Obrazy na stronie

Power, pre


advantage is it to any citizen of Buda or Vienna more will be required of them than coöperation to equip an archduke and trumpet him forth to with the other states of Germany against Russa. Milan Extent of territory never firade a na A force no greater than the peace establislition the happier, unless on its own natal soil

, ment will secure the independence and integrity giving it room for enterprise and industry. On of Poland. Nay, if Germany sends only 150.000 the contrary, it always hath helped its ruler to men, Hungary 40,000, Italy 40,000, France 40.become more arbitrary. Supposing you were 000, Russia will break down under them, and governed by the wisest, instead of the weakest, Moscow be again her capital. Great states are in the universe, could he render you more pros- great curses, both to others and to themselves. perous by sending you from your peaceful homes One such, however, is necessary to the equito scare away order from others?' Hungarians! poise of the political world. Poland is the is not Hungary wide enough for you? Aus natural barrier of civilization against barbarism, trians! hath Heaven appointed you to control of freedom against despotism. No potentate much greater, much more numerous, much more able to coerce the progress of nations must anywarlike nations than you ever were ; Hungary where exist. All that ever was Poland must for instance, and Lombardy? Be contented to again be Poland and much more. enjoy a closer union with Moravia, and (if she dominant power, is necessary to her for the adwill listen to it) with Bohemia. Leave to Hun- vantage of Europe. She must be looked up to gary what she will take, whether you will or no, as an impregnable outwork protecting the nascent Stiria, Illyria, and Croatia.

You are not a

liberties of the world. maritime power, and you never can be, for you King: Russia is rich and warlike, and hard are without a seaboard; but Hungarian generos to manage. ity will open to you the Adriatic as freely as the Princess. Her Cossacks might nearly all Danube. Be moderate, while moderation ca be detached from her by other means than arms. profit you, and you will soon cease to smart under Her empire will split and splinter into the infinithe wounds of war, and to struggle under the tesimals of which its vast shapeless body is comburden of debt.'

posed. The south breathes against it and it " King. This appeal is very impressive, be- dissolves." cause it terminates at the proper place.

Taxation is more intolerable than cruelty and injus The Marquis d'Azeglio's pamphlet is an intice. The purse is a nation's panoply; and dignant and impassioned protest against recent when you strike through it, you wound a vital | Austrian atrocities in Lombardy, a narrative of part. "Refusal to reduce it will, within another the frivolous pretences that were held to have year, shake the broad and solid edifice of the English constitution, which the socialist and the justified the massacres and bloodshed in Milan, chartist have assailed in vain. The debts of and a deliberate assertion on behalf of the paItaly are light.

triotic Italian party that nothing but the recog. * Princess. The lands and palaces of the king nition of their nationality and the independence of Naples would pay off the heaviest : the res of the Lombardo Venetian provinces will now mainder is barely sufficient to serve as a key save the Austrian empire from dissolution. The stone to consolidate our interests. There are far-sighted men in England who would not glad change in M. d'Azeglio's tone since he last wrote ly see the great debt of that country very much is a significant intimation of the altered condition diminished.

of affairs. It is to be ascribed, says M. Prandi, King. Part of ours will disappear now we “ to the outrageous proceedings whereby, during are no longer to give our rations to the hordes the interval between the two publications, Ausof Austria. I hope they may be convinced that tria contrived to fire every Italian bosom with they can be happier and safer in their own irrepressible indignation.” M. Prandi dedicates houses than in the houses of other men.

"Princess. If they believe, as it seems they the pamphlet to Lord Brougham in his characdo, that they are incapable of governing them

ter of eulogist of the Austrian police; prefixing selves, and that an idiot is their proper head, let

a spirited preface which is not less worthy of them continue to enjoy the poppy crown, but attention than the narrative and comment of leave the iron one behind at Monza. Nothing I d'Azeglio. British Quarterly Review.

Translated for the Daguerreotype.


Nineteen centuries have now clapsed since same scene, in resisting an army of a hundred Jugurtha, the Numidian, defended himself thousand men. against the attack of the Romans, and his deeds Abdallah, now named Abd-el-Kadir, was still live in our memory. During the last fifteen born in the year 1808, and is descended from years Ald-el-Kadir has been re-enacting the I the family Eddin. His father, Mabi Eddin, a

priest who dwelt near Maskara, was celebrated, the God of Muhamed, raised the standard of throughout the country for his profound learning, the Prophet, and declared a holy war against and for the enlightened enthusiasm of his opin- the French. From the summits of the mosques ions on religious subjects.

the priests were no longer summoning the peoAs a boy Abdallah was remarkable for the ple to prayer, but encouraging them to take up eager attention with which he received the in- arms, and Abd-el-Kadir himself was required to structions of his father, and in his eleventh year place himself at the head of his warriors, and was found worthy to accompany him on a pil- undertake the defence of Islamism. grimage to Mecca. In spite of his under age But this coalition was broken up before it had he bore with great fortitude the privations to completed its preparations for war; and instead which the caravans are subjected, and took part of uniting for a common attack upon their enein all the prayers and religious exercises of the mies, single tribes sallied forth and were easily faithful. The caravan was on the point of set- defeated by the French generals. ting out on its return to Oran, when Mahi Great discouragement reigned among the Eddin died, and the boy was with difficulty Arabs in consequence of this failure: in the persuaded to leave the lonely grave of his neighbourhood of the cities a few skirmishes father. An aged priest of Cairo was struck by still took place, and a few wandering hordes this filial affection, and took him home with traversed the country and plundered where him and caused him to be carefully instructed they could find an opportunity, but there was no in the doctrines and usages of his religion, and real leader. Mysterious rumors, however, began encouraged the full development of bis extraor- to circulate among the people, which had for their dinary abilities. It was during this period that subjects the counsels and the wishes of the the young man arrived at the conclusion that it | Kadir of Maskara. Suddenly, on the 28th of might be possible to maintain among the nations September, 1832, Abd-el-Kadir was, by the of the East the religion and the customs which unanimous vote of the heads of the holy league, Muhamed had introduced by the sword, but that elected Emir or Sultan of the Arabs. This for this purpose it would be necessary that these unanimity was generally acknowledged to be rulers should be the only persons holding direct the work of Allah, and the Emir received the intercourse with the more civilized nations. He title of Sidi Medinnah, “ the holy Great One.” was at the same time warmly in favor of prog- From that day he was considered the liberator ress and civilization, but he thought that pro- of Africa, and the avenger of insulted Islamism. gressive reforms must be guided by the band of His preparations were speedily commenced the ruler and not be produced by intercourse and energetically pursued. Messengers were with foreigners. Mehemed Ali from that time sent to the sheiks who had not yet submitted to became his model, and he studied attentively his authority; a secret agent was despatched to every new improvement introduced by that Gibraltar, and another, a Jew, to London. The prince, whether it was in politics or in the army holy war was proclaimed ; old men, women and and navy, in commerce or in agriculture. In children were conveyed into the interior, and the year 1829 he abandoned his studies, and the troops assembled in the neighbourhood of made a second pilgrimage to the grave of the Tikedem, where the Emir had established his prophet; on his return he joined a caravan first head-quarters; the supplies purchased in which was about to journey to Fez, and in the England were conveyed to Gibraltar, and thence year 1830 he appeared once more in his native carried to different points on the coast in small place. Here the recollection of his ancestors, vessels which were there hired for the purpose ; his two pilgrimages, his modest behaviour, his and workshops were established in which morwise counsels, and bis noble features and com tars and cannon were cast, and the percussion manding appearance, all concurred to procure for guns collected from various quarters were adapthim a unanimous election as temporal and spirited to flint and steel, since for want of caps they ual chief of his tribe; and at the same time he as were useless in their original form. sumed the name Abd-el-Ka lir (the commander). With the aid of some deserters from the

Towards the close of the year 1830, a courier French army the Emir collected three battalarrived at Maskara with the intelligence that ions of infantry, to whom he gave a uniform Algiers had fallen into the hands of the French, consisting of a brown woollen jacket with colored and was alreadly occupied by French troops. stripes, and a hood. The only distinction of the Shortly afterwards Abd-el-Kadir learned that a officers consisted in a small iron shield worn on holy league was being formed, and that Sidi the breast upon which were engraved the words : Sali, Ben Aissa, and Ben Zamoun, three chief-“ Patience in command is the key of divine aid.” tains of the eastern tribes, together with Ben The plan of campaign was very simple. The Mezrag and Bey Titeteny had, in the name of French were in possession of the coast from Calle

to Mirs-el-Kadir, the harbor of Oran, but to- , witness to the fierceness of the combat ; the wards the South their conquests did not extend Arabs had in the mean while disappeared. beyond Milianah, a small town at the foot of the Milianah was invested so closely that famine lesser Atlas. It was the intention of Abd-el- with all its horrors soon made its appearance; Kadir to attack from the interior the whole line the garrison, cut off from the capital, and comof this territory at once, with an overpowering pletely exhausted, could no longer fight, and on multitude of undisciplined soldiers; and thus to the 26th of February, 1834, General Desmichels compel the French to concentrate their forces who commanded in Oran, concluded a treaty in Algiers: and then he intended to lay siege to with the Emir, giving to both parties equal that city with all the forces at his command, rights. The Emir accepted a present of a hunand thus to make an end of French dominion dred pistols and five hundred pounds of powder, upon the soil of Africa. This plan appears very and thus ended the first holy war. feasible, but there was a great obstacle to its But the boundaries had been left undecided; success in the fact that the towns on the coast and although the treaty was favorable to Abddid not hold communication with each other el-Kadir, inasmuch as the French as well as through the interior, but by means of steam the Arabs had now recognized him as sultan, he boats with Algiers, or directly with France. soon began to devise means for a renewal of the

A proclamation which the Emir issued at this war, and in the meanwhile sent an embassy to time deserves to be recorded; it was addressed Constantinople, in the hope that Abmed, the natto bis warlike tribes, and very greatly inflamed ural defender of Islamism, would embrace his their zeal:

cause, and thus carry the war into Europe. “I testify," he says, “ that there is no God but France also was dissatisfied with the conduct Allah; I testify that Muhamed is his prophet; I of General Desmichels, and sent large reintestify that I am his messenger. His angel Modhi forcements to Algiers. has himself delivered to me the Zuphalgar, and Abd-el-Kadir accordingly once more reared that holy sword will be carried before me, I the standard of the Prophet, and 80,000 horsecommand you who are faithful to take up arms; men assembled around it. He fell unexpectlet us enjoy the fruit of the palm only on the edly upon Milianah and Medeah, which received march ; let us hasten over the mountains and him as a liberator, and then hastened toward the drive these Christians from the soil which they capi al, hoping to annihilate the French. Ten have defiled. They are condemned to die by leagues from Oran he encountered the army of our swords ; a curse upon them and upon their | General Trezel: a fierce battle ensued in a narsacrilegious religion! I will go before you in row way, between steep wooded hills, and the the battle ; only those who are weak in faith swampy banks of the river Makta. The Arab can be reached by the bullets of the enemies. horsemen broke through the ranks of their eneIn the middle of Algiers we will all give thanks mies and scattered death around them; only and glory to Allah, and to his prophet." small portion of the French army escaped to

The towns of Medeah, Milianah, and Blidah | Arzew, while the Arabs erected a pyramid of were first attacked ; and at the same time the the heads of the slain, as a terrible trophy, beEmir seized upon the harbors of Arzen and fore the tent of their commander. Mostaganem; the forts in the interior were set Towards the end of the year 1835 a large on fire. Provisions could only be conveyed French army, well provided with artillery, from one place to another under a strong guard; marched against Maskara, which had for some for all the roads were rendered insecure. Two time been the head quarters of the Emir. As hundred wounded soldiers, who left Medeah un- they approached the town they found the deepest der escort of a detachment of cavalry, fell into silence: Maskara was changed into a heap of ashthe hands of the Khabyls, from whose saddle The Emir had quitted it, but had first set it bows their heads were soon seen suspended; | in flames, and had caused all the inhabitants who nightly fires proclaimed where the Arab riders were unable to follow him to be put to the sword. had paid their dreaded visits. One Sunday, as The French regained Medeah and Milianah, the inbabitants of Algiers were celebrating a and attacked Abd-el-Kadir so suddenly in Tlemfestival, the thunder of artillery was heard at cen with a detachment of cavalry, that he had about five o'clock in the evening; from the gov- barely time to throw himself upon an unsaddled ernor's house troops of cavalry could be seen horse and to take refuge among the tribe of the hastening along the coast; the rappel was beaten, Haddars. But soon he was again at the head of and troops were sent off with all possible dis- six thousand horsemen, and besieged the French patch. But when they arrived at Rasanta they garrison in Tlemcen so closely, that they were found the whole place in flames, and the boilies in the greatest danger of being captured; the of its defenders, for not one bad escaped, bore sea was so stormy that for a time it was impossi


ble for the ships to land their troops, and the From this time Abd-el-Kadir changed his garrison of Algiers was too weak to be able to tactics; unable to cope with his enemies in the send any assistance. Fortunately, however, Gen- open field, he yet continued the war with the eral Bugeaul was sent from France, and suc- greatest fury; with four thousand horsemen he ceeded in spite of all difficulties in landing at threw himself into the midst of the European the head of five thousand soldiers.

settlements. The rapidity of his movements The army of the Emir now amounted to thirty made bim unassailable; no camp, no fort, no thousand men, against whom General Bugeaud outpost could arrest him; within an hour all advanced with all the forces at his command. was burnt, destroyed, strangled. The next day A terrible conflict took place on the banks of the same scene would be reënacted at a distance the Sikak; the two armies were engaged hand of thirty leagues; where there was yesterday a to hand, and the issue appeared yet doubtful, colony of industrious laborers, to-day there are when on a sudden the Arabs disappeared, and but a few blackened ruins and forty mutilated the French found themselves in sudden posses-corpses, to show that the Arabs have passed by. sion of the field of battle, which presented so hor- And even to this day it may be seen how the rible an aspect, that even the soldiers shuddered French took vengeance for these cruelties; in to behold it. Abd-el-Kadir found that he had the forest Caressas the bleached bones of three no aid to hope for from Constantinople, for the entire tribes are still scattered on the ground. Sultan declared his intention of remaining neu At last the Emir took refuge in the Morocco tral; insubordination began to appear among and persuaded the Emperor Abd-el-Rhaman to his Arabs; and the blow which he had received assist him with an army of a hundred and fifty was so severe that he was compelled to seek a thousand men, under the command of his two cessation of the warfare. In an interview with sons. General Bugeaud advanced to meet them Marshal Bugeaud he concluded a treaty of peace, with thirteen thousand hastily assembled troops, by which he recognized the French dominion, and the celebrated battle of Isly was the result. and ceded to France Algiers, Sahel, Mititja, Three days afterwards the two sons of the EmOran, and Bona, as well as the towns lying be- peror, the Emir, and a few of their followers tween those along the coast. As sultan of the arrived at Taza; the princes were in a deplorArabs he retained the remainder of the country, able condition ; for six-and-thirty hours they but undertook to furnish a yearly contribution had not dismounted from their horses. to the French garrison of sixty thousand meas Subsequently to that period Abd-el-Kadir had ures of wheat, and five thousand oxen.

his head-quarters in the city of Taza, with the This treaty, which was in fact a supplement permission of the Emperor, over whom he pos. to the first, excited universal indignation in sessed great influence; and thence he conducted France; no sooner had it been proclaimed, when his operations, although on a small scale, with it was broken, since the Duke of Orleans and energy, firniness, and bravery, until, at last, his his brother took possession of the town of Con resources were exhausted, and finding himself stantineh. The Emir once more took the surrounded on all sides, he again trusted to the field, and, with not more than three battalions word of a Frenchman, and again found himself of regular troops, and six thousand horsemen, deceived; he surrendered on condition of being encountered the enemy at Qued Lalleg; fortune carried to Egypt and there set at liberty, and again favored the French, and they gained a he lingers a captive in a dungeon of France. complete victory.

- Telegraph.


Last Tuesday Mr. Emerson delivered, at the secured here, prepare these discourses for their Portman-square Literary and Scientific Institu- public utterance. Mr. Emerson's popularity as tion, the Inauguration Lecture of his course on a metaphysical orator in the United States had “ The Mind and Manners of the Nineteenth greatly excited our expectation and curiosity, Century.” The entire course is advertised to and we have been for some time anxiously consist of six lectures. The eloquent lecturer awaiting his advent in the midst of that busy has just returned from Paris, whither, not with hive whereof we are, as we trust, not the most standing its revolutionary condition, he had re idle of the diligent swarm that would improve tired from the bustle of London, that he might the hours as they shine. At present, though in there, in the seclusion which was not to be the summer months, the hours, viewed in their


physical aspect, are not remarkably - shining,” | equally valid and real. Its highest value was for the delivery of ontological discourses, even not always found in its mere business-of-life though by an Emerson ; the time is not the applications, nor even in those subtle directions most auspicious. Nevertheless, to be released of it towards the actual which men of wit prefrom the agitation of politics, and for a while ferred. Earnest intellects were the best conpermitted to listen to a few thoughtful words on

the witty the worst. He bad found the subject of thought, from an eminently that the witty men in this town were incapable thoughtful man, was of itself calculated to be of meditating a truth, were indisposed for conget a mental state of serenity closely allied to versation on equal terms, and dealt with it that religious peace of soul which the world can merely as a medium for frothy remarking and no more take away than it can give. Others, bad joking. They seemed to consider that they eminent in politics and letters, had evidently had earned, as writers, a special privilege to be been of the same opinion : on entering the the. come unprofitable talkers. Such men, however, atre of the institution, our eye recognized noble- affected popularity; let them learn that earnest men, members of Parliament, poets, critics, and and severe thought had always, of literary comwithal a considerable bevy of ladies fair - modities, been the most marketable. The customamongst the latter Mrs. Cowden Clarke, and ers for Bibles, Korans, Prayer Books, and treatamong the former Mr. Thomas Carlyle — all ises on the immortality of the soul, exceed in purnassembled in silent deference to the transatlantic ber those for all other sorts of books together. transcendentalist.

The speculative thinker dreamed day by day and Precisely at four o'clock the lecturer glided brooded over the same truths, satisfied with them, in, and suddenly appeared at the reading desk. loving them for their own sake, without much inTall, thin - his features aquiline, his eye pierc- tending any actual realization of them. He recing and fixed; the effect, as he stood quietly ognized their specific grandeur, delighted in their before his audience, was at first somewhat start- inherent beauty. He thought it quite as good to ling, and then nobly impressive. Having placed feel the influence of the stars raining down upon his manuscript on the desk with nervous rapid-hiin from the sky, as to contemplate a tub or a ity, and paused, the lecturer then quickly, and table on the ground. Truths in the mind also as it were with a flash of action, turned over were powers out of the mind; and such was the the first leaf, whispering at the same time, barmony existing throughout all the sciences, that “ Gentlemen and ladies." The initial sentences to study one thoroughly was to be possessed of were next pronounced in a low tone

2- a few the principles of all. Charles Fourier, by the words at a time, hesitatingly, as if then extem- study of music, was enabled to apply its results poraneously meditated, and not, as they really to the whole body of science, and, in renaming were, premeditated and forewritten. Time was all the facts and principles belonging to each, so thus given for the audience to meditate them as to bring them within the comprehension of too. Meanwhile the meaning, as it were, was his own system, he had thus originated a nomendragged up from under the veil and covering of clature which required an encyclopædia for its the expression, and ever and a on a particular interpretation. In the same way an individual phrase was so emphatically italicised as to com- represented a nation. Every Englishman was mand attention. There was, however, nothing an entire llouse of Commons in himself. He like acquired elocution — no regular intonation would invariably end a series of propositions

in fact, none of the usual oratorical artifices with making a motion. More valuable than it — but, for the most part, a shapeless delivery, were the propositions themselves, if rightly un(only varied by certain nervous twitches and derstood. They disciplined and exercised the angular movements of the hand and arms, curi- mind, and thereby made it strong to do and ous to see and even smile at,) and calling for suffer. The moral operation was the greatest; much cooperation on the part of the auditor to it tended to the mind's health. help out its short-comings. Along with all this Mr. Emerson next condemned what he called there was an eminent bonhommie, earnestness, the pathological school of poetry and fiction. All and sincerity which bespoke sympathy and re the highest exertions of the mind were the most spect-- nay, more, secured veneration.

sane. Shakspeare and Dante were poets who The argument of the first lecture was entitled were felt to inberit both reason and fancy. PecuPowers and Laws of Thought,” and its general liar respect was always paid to intellects of that aim was to celebrate (we use the word advisedly) rank. No government authority ever thought its importance and significance. The intellect of interfering with their creations. But let a was in itself an object of the highest moment, German critic propose to analyze what they had and its claims of the noblest order. Whether compounded, and straight the instinct of governregarded as speculative or practical, they were ments will rightly spy a danger, in the inferior

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