It is some- sphere moves about the globe, or the globe in thing to be the greatest in any line — and even the interior moves on its axis. — This instrument infamy has had its heroes. That Alexandre is also converted into a planetarium by the addiDumas we beg his pardon, Alexandre Davy tion of a few wires representing the orbits of Marquis de la Pailleterie — is the greatest liter- the planets; and still retaining its simplicity, it ary impostor of our day, there will be no doubt serves various other astronomical purposes beremaining, if half the statements be true which sides the ordinary problems.

From this simplicthis extraordinary publication discloses. To the ity it renders popular astronomy as easy to many titles to notoriety which the dashing nov learn as geography, and if generally introduced

LITERARY LARCENY.

DREAMS.

478 Literary and Scientific Intelligence. - Short Reviews and Notices.
would elevate the entire tone of national educa-
tion. The inventor is Mr. Vale, of America,
now staying at 91, Stanhope-street, Hampstead-

Dreaming, as the precursor and accompani

ment of diseases, deserves continued investigaroad.

tion, not because it is to be considered as a

spiritual divination, but because the unconscious WALLER'S PATENT CAFETIERE.

language often very clearly shows to those who

can compreher.d its meaning, the state of the We may

find one fault with Mr. Waller's in- patient. According to Albert, lively dreams are vention — why does he call it cafetière ? “ Cof

in general a sign of the excitement of nervous fee-pot ” is a homelier word, and therefore better action. Soft dreams are a sign of slight irrita

tion of the brain ; often a nervous fever, anadapted for so fire-side a thing. The invention is valuable. It ensures that there is no waste in Frightful dreams are a sign of determination of

nouncing the approach of a favorable crisis. the strength of the coffee no waste even of

blood to the head. Dreams about blood and red its aroma a consideration of all the best properties of the delicious berry –

objects are signs of inflammatory conditions.

Dreams about rain and water are often signs “ That makes the politician wise."

of diseased mucous membranes and dropsy.

Dreams in which the patient sees any part of If Pope's word, by the way, is to be taken as to the body especially suffering, indicate disease of that peculiar characteristic, coffee ought now to

that part. — Dr. Forbes Winslow's Journal of be in greater demand at Bellamy's, and all round

Psychological Medicine. Westminster Hall, than ever. The apparatus presents a vessel of the ordinary shape, divided into two parts by a solid partition, boled in the middle, and so fitted with tubes, valves, and “M. Guizot,” remarks the Duily News, " laststrainers — without complication too, or the ves

ed Louis Philippe eight years. The Republic sel would get of order, which it hardly can in an consumed Lamartine in two months." ordinary life-time — that a process somewhat analogous to a simple and rapid brewing, if such a thing can be imagined, goes on, and the result SHORT REVIEWS AND NOTICES. is - in short, coffee, dark, rich, yet transparent

SHAKSPEARE, THE POET, THE LOVER, THE coffee. Our respected contemporary, the Phar.

ACTOR, THE MAN; a Romance. By HENRY maceutical Times, gives an account of the action CURLING, Author of " John of England,” &c. carried on chemically, if we may use the word, In three volumes. by means of Mr. Waller's cafetière (otherwise, coffee-pot), and thus sums up its advantages : Great artists have generally avoided intro“ The coffee possesses a fragrance and flavor ducing great artists into their productions as acequal to the renowned beverage of the gorgeous tors, perhaps because action is not altogether cafés of the Boulevards. The act of boiling coffee their field. Mr. Henry Curling has none of with water or cooking it, and also mere infusion, these scruples: he not only presents Shakspeare if too long continued, destroys its delicate taste, as the poet and the actor, but as a "lover" of a and imparts to it a heating and unwholesome well-born lady, and " a man” who acts the part property. On examining the residue in this ap- of machine to rescue damsels in distress or heparatus, which remains a dry and hardened cake, roes in prison, and makes two lovers happy at it will be found to possess an extremely disagree- last. Probability in conduct, or an imagination able odor and taste, and yields on a second infu- equal to the theme, was not to be expected; but sion or decoction a product in every way unfit really, Shakspeare, the Poet, the Lover, the Acfor use, and which the inventor states he has tor, and the Man, is better than might have been discovered produces injurious effects.” The di- looked for considered only as a readable book. rections show the mode of use; the vessel is It is true, the author's conception of the age is self-acting and the action is rapid, leaving behind rather superficial: he has little more of the all the noxious portions of the berry:

Elizabethan period than its phrases and its costumes; and Shakspeare talks melodramatically,

unless in speaking from his own plays, when he In a newly published pamphlet, Mr. Hind suggests the idea of a player's quotations. Still, states that he expects the return, in the present if we look at the enormous presumption of the year, of the very remarkable comet which start- task, Mr. Curling has got along pretty well; but ied the world in 1264, and which he maintains it is by connecting the poet with the political appeared again in 1556.

plots and turmoils of the time.

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