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one individual. Such would be the Shakspeare son, doubtless, commanded the warmest affecof Biography. To say that the author of this tions of Goldsmith; but he had a delicacy of delightful volume bad perfectly accomplished sensibility, and a disregard of conventionalities, this, would be to say too much; but he has gone together with an unbounded flux of animal spirfar towards it. He has fully felt what Biogra- its, bred of a love of admiration and fullness of phy might be: he has all the accomplishments heart and mind that sought less rigid companand much of the nice delicacy of judgment ions. He was not so much a scholar as a genius: requisite for his great undertaking. We say his aim was to be popular, and gratify his ingreat, because we feel convinced at every page tense sensibility by its utterance. It is a great that he is working with the fervor of an artist mistake, made by many writers, that if a man to establish a great model: he is advancing on forsake the society of the acknowledged great, the mighty but rude efforts of a Titan of litera- that he falls into an utter blankness of existence, ture; and, disgusted with the “ flimsy insulli or into worse — a vicious companionship. But ciencies" of the Carlo Marattis, is more inclined all genius does not show itself in books; and to follow the grandeur of the Michael Angelo wits and sages are to be found, known but to a of letters, and endeavours to unite the graces few, and too genuine to seek other manifestation of one school with the forces of another. The than their own spontaneous utterances, and of author of “ The French Revolution” and “ The too limited a sphere to be recorded. The brightProtector” has done more than any man of our est flashes of many a wit have fulfilled their time to expose the impostures of history — to function when they have set the table in a roar: show how its professors bridge over with words and there are Parson Adamses and Primroses impassable chasms, and connect, with flimsiest out of select clubs or literary parties. The fragments, the remnants that are left. In his greatest discovery that could be made would be History of Cromwell he proceeds with most a diary during his long secessions from the reverent step – he pauses on the brink of each Club;” or even one of Mrs. ,Fleming's, his fissure that suspends the plain path of his narra landlady, telling of his doings. Peradventure tive, he tells you when he is quite off the scent, we should see then a much more joyous, a much and keeps up no yelping babble to make a pre- brighter man, than when he appears amongst tence that the clue is still there. He thus shows the prudent Reynoldses, the worldly Garricks, how fragmentary must be the narrative of a the stiff Percys, and the arrogant Hawkinses great one's story. He is, however, quick of and Boswells. Above all things is apparent the scent and sharp of sight; and the merest morsel extreme coarseness that could ever condescend over which the mind of his great game has pass to make a butt of Goldsmith. The good -- the ed is a revealment. He does this in utterances great - Johnson never did. Ile, too, had known convenient to himself

, glowing from his fancy; poverty — squalid poverty — though not so long, but not convenient to the lazy thinker, who will or perhaps so intensely, as Goldsmith. Oliver not trouble himself to go from his old associa was poor, ugly, and had no artificial manners ; tions. The author of the present volume has but he had the highest sense of the dignity and not studied this noble writer without profiting worth of the human soul and mind, and could greatly by his theory and a little by his phrase- not bear to be thought or made ridiculous. IIis ology. He has much of his vigor and none of humor, as it appears in his writings and comehis violence; and may be compared to an ath- dies, is broad and almost burlesque. It had none lete who has acquired the graces of dancing of the vigor or venom of witty repartee. No The consequence of all this is, that we have a wonder, then, that though he saw and esteemed great unity of interest. His one great aim is great goodness, great talents, in such men, that to carve out the “true efligy" of his subject. he was more at home in less pretentious society, This is his great cardinal aim, and this he ac and where a more genuine tribute was paid to complishes happily, and, on the whole, very suc his nobility of nature, and his gay lively faney. cessfully. We are not quite sure that a man of We would rather bave spent an evening with far inferior capacities and acquirements might him at his Wednesday's than at his Bigwig Club. not have given a more striking likeness — more The end and object of this book, after all, we striking, perhaps, because less perfect; as we take to be, to erect a frame-work for the introfrequently gain our ideas more correctly from duction of much observation of literary life, and happy suggestions than elaborate descriptions. collected knowledge of the last

age. And viewed We do not think the Goldsmith of the Club was in this light, it becomes a more important work at all the Goldsmith of the Islington pot-house; than a mere biography ; though, as we have aland he is represented too much in the society of ready said, the artistic treatment of the biograthose who rather depressed than developed his phy is excellent. It contains, however, several general nature. The true benevolence of John. other portraits on a smaller scale, and we have

the miniatures of all the important literary men one at perfect liberty to scramble for himself. connected with Goldsmith, with occasional groups Though so severe a deafness had resulted from and some picturesque interiors, such as the cele- cold caught on the continent in early life, as to brated Literary Club, the dinners at Sir Josh- by its use to hear or not to hear, or as he pleas

compel the use of a trumpet, Reynolds profited ua's, and the assemblies at the Royal Academies. ed to enjoy the privileges of both, and keep bis We cannot give a better sample of the graphic own equanimity undisturbed. He is the same style which predominates throughout the work. all the year round,' exclaimed Johnson, with

honest envy. •In illness and in pain, he is still SIR JOSIIUA'S DINNERS.

the same.

Sir, he is the most invulnerable man ".. Well, Sir Joshua,' said lawyer Dunning, on I know; the man with whom, if you should arriving first at one of these parties, and who quarrel

, you will find the most difficulty how to have you got to dine with you to-day? The abuse. Nor was this praise obtained by preflast time I dined in your house the company was

erence of any, but by cordial respect to all; for of such a sort, that by — I believe all the rest of in Reynolds there was as little of the sycophant the world enjoyed peace for that afternoon. But

as the tyrant. However high the rank of the

His dinners though vehemence and disputation will at times guests invited, he waited for none. usurp quieter enjoyments, where men of genius His was not the fashionable ill breeding, says

were served always precisely at five o'clock. and strong character are assembled, the evidence Mr. Courtenay, which could wait an hour for that has survived of these celebrated meetings two or three persons of title,' and put the rest in no respect impairs their indestructible interest. They were the first great example that had of the company out of humor by the invidious

distinction.” been given in this country, of a cordial intercourse between persons of distinguished preten- But it would be endless to extract the similar sions of all kinds; poets, physicians, lawyers

, lively descriptions or the still more valuable deans, historians, actors, temporal and spiritual peers, house of commons men, men of science, brief, but pregnant dissertations that arise gracemen of letters, painters, philosophers, and lovers fully and effectively out of the narrative. ilere of the arts; meeting on a ground of hearty is one which shows how constant is the writeris ease, good humor, and pleasantry, which exalts mind to the chief duty of literature, the advomy respect for the memory of Reynolds. It was cacy of the great claims of humanity. It arises no priin fine table he set them down to. There from a very admirable criticism on “ The Vicar was little order or arrangement; there was more

of Wakefield.” abundance than elegance; and a happy freedom thrust conventionalism aside. Often was the

DOCTOR PRIMROSE AND THE HANGMAN. dinner board prepared for seven or eight, required to accommodate itself to fifteen or sixteen; “ There had been, in light, amusing fiction, no for often, on the very eve of dinner, would Sir such scene as that where Doctor Primrose, surJoshua tempt afternoon visitors with intimation rounded by the mocking felons of the gaol into that Johnson, or Garrick, or Goldsmith was to which his villanous creditor has thrown him, dine there. Nor was the want of seats the only finds in even those wretched outcasts a common difficulty. A want of knives and forks, of plates nature to appeal to, minds to instruct, sympaand glasses, as often succeeded. In something thies to bring back to virtue, souls to restore and of the same style too, was the attendance; the • In less than a fortnight I had formed kitchen had to keep pace with the visitors; and them into something social and humane.' Into it was easy to know the guests best acquainted how many hearts may this have planted a desire with the house, by their never failing to call in- which had as yet become no man's care! Not stantly for beer, bread, or wine, that they might yet bad Howard turned his thoughts to the prisget them before the first course was over, on, Romilly was but a boy of nine years old, and the worst confusion began. Once was Sir and Elizabeth Fry had not been born. In Joshua prevailed upon to furnish his table with Goldsmith's day, as for centuries before it, the dinner glasses, and decanters, and some saving gaol existed as the gallows' portal: it was crime's of time they proved; yet as they were demol- high school, where Law presided over the sciished in the course of service, he could never ence of law-breaking, and did its best to spread be persuaded to replace them. But these tri- guilt abroad. This prison, says Dr. Primrose, fling embarrassments,' added Mr. Courtenay, de- makes men guilty where it does not find them scribing them to Sir James Macintosh, "only so; “it encloses wretches for the commission of served to enhance the hilarity and singular one crime, and returns them, if returned alive, pleasure of the entertainment.' It was not the Gitted for the perpetration of thousands. With wine, dishes, and cookery, not the fish and veni- what consequence? "New vices call for fresh son, that were talked of or recommended; those restraints; penal laws, which are in the hands social hours, that irregular convivial talk, had of the rich, are laid upon the poor; and all our matter of higher relish, and fare more eagerly paltriest possessions are hung round with gibenjoyed. And amid all the animated bustle of hets.' It scares men now to be told of what no his guests, the host sat perfectly composed ; al man then took heed. Deliberate murders were ways attentive to what was said, never mind committed by the State. It was but four years ing what was eat or drank, and leaving every after this that the governinent which had re

save.

duced a young wife to beggary by pressing her | French Revolution. It is a curious fact, that husband to sea, sentenced her to death for en no trace appears of Goldsmith's ever being in tering a draper's shop, taking some coarse linen love. Not a single letter, nor a single anecdote, of the counter, and laying it down again as the refers to any such emotion; without, indeed, the shopman gazed at her; listened unmoved to a detence which might have penetrated stone, that very slighit allusions to his cousin in Ireland, or inasmuch, since her husband was stolen from to Miss Horneck, b3 thought to indicate it. We her, she had had no bed to lie upon, nothing to must, however, say, that although we believe clothe her children, nothing to give them to eat, that the present, as well as his previous biograperhaps she might have done something wrong, pher, Mr. Prior, have collected all that is possifor she hardly knew what she did; and finally ble of his life, that there is yet a large section of sent her to Tyburn, with her infant sucking at her breast.

it unrevealed; and possibly in this unknown peNot without reason did Horace Walpole call the country one great shambles.' riod of his existence he may have manifested this Hardly a Monday passed that was not Black important portion of his humanity. But we Monday at Newgate. An execution came round rather think not, for there is no trace of it in as regularly as any other weekly show; and his writings; and there the passions, be of what when it was that shocking sight of fifteen men kind they may, are sure to evolve themselves. executed,' whereof Boswell makes more than It probably may be said that neither he nor his one mention, the interest was of course the illustrious friend, Johnson, were ever really in greater. Men not otherwise hardened, found here a debasing delight. George Selwyn passed love; and indeed the latter asserted, that it was as much time at Tyburn as at White's; and Mr.

a matter of indifference what woman was wedBoswell had a special suit of execution black, ded, provided she was virtuous and decent. It to make a decent appearance near the scafiold. were a curious inquiry to trace how it was that Not uncalled for, therefore, though solitary and so little of this feeling appeared amongst the as yet unheeded, was the warning of the good literary men of the age; and whether they, by Dr. Primrose. Nay, not uncalled for is it now,

their writings, acted upon the

age in producing though eighty years have passed. Do not, be

this lukewarmness towards the most universal of said, draw the cords of society so hard that a convulsion must come to burst them; do not

the passions, or whether they themselves were cut away wretches as useless, before you have subdued by the reasonable and logical tone of tried their utility; make law the protector, not the age, and were so trained both by others and the tyrant of the people. You will then find that themselves, that they brought such feelings to creatures whose souls are held as dross, want

the milder level of the affections. Whatever only the hand of a refiner; and that very little the cause, it had a sensible effect on their writblood will serve to cement our security.'

ings, and so on literature; and we no more can The estimate of Goldsmith's position is very fancy a Byron manifesting himself at that period fairly made. It may, perhaps, appear to many than a Napoleon. modern readers somewhat too highly fixed; for This absence of passion, and consequently, as there has been so much brilliant writing since, we think, in a great degree of imagination, gives and so much that is captivating to younger read an air of simplicity and almost of insipidity to ers, that but few of this generation have turned much that was written. Dignity contented itto the authors of the last century. That they self with a strut, and strength with dogmatic have lost their hold on the public mind, is suffi- assertion. The architecture and the costume of ciently established by the simple fact, that the the age furnishes a very striking index to the hooksellers have long discontinued the trade edi- prevailing feeling and sentiment; and nothing tions of them; and that even the more specu- could be more prosaic than the one, and absurd lating traders, who seek for cheap works for the than the other. It might be an age in which rising generation, do not think it worth while to the perfection of common sense was cultivated; reprint them collectively. They rather go back but it was as certainly an age of poor convenanother hundred years, and reprint the works tionalities and trivial emotions. Learning had of Shakspeare, and the poetry which succeeded too much usurped the place of wisdom, and senhim. This we take to be a favorable sign, for timent of poetry. The effort was to say good in these writers there is a passion and a purpose things; not to feel mighty ones. And the mere deeper and more enduring than of the somewhat effort to say caused many comical distortions dilettante age the present biography illustrates. both of language and reasoning. Of all this, There is nothing more striking in reviewing it, no one than the present biographer is better as it is so well revived in this book, than its to aware; and different was his treatment of that tal want of passion. No great motive animated preceding hundred years, wherein the mightiest it, nor did its individual promulgators appear to passions were exerted, and he consequently had possess any of the vigorous aspirations that have to delineate a succession of heroes. And here so illuminated the works on this side of the great we must say we prefer, though not so carefully

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written, bis Lives of the Statesmen of the sev- owed to those old evenings at Strasburg. The enteenth, to his biography of the beaux-esprits strength which can conquer circumstance; the of the eighteenth century. Ile has, however, happy wisdom of irony' which elevates it-elf penetrated beneath the grotesque fashion of even

above every object, above fortune and misforthis mediocre period, and fairly and wisely elicit

tune, good and evil, death and life, and attains ! ed the essential truths promulgated by the sub-ed Goethe in the tone with which Goldsmith's

to the possession of a poetical world; first visite ject of his memoir. No one can peruse his book tale is told. The fiction became to him lite's without being enlightened, and without acknowl- first reality; in country clergymen of Dru-en

! edging that even in this apparently superficial heim there started up Vicars of Wakefield; for and barren era, seeds were sown by the gentle Olivias and Sophias of Alsace, first love tluthand of the much enduring literary hack, and tered at his heart; and at every stage of his illusunsuccessful medical doctor, that have spread recurred to him. Ile remembered it, when, at

trious after-career, its impression still vividly world-wide, and given to civilization germs of the height of his worldly honor and success, he perennial flowers that will blossom for ever. made his written Life ( Wahrheit und DichBut herein the author shall, in some little de- tung') record what a blessing it had been io gree, minister for himself.

him; he had not forgotten it, when, some seven

teen years ago, standing, at the age of eightyGOLDSMITII INSPIRES GOETHE.

one, on the very brink of the grave, he told a

friend that in the decisive moment of mental “It was not an age of particular earnestness, development, the Vicar of Wakefield had formed this Hume and Walpole age: but no one can be bis education, and that he had lately, with unain earnest himself without in some degree af- bated delight, ó read the charming book again fecting others. I remember a passage in the froin beginning to end, not a little affected by Vicar of Wakefield,' said Johnson, a few years

the lively recollection' how much be bad been after its author's death, ' which Goldsmith was

indebted to the author seventy years before." afterwards fool enough to expunge. I do not lore a mun who is zealous for nothing.' The

It is almost superfluous to say that the biograwords were little, since the feeling was retained; pher is very fond of bis subject; though indeed for the very basis of the little tale was a sinceri- | he may be said to be above his subject in more ty and zeal for many things. This, indeed, it senses than one; for it is a fate set down in the was, which, while all the world were admiring decrees of doom that “ poor Goldy” shall be it for its mirth and sweetness, its bright and hap- patronised alive or dead. Indeed, it is the papy pictures, its simultaneous movement of the tronage of a kind man, and of one capable of springs of laughter and tears, gave it a rarer value to a more select andience, and connected esteeming; but yet “ poor Goldy,” could he note it with not the least memorable anecdote of it, would find that he was still rather looked modern literary history. It had been published down upon than up to. So much forie bas little more than four years, when two Germans, manner, and so little power innate unadorned whose names became afterwards world-famous, greatness, with even the best specimens of huone a student, at that time in his twentieth, the manity. But he sincerely loves the object of other a graduate, in his twenty-fifth year, met in his work, and perhaps the more that his mortalithe city of Strasburg. The younger, Johann Wolfgang Goethe, a law-scholar of the Universi- | ty is so constantly obvious. Ile makes his readty, with a passion for literature, sought knowl

er also participate in his affection, and not unedge from the elder, Johann Gottfried Herder, frequently weep at the miseries, indignities, and for the course on which he was moved to enter. sufferings, that the tender, noble, and gifted Herder, a severe and masterly though somewhat writer endured. The following appeal would cynical critic, laughed at the likings of the young have been acknowledged by Goldsmith, for his aspirant, and roused him to other aspiration. fellow-sufferers

, as well as for himself, as a noble 1 Producing a German translation of the Vicar of Wakefield, he read it out aloud to Goethe, in

demonstration. a manner which was peculiar to him; and as

THE MARTYRDOM OF LITERATURE. the incidents of the little story came forth in his serions simple voice, in one unmoved unaltering " IN A GARRET WRITING FOR BREAD, AND tone (“just as if nothing of it was present before him, but all was only bistorical; as if the shad

The ordinary fate of Letters in that ows of this poetic creation did not affect him in age. There had been a Christian religion exa lite-like manner, but only glided gently by '), tant for now seventeen hundred and fitty-seven a new ideal of letters and ot' life arose in the years; for so long a time had the world been mind of the listener. Years passed on; and acquainted with its spiritual responsibilities and while that younger student raised up and reës- necessities, yet here, in the mildle of the eightablished the literature of his country, and came teenth century, was the one common eminence at last, in his prime and in his age, to be ac conceded to the spiritual teacher, the man who knowledged for the wisest of modern men, he comes upon the earth to lift his fellow-men never ceased throughout to confess what he l above its miry ways. Up in a garret, writing

TO BE

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for bread he cannot get, and dunned for a milk- j ery one making any pretensions to belles lettres; score he cannot pay. And age after age, the and the interest of the subject, and its elegant comfortable, prosperous man sees it; and calls treatment, will give it a prominent place on the for water and washes his hands of it; and is glad book shelves. It is, as we have said, an admirato think it no business of his; and in that

year

of grace and of Goldsmith's suttering, had doubtless ble delineation of one of God's noblest creatures, adorned bis dining-room with the Distrest Poet a benevolent man of genius.” It also is a colof the inimitable Jir. Hogarth, and invited laugh- lection of interesting portraits. Scarcely a man ter from easy guests at the garret and the milk- of celebrity, from Jonas IIanway to Wilkes, but

Yet could they have known the danger is nicely sketched. And many public events to even their worldliest comforts, then impending, are cleverly interwoven. Wilkes Riots, The perhaps they had not laughed so heartily: For Shakspeare Jubilee, and of course the events were not those very citizens to be indebted to Goldsmith in after years for cheerful hours, and

more immediately connected with the poet and happy thoughts, and fancies that would smooth dramatist. Above all, the just demands of aulite's path to their children's children. And now, thorship are gallantly maintained against trade without a friend, with hardly bread to eat, and usurpations, and it may, indeed, be said to be uncheered by a hearty word or a smile to help throughout a very temperate and masterly dechim on, he sits in his melancholy garret, and laration of the Rights of Literature. But even those fancies die within him. It is but an acci- here we cannot help detecting the influences of dent now, that the good Vucur shall be born; that the Gentleman in Black shall dispense his

taste, for the conduct that is so ably denounced charities; that Croaker shall grieve; Tony Lump- in the booksellers, is almost defended in the kin laugh ; or the sweet soft echo of the Deserted managers of the theatres. Griffiths and GardVillage come always back upon the heart, in ner are scoundrels, but Garrick and Colman, charity, and kindness, and sympathy with the though playing with the hopes and wants of poor. For, Despair is in the garret; and the

their victim for years, with the coolness and poet, overmastered by distress, seeks only the

dexterity of anglers, are excused. Some other means of flight and exile. With a day dream to his old Irish playfellow, a sigh for the heavy

slight blemishes might also be pointed out; and scoundrels” who disregard him, and a wail for

we think some of the long quotations from Bosthe age to which genius is a mark of mockery; well, towards the end, as over well-known, might he turns to that first avowed piece, which being be spared. The illustrations are numerous, and also his last, is to prove that “ blockheads are not are faithful as portraits, but otherwise not remen of wit, and yet men of wit are actually

markable. That there is scarcely a new fact in blockheads."

the work cannot be urged against the author, With this we shall conclude, and probably we for he has not professed to atřord any. His obhave said more than enough of this interesting, ject was to use with skill and genius those alpowerful, and manly work; the well known ready known, and in this he has admirably sucscholarship and accomplishments of the biogra- ceeded. Douglas Jerrold's Magazine. pher will be sure to attract the attention of ev

ITALIAN AFFAIRS.

We have received two additional contribu- | The King asks the Duchess to compose a mantions to our knowledge of Italian affairs, in a new

ifesto for the Austrians and Hungarians in appamphlet, by the Marquis d'Azeglio,* and a peal against their rulers; and the dialogue is Conversation by Mr. Landor.f The latter

pur

thus brought to a close : ports to be a dialogue between Charles Albert

King. Give us a specimen of appeal. and the Milanese Duchess, who has taken so

Princess. It would be like this: Austrians prominent a part on the patriotic side. It is full and Ilungarians! why do you wish to impose on of the ardent original thoughts which distin- others a yoke which you yourselves have shaken guish Mr. Landor on this and every other sub- off? If they whom you persist in your endeavject, and is written in his usual noble English. ors of reducing to servitude, had attempted the

same against you, then indeed resentment might * “ Austrian Assassination in Lombardy." By the warrant you, and retributive justice would be Marquis Massimo d' Azeglio. Edited by Fortunate certainly on your side. It may gratify the vanPrandi. Translated from the Italian. Newby. ** Imaginary Conversation of King Carlo Alberto states; and the directors of court pageants may

ity of a family to exercise dominion over distant and the Duchess Belgioioso, on the Atlairs and Pros. pects of Italy:" by Walter Savage Landor. Long. be loth to drop the fruits of patronage. These man and Co.

fruits are paid for with your blood. Of what

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