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intellect dealing with problems far above it, and, is recent and forget what preceded, a frailty of properly enough, place it under the custody of which we are justly ashamed; for it is shallow the police.
thinking that produces short memory. It is naSuch is partly the pith and substance of a ture's law that we shall keep no more than we highly interesting lecture. Not having been The rich man is only really rich so far as permitted to take notes, we have necessarily he can use his wealth. Rich wants really make done injustice to the manner no less than to the rich men. But for the most part, alas, our rich matter of the discourse. The burthen and gist men are unskilful spenders. Thus it is with of the whole was to commend the speculative knowledge. Not childless is thought; it is reand subjective modes of speculation. It con- productive. There is no fixture in the unicluded with an eloquent and brilliant peroration, verse; and thus the thinker always finds himself every sentence of which was a galaxy of starry in the early ages. He stands distinguished from pictures concerning the cheerfulness which is the present. The boy of genius, somehow, nevthe constant habit of true genius - the one law er mixes with his family, but lives apart; wears of a mind in perfect health - and the propriety a Gyges' ring, and disappears at noon-day. Evof its cultivation by all.
ery truth leads to another; the inquirer pro
ceeds, sustained by hope in the infinity of the On Thursday the second lecture was deliv- world. An infinity of use attaches to every ered, on “ The Relation of Intellect to Natural atom. The same particle of matter is equally Science.” The audience was more numerous ready to become part of a man's eye or the talthan that attending the first : among the compa on of a crab's foot. Its value lies in its use, not ny were the Duchess of Sutherland, Lady Byron, in itself. The vulgar place emphasis on persons Mr. Forster, Mr. Thomas Carlyle, and others. and facts, the wise esteem their qualities. ReliThe discourse commenced with describing an gion runs through the intellect, like two parallel analogy between vegetation and intellection, lines
. Integrity is the fountain of power. Evwhich was elaborately and eloquently conducted. ery idea is a power, and creates its age. Thought In intellection were included knowledge, wis- uttered inspires first the highest minds, then dedom, and virtue. The argument of the lecture scends from class to class; at length it leavens was “ The Relation of Intellect to Natural Sci- the masses, and makes revolutions. It is unience.” Man's progress had been gradual, in versal in its relations, and would give birth to order that his fortitude might be tried, and his the relative sciences for the exposition, could virtue exercised. Truths, accordingly, of the we but find them out. The discovery involves highest ultimate value have been late revealed. pain and difficulty as its primary condition. They have been delayed until the human mind has been prepared for their reception; otherwise, though truths, they might have been abused The third lecture, delivered on Saturday, to evil ends. Heaven has been slow to trust us treated on the “ Tendencies and Duties of Men with edge tools. Man, meanwhile, has been of Thought." The universe, said the orator, impatient. His history has been a series of was but a manifestation of thought. Hence its conspiracies to steal a march on Providence, relations with the man of thought, and the eterand obtain its gifts without having first earned nal sympathy between them. Nothing less than them by the requisite labor. Some degree of the universe will satisfy the rational mind. He knowledge is needed to gain more knowledge. aims at the entire — the perfect. He repudiates We have men of science among our acquaint- all but the absolute; even on the score of econance who could tell us probably what we want omy. The intelligent gardener knows well to know, if we did but know enough already to enough that a good tree costs no more than a ply them with the proper questions. We must bad one, and better rewards in the end the neclearn to question well. An ignorant querist is essary expenditure. Great, however, is the disself-defeated. No short-cuts to knowledge are proportion between the aim and the result. permitted. Mesmerism lately had seemed to Means and conditions are requisite. A similar present a ready means of question and answer; disproportion exists between the man and his a command was, as it were, offered orer the ora- work — that is, in the observer's apprehension. cle of the human consciousness. But nature The artist is frequently so inferior to his proever vindicates her law. No such facile process duction, music and poetry seem to fall superfiwas available, and that bubble burst. Truth cially and accidentally — their recipients, their requires immense sacrifices. It cannot be sur professors, seem frequently selected in so arbiprised; it must grow. It requires vigorous ef- trary a manner. These gifts are granted by a fort. We like the signs of vigor: and most, its higher than human wisdom. The ship of Heaven sign in a great memory. We remember what guides itself, and will not accept a wooden rud
der. This truth should be borne in mind when to our faith in truth. Many literary men, we propose to educate. Nature in the child is doubting this, argue as if they would patronize stronger than will in the father. We must do Providence. True elevation of mind consists in as we can — but we cannot teach. We may the perception of a law over it - a law that sometimes suppress and burthen, but after a while governs all minds. The soul stipulates for no the original tendency triumphs. Evil instruc- private good. It is only vulgar religionists who tions may even corrupt the pupil; nevertheless, are merely anxious for their own personal salvathe moral sense re-appears for ever. The true tion. Such as they are, even the gods themmethod of cultivation is simply to sow - Sow selves could not help them. There is but one - Sow — nothing but sow. All the good we can law, one truth, for all. The weight of the unido, is of a magnetic sort. We educate not so verse is pressed down on the shoulders of each much by lessons as by personal presence. We slave to hold him to his task. No one thinks would teach truth. What is it? Where is it? alone — no one acts alone. Divine assessors, Who has it? These are the only valid practi- like police in plain clothes, accompany, in the cal views of literature. All writing is by the shape of his companions, every man throughout grace of God. Only the writers should write. his career. Religion in Europe and America What the man has to affirm let him affirm. The seeks a higher development. Numerous are the modern
who required of his æsthetic respectable gentlemen in search of a religion. friends, in their weekly discussions, that each Old faiths have spent their force. The Turk's should speak to the question written on his slate- belief in fate — the Buddhist's vision of God in tablet, but no ore make reference to what had all his friends and enemies the Greek's apprebeen said by another, acted with the bighest hension of destiny and duty, and the antagonisin wisdom. Affirm, and affirm - that is all, of both to will - attract by the simple and terriknow not the value of what we say. Speak ble in idea. Such laws are their own evidence. from perception, not from memory A work of Religion is so. Systems may change, but there art should only be spoken of in its presence. All is a religion that survives men and forms, and men are inspirable, if they will only speak from speaks at all times to the human conscience. present emotion. They will speak as inspired, if The nameless thought! the nameless power! they say only the beautiful words of necessity, the super-personal heart! in which we live, and not repeat those of memory. The sacred think, feel, may neither be described or comprepower will not impart himself to us for mere hended. This we still reverence - content in tea-table talk. All men, in fact, are born with the conviction that the universe understands the same belief. Haberdashers and grocers are itself, and that all the parts play into a sure baridealists. They all partake of the same creative mony. energy – leaves and woods alike are made of air. Every man is born with his own polarity The fourth lecture, on Tuesday, the 14th, was or bias. Every man has a facility which costs on the subject of “ Politics and Socialism.” It him nothing, to do something admirable for commenced with characterizing the spirit of all men.
That every man shall do what he analysis and criticism by which the present age prefers, and have at least two francs a day is distinguished. The political orator, acting in for doing it; - this is the law, at bottom, of all concert with it, was forced to expose the bollow the world. Each individual is the bero of his charities of the day, and thus excited the disown drama. At first, he imparts his secret to his content of the complaining masses. These were brothers and his wife. But, at length, he finds even more ready than the better conditioned to that they have also their own tragedy or farce appreciate this species of argumentation. Nato enact on their own private stage. He, there- poleon harangued the French populace, but fore, soon ceases to bore them with his, and they found the inhabitants of the Faubourg St. Anto bore him with theirs. All parties, according-toine the readiest to listen to reason. Yet, of ly, take severally to their private box, and make all empiricisms, analysis was the ghastliest. Far it each a theatre for their own playing in other spirit inspired the fiery ejaculations of St. Heaven has given to every creature its own Augustine, Thomas AʼKempis, Milton, Jeremy weapon. Constancy and courage are better Taylor, Sir Thomas Browne. Look at the pious than pikes and arms. The victory is given to diaries of the men of the Commonwealth. Defortitude and perseverance—to endeavor, steady, cays of piety beget the decays of learning. Our earnest, perennial endeavor. The artist must age no longer consults lexicons and grammars, pay for his learning and doing with his but demands a sufficient reason. The surviving life. Enthusiasm is the daring of ruin for the traditions of Church and State chiefly remain sake of its object. Power is concentration ; with those whose affections predominate orer dedication to a task. Success is proportionate intellect, and in particular the love of good
eating. The last, too, frequently overrides every individuals composing them, did we know it, other consideration. Permanent wants rely on might justify the sore trial. Thus, also, for the dynamical means. The Conservative, or man dreaded evils of popular governments compenof property, refers all naturally to the institu- sations might be found. Mr. Emerson anticitions that favor its growth and protection. The pated in England no revolution. A scramble wants of men remain as they were. Commerce for money there might be — but no revolution. is still their child, nurse, and father. It en- The system, after the scramble was over, would croaches on all sides : “Business before friends” continue the same. When he saw changed men, is its motto. Education and religion, equally he would believe in a changed world. Successdegraded to mercantile uses, aim only to make ful communities were due to the presence and good citizens. All truth is practical; but men, | influence of some great man.
The ONE MAN by such secondary means, are kept from its was wanted
the Lycurgus. Majorities were immediate perception. Such means are multi now so successful, from the want of a true miplied by scientific discoveries and inventions, nority — the MINORITY OF ONE. Greatness whereby so much is done for the individual, that depended on individualism — would not live in not enough is left bim to do for himself. Steam phalansteries — but preferred the separate house. has annihilated the head wind. Yet is the social | Spoons and forks, and such common utensils, mechanism admirable in what it achieves and might be thrown together, but vases and statues projects. The elements are made tributary ; must each have its own pedestal. No doubt the laws of nature subjected. Gravitation is there was a plan successively realized in nature. taught to be useful, and the sea itself made to In the vast procession of things, this age is ours : pay for its salt. Electricity, chained to the tel- like some rock or island to a wandering sea-bird. egraph, does the business of correspondence If the heart of nature labors with any secret, instead of the postman. Great as are our pow- she will mould the hero to announce it. ers, we are on the eve of attaining greater. Nevertheless, the lecturer felt convinced that our hands would not be utterly unbound until The fifth lecture, entitled “ Poetry and Eloour sanity was secured. Filled with wonder at quence,” was delivered on Thursday, the 15th; our success, we say, “ let us make our state per- and the sixth and last, entitled “Natural Arisfect; the world shall be rendered as geometrical tocracy,” on Saturday, the 17th inst. Being as a bee-hive." All men are in a false position, connected in argument, we have reserved them and the philanthropist would put them in a bet- for one report. Eloquence, the lecturer affirmed, ter, especially in relation to loaves of bread. was a fact of universal interest. This, however, Hence the necessity for the moral engineer. did not preclude great differences in the characMr. Emerson could not refrain from doing honor ter of audiences. There were also many differto the generous ideas of the Socialists — Owenent audiences in one audience. Every man is and Fourier. They were not content with the naturally an orator, however for a time mute ordinary level of the vulgar philanthropist - hence every man is susceptible to the effects of looked beyond the soup-society and the charity oratory. The wise are compelled, because they concert and draughted into their schemes the abstain from government, to live under the govaccommodations of the palace for the humblest ernment of worse men. So with those who in the community. Let such conceptions be compose the orator's audience; they submit to gratefully appreciated, for they who think and hear bad orations because they will not them. bope well of mankind put the human race under selves speak. Brought to the standard in the obligation. They are the unconscious prophets hearer's mind, even Chatham and Demosthenes of a true state of society men who believe cannot satisfy his reasonable expectations. He that in the world God's justice will be done. remains dumb, simply because he has never been Before we censure their systems, let us remem- searched to his last energy; were he so, he ber that each is, after all, but a piece of private would suddenly find in his feelings, thoughts, history. Let us do what we can with our own words, the manifestations, first of the terrific, facts, before we find fault with those of others; next of the sublime. Words were, among the and in rightly arranging them, we shall find Spartans, who used them sparely, the sharpest enough to do. Yet it must be confessed that weapons. Two or three of them are sufficient the tender-hearted philanthropist frequently un to induce despair or to inspire hope. mans, in providing for man — he subordinates The end of eloquence is to alter, on the part him to the bread by which he is to be nourished. of the audience, the convictions and babits of The eater of the bread should be the chief point years. For this the orator must gain sovereign of consideration. Sad to hear is it of the star possession of the assembly. It is required that vation of the masses, yet the history of all the lhe should be a large composite man. The audi
ence will prove a constant metre of the orator. other requisite is the observance of method. According to his different moods be will find But the chief point is the command of imagery. different forms of hearers. Is he humorous ? Embody your abstract truth in a concrete imThe boys, whether in mind or body, will laugh age, and you have gained your cause. The true so loud and simultaneously that it might seem ly eloquent man is a sane man with power to the whole meeting were composed of such. He communicate his sanity. Though borne in the becomes grave, and straight the obstreperous chariot of inspiration, he must have control of cachination is bushed, and apparently universal the steeds -- he must drive, not be run away murmurs of suppressed applause greet bis sensi- with. Nevertheless, he must be so full of his tive auricles. He utters religious truth, and, lo! subject as to be drunk with it, and the words the whole assembly becomes a meeting of pietists. should flow from him as unregarded parts of the Few speakers, however, are thus thoroughly terrible whole. Truth, however, is essential to equipped. The New Englander, accustomed in true oratory; it should be a Mosaic statement a cold climate to keep his mouth shut, expresses of fact. The orator, to elevate, must be abore himself in a few brief odd phrases, which serve liis audience. To lift one up, you must be on to suggest only what he would communicate, higher ground yourself. Sometimes from the and leaves it to your imagination to complete wilderness will come voices, disturbing the peace the narrative. The Irish woman's speech, on the of sleeping times with their indignant warnings other hand, flows from her like a river. In Such pure bits of New Englandism will, in tura, South America they are nearly all speakers. have their copies in more civilized European Such instances illustrate the need of animal communities -- such spectacles of power from spirits, which, to the orator, are as expedient as the heart of Nature - John Baptists, the Hera house-warming to a new tenant. They con- mit Peters of modern times, gifted at once with ciliate attention at once. True eloquence, in- character and insight. Moral sentiment, affirmadeed, requires neither bellman nor beadle to in- tive and lofty, is the soul and final accomplishvite or retain hearers.
ment of eloquence. One thought runs through The lecturer then illustrated his subject by all the orations of Demosthenes — Virtue sereference to the Hindoo tale of Seva and the cures its own success. Possessed by and possesSuppliant, to Ilomer's description of the elo- ing such a thought, any man may become eloquence of Ulysses, and to Plutarch's account of quent — the greatest of orators. that of Pericles.
On the following Saturday, Mr. Emerson's Mere pleasing speech, however, is a juggle - lucubrations touching a “ Natural Aristocracy," the oiled tongue that can do all but lick the sun commenced with affirming its permanent traits and moon away, and decompose the four ele- Substantially, it was inevitable, sacred, and uniments. Against such the only remedy is cotton- versal. Society will demand and appreciate its wool. Such is the sort of oratory used by the model men, its living standards. The word “genshopkeeper and the village lawyer, the auction- tleman " is a sound gladly heard in all compaeers and the gipsy pedlar. Simple fluency in nies. In it is recognized the spirit of honor. uttering common-places got by rote. There are It is accepted as the reronciling term between professional orators of no better mark - me the upper and the lower. The highest minds who, like the schoolmaster, are just one lesson in all times and countries, acknowledged as ahead of the pupil. Sometimes, however, even the aristocracy of nature. Temperament of itwith such, a Satanic touch will occasionally show self is a fortune. To be born beautiful is a itself in their rhetoric. The highest orator owes manifest advantage. To the spirit nobly dehis rank to the magic of personal ascendancy. scended all oppositions are but opportunities and He is believed to be a match for events — a spir- spoils. Men of aim must lead the aimless ; it equal to any exigency. Ordinary times and those who are not such should neither undertake circumstances produce not such exhibitions ; but nor be entrusted to lead. The upper class should the storm of great occasions requires great ener- be distinguished by merit; any class not so disgies. Such were Buonaparte. Cæsar, Pericles, tinguished, ceases, in fact, to be the upper, whatChatham. In peaceful periods we disbelieve ever its conventional rank. Nature knows Dot the existence of overpowering minds. Ah, but of equality ; neither does intellect. The inethey make themselves felt in epochs of agitation, qualities of the latter are needed to more the and then assert their natural ascendancy with waters of thought. The true aristocratie class ease and immediate effect. Superior knowledge is that eminent by personal qualities — virtue, is one condition of successful oratory. In soci- genius, talent. He who really performs what ety, the man who knows most on a particular he undertakes, is a'rays noble; the pretender, subject will be listened to, whoever else may be wherever accid -ntal y clasified, is ever plebeian. present, and however great their talen's. An- ! The professor who cannot fulfil the duties and
conditions of his office should descend from his mere environment - none on trivial and domeschair.
tic necessities. Luther could not count the pudWe heard of " men of the world.” Mr. Em- dings in his kitchen. Those who are doomed erson wished to see the true men of the world to lead, need, however, good associations — asso
- men with catholic capacities, with universal riations with leading things and leading men. instincts
. The discriminating mark of such aris- Yet the insipid conversation of some who have tocratic man was, that he should be total, not spent their lives in the company of distinguished special, in his character and acquirements, and persons is remarkable. Talk of the atmosphere thoroughly respect truth. It is in proportion to of a planet; man requires an appropriate atmostheir ability that men value truth. The most phere. It, however, requires two for its proable are the most simple. All that is simple is duction. sufficient for all that is good. Where there is Good nature and good breeding are adjuncts original special power, the individual immedi- of aristocratic conduct. To these all topics ately commands his proper rank.
whatever are open questions. High culture reMr. Emerson next discoursed of “men of quires that actions shall be as true to nature as sentiment and men of manner.” It was the to come spontaneously; and life, in accordance general sentiment to show reverence for superi- with her deeper operations, be passionless and ority. Sentiment was fidelity to a thought. It calm. Such habits comport not well with the was this which gave the prestige to the soldier's mass, and belong only to the select few. Doricharacter - his devotion to honor. Here was a ans and Persians are constitutionally unfitted for man whose profession showed him to be ready each other the former coldly unmoved by at all times to be responsible for his acts with his life, and love, the latter warmly alive to the life. Thus it was that the sword commanded emotions of both. The highest natures are more respect than the spade, more useful as the readily served - gratuitously, too. The bloodlatter is. Would we thus devote ourselves to royal never pays. All other freely sacrifice not great ends, we must give up the approbation of only fortune but life in its cause. Who would people in the street. What can they know of not freely die, that there should be a better man? purposes like yours? They can neither esti- Great men, too, are permitted even to set bad mate your failure nor success. Our successes examples — vices are overlooked in them which are made up of failures. Great minds disregard are resented in the vulgar rich, who make no superficial successes, and despise the means of compensation for the evil habits they indulge in attaining them.
by the good service that they otherwise render. Nature creates a symmetry between the men But the essential distinctions of aristocracy are tal and natural physical power — provides a all of a moral character. large brain for a great mind In the hereditary Such is a rapid outline of Mr. Emerson's transmission of excellence, however, she is ca course of lectures. In our report the substantial pricious. Yet fathers truly predicate of their principles are, for the most part, given; but for own certain aptitudes that they cannot of others' the rich illustrations by which they were supchildren. Tawny white will, however, in the ported we must await their complete publication course of time and generation, become, under by the anthor himself, who, we understand, will an African sun, altogether black. Circumstances in about a fortnight return to America. — Jermodify original tendencies. Great minds justify rold's Newspaper. nature. Neither spend they much attention on
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