Obrazy na stronie

introduced trial by jury, and several other re- | 1842, and a third in 1845. In 1841 the “ Popforms into that neglected country, but was soon ulaire” was resumed, but henceforth exhibited dismissed on account of his political writings. a considerable degree of jealousy towards all Elected Deputy for his district, (Côte d'Or,) he communists whose views do not coincide with took his place, in July, 1831, on the extreme left, bis own. Among his later productions have by the side of Mauguin and Lamarque. In an been, “ Twelve Letters on Society; from a address to his constituents he now first called at- Communist to a Reformer;" “ The Democrat tention to “the dangerous position of affairs.” become Communist;” “Icarian Almanac;" &c. Lamarque's funeral, at which he was present, One of Cabet's peculiarities is, that he advocates drew upon him suspicion and persecution. The communism not as a theory of political economy, government, which feared him, brought him to but as a necessary deduction from Christianity. trial on account of his “ History of the Revolu Cabet has for some years exercised a very tion of 1830,” but the cause was decided in his powerful influence over a large portion of the favor. In the following year, 1833, the third working classes in France; and although he has edition of this work was issued, and 20,000 copies always preached peace and submission to the sold. In the month of September of the same constituted authorities, there can be no doubt, as year appeared the first number of the “Popu- we have already stated, that he has done much laire,” a weekly journal, which in a few weeks towards preparing the minds of the people for obtained 27,000 subscribers. It was deemed the conflict in which they are now engaged. It necessary to get rid of such a man, and after he would not be a matter of surprise if he should had in the chamber accused a minister of trea- yet be called on to play a conspicuous part in son, and in his journal exposed the treacherous the fu'ther development of the crisis. conduct pursued towards the Poles, he was condemned to two years' imprisonment, and the loss of his political rights.

OccuPATION FOR CHILDREN.— The habits He preferred five

years of exile, and went first to Belgium, and then to

of children prove that occupation is of necessity London. Thence he continued to edit the

with most of them. They love to be busy, even “Populaire," and published a pamphlet against about nothing, still more to be usefully employed. Thiers, Guizot, Barthe, and Bugeaud, and a

With some children it is a strongly-developed "Letter to Louis Philippe," against the policy physical necessity, and if not turned to good of his government. He also employed himself

account, will be productive of positive evil, thus upon the following works : “ Universal History,” verifying the old adage, that “ Idleness is the

History of the French People,” - History of the mother of mischief." Children should be enFrench Revolution,” and “ History of England.”

couraged, or if indolently disinclined to it, should It was during this period th he be me cor

be disciplined into performing for themselves vinced of the untenableness, as he terms it, of every little office relative to the toilet which the whole basis of modern society, and especial they are capable of performing. They should ly of the present system of rewarding labor. In sions in neat order, and fetch for themselves

also keep their own clothes and other possesorder to master the subject he studied more than whatever they want; in short, they should learn a thousand works in the British Museum, and at to be as independent of the services of others as last gained the conviction that " Communism is one of the inalienable rights of mankind."

possible, fitting them alike to make a good use of Upon his return to France in 1839, he became prosperity, and to meet with fortitude any reone of the founders of a society for promoting of no rank, however exalted, in which such a

verse of fortune that may befall them. I know a reform of the electoral system, which, however, produced but little effect. He then published system would not prove beneficial.

Hints on the Formation of Character. his “ Popular History of the French Revolution,” of which a second edition appeared in 1845. In 1840 he was one of the most determined assail A PEER BUT A Poet. - We have heard that ants of the scheme for fortifying Paris, and pub- during the insurrection at Paris, when the throne lished “ Six Political Letters on the present Cri was overturned and the monarch driven like a sis,” and several other pamphlets. Towards the criminal from the country he had betrayed, the close of the same year appeared his “ Journey to mob espied Victor Hugo overlooking their proIcaria,” in which he describes a large common- ceeding; in their frenzy some cried out “ Down wealth thoroughly organized on communist prin- with him, he is a peer of France;" but the maciples. Further explanations were given in two jority exclaimed, “ No, but he is a poet," and pamphlets called “ Communist Creed,” and “In whilst he was endangered by his association with what sense am I a Communist ?” A second the oppressors of the people, he was saved belarge edition of the above work was published in cause he was a poet! - Nonconformist.



From notices which have appeared in this Government maintains and affords to all its journal, our readers are aware that during the employés in State and Church. last month several meetings have been held of

16. The cruel and reckless neglect of the “ Delegates of the Metropolitan Trades,” for the Legislature in not making the required arrangepurpose of collecting information as to the state and, secondly, to properly educate the ignorant.”

ments; first, to usefully employ the destitute ; and prospects of the industrial classes. The inquiry was comprehensive in its range, fifty With the slight exception of some phrases of trades having sent representatives to this Con- doubtful import, we subscribe cordially and imgress of Labor, and each deputy furnishing facts plicitly to the whole of this manifesto, and shall and statistics collected by the members of his state our reasons for doing so in some comments own society. The great object in view was to on each section, taking them in the order arprepare an accurate account of the destitution ranged by the committee. of the operatives, to investigate the causes out 1. The construction we put on the first propoof which it has arisen, and to consider what sition is that property bas its duties as well as its remedies were best adapted to the removal of rights. In the sense of a Malthusian, the private the existing distress, and to the prevention of a possession of land is clear usurpation, since it future recurrence of the calamities so frequently denies a seat at Nature's board to the poor and endured and so bitterly deplored. The Report hungry; it deprives man of his inheritance, and is now printed, and we propose to make it the aggravates this injustice by adding the penalty text of some remarks.

of starvation. There can be no doubt that man It appears that the number of mechanics and was born to live, and therefore he has a right to artisans at present in London amounts to at least the means of life, but this right involves the duty 200,000 men ; that of these one third are em of labor, since none capable of adding to the ployed, but many at such reduced wages as are stock of food are entitled to eat the bread of wbolly inadequate to provide a sufficient supply willing idleness. It does not, however, follow of the necessaries of life for themselves and fam- from this statement that every private possession ilies; that one third are only half-employed, and of land is usurpation, or injurious to society ; are suffering such cruel privations as to be com very far from it, for without the institution of pelled to sell their clothes and furniture to escape property civilization could not have any permaabsolute pauperism ; that the remaining third nency, or even existence. The title to reap are entirely out of work, and have been so for what a man has sown is the very foundation of many weeks past, and thousands of these, who proprietary rights, and, were that title withheld, bave no friends able to assist them, and are the earth, remaining in common, would be a unable to obtain credit, bave been compelled to sterile waste. The true question, then, to be submit to the last degradation of pauperism, and determined is, upon what principle land ought to enter the union workhouses. The Report then be appropriated to exclusive ownership? Had proceeds to classify, under the following six we to establish a tenure for a new country, such heads, what they believe to be the causes of as New Zealand, we should certainly vest the this wide-spread and deep-seated wretched-fee-simple in the State, granting leases to the

cultivators, they paying rent to the public treas

ury, such rent being devoted to the purposes of “1. The usurpation and possession of land, taxation. Tbis was in fact the feudal principle which, being the gift of the Almighty, as the which prevailed in England during six centuries. means from which inan was to obtain his subsistence, should always be held in sacred trust for The King was the sole proprietor of all the the benefit of the people at large.

lands; and before feudalism was introduced “ 2. The usurpation of political power to make estates were only held during the life of the laws that govern the mass, thus unenfranchising donee, hereditary title not being acknowledged. and politically degrading the productive classes. Feudalism, bowever, sanctioned the hereditary

“ 3. The adoption of gold at a fixed price as title in the transmission of lands, but with many money and as the medium of exchange.

stringent restrictions and many clauses of re“4. Competition with home machinery, and the introduction of foreign manufacturers, com

sumption. In the Crown lands, not yet alienated, bined with felon and work house labor supported

we have evidence of the old system. It might by public and parochial funds.

be difficult to revert to the ancient plan, but not "-5. The monopolies and protection which so to abolish primogeniture and entails ; and if


it were found impracticable to make the culti- | Majesty, her consort, and her ministers; all the vators of the soil pay rent to the national treas- subordinate officers of State and their assistants; ury instead of to individuals, there ought to be the judges of the civil and criminal courts and no difficulty in compelling the landed proprietors their assistants; all the generals, officers, and to contribute a large tax in compersation for soldiers in the unproductive army; all the adtheir territorial privileges.

mirals, officers, sailors, and marines in the navy; 2. We need not repeat here what we wrote all the officers of customs and excise, the coast last week on the extension of the suffrage. As guard, the police, and, last but not least, all the a general rule, it accords with justice that all archbishops and bishops, and other State Church who are taxed ought to have a voice in the elec- clergy; all these have their wages and pensions tion of representatives. An educational test, if regulated by law, never being subject to cominsisted on, should apply as well to the candi- petition, never undergoing depreciation, by the dates as to the electors, for surely a lack of brains rise and fall of commercial pursuits. Yet what or knowledge ought to disqualify a member, as a contrast does this partial protection exhibit, well as a lack of property. Were this test en when it is considered that it is the government forced, we believe that hundreds who have given that are the employers, fixing the wages of silent votes during the last quarter of a century hundreds of thousands of all classes, protecting would be cashiered, and doubtless no small its employés from the enormous evils of comnumber of the loquacious who torture the in- petition ; the same government that day after genuity of the reporters of the press to construct day continues to neglect, degrade, and despise sentences which may pass muster before the dis- the industrious operatives of every business, ciples of Lindley Murray.

whose ill-requited labor alone maintains the 3. On this proposition we need not enlarge. classes protected, affording to others that which Our opinions are well known. Against igno- is denied to themselves, food, clothing, comforts, rance, scurrility, and fraud, we, as consistent free and every convenience of life which the unprotraders, have unswervingly held that a free ductive thousands consume and enjoy." trade in the commodity of gold is as necessary To this statement we would add, that where for commercial prosperity as free trade in all money is made out of gold, and the price of other commodities ; and it is, therefore, most gold in coinage is fixed, it is certain to be exgratifying to us to read in the manifesto of the ported as a commodity of merchandise whenever Trades, " that they have also to suffer the con its market price exceeds its mint price. To sequences of a mischievous gold currency, totally prevent this export as much as possible, gold is inadequate to serve as the basis of the circulat- made the cheapest of all commodities in this ing medium for carrying on the commercial country, and as it measures labor, labor must be transactions of this country.” Here is encourag- permanently as cheap as gold, though labor is ing proof that the schoolmaster is abroad. taxed and gold is untaxed. Hence arises that Light has penetrated the darkness, and truth cheapness which increases the purchasing power will soon disperse the mists of error, in spite of of the incomes and pensions of all government the resistance of those journalists who know, and annuitants; and whenever gold is exported, this knowing fear, that their vocation of appealing class reap a further advantage, for all prices to the passions will be gone, whenever the great | then fall, to tempt the foreigner to restore the borly of the operatives exercise their reason and gold; and when prices fall, wages are lowered investigate causes, as the committee has done in and operatives are dismissed. In such circumthe Report now under our consideration. Let stances property gains what industry loses. the usurers and their venal scribes ponder over That this occurs in regular cycles, is notorious. the following paragraph, and prepare to become 4. This proposition complains of the “introduchonest men.

tion of foreign manufactures combined with felon “ If laws,” says the Report,“ are made to re- and workhouse labor.” To import from foreign gulate the money wages of one class, in justice countries such produce as native industry can laws should be made to regulate the money create, and to put heavy and almost prohibitory wages of all classes; for the principle which duties on that foreign produce which is denied goes to employ and protect some at the expense to our soil and climate, are among the curiosities of the remainder is as grossly unjust as it is of modern legislation. We allow silks, hats, certain not to stand. Yet this principle of pro- shoes, gloves, jewellery, to displace the labor of tection to the few, and denial to the many, is in those of our operatives whose subsistence defull force at the present time, as is evident from pends on their manufacture; but tea, coffee, the following facts; and they are deduced from sugar, tobacco, wines, which cannot be cultivated the crowned head to the pettiest officer in the on our own lands, are loaded with the heaviest country's pay. The wages and pensions of her duties. Through competition we compel our op

eratives to sell their industry cheap; and by fis- contained in the document under review, and cality we compel them to buy foreign luxuries at shall quote the words of the Report : the dearest rate. They are smitten on the right

“ That for the just protection of the rights of and the left, both as producers and consumers. labor, a • Labor Protecting Board' be established, But the evil does not stop here; they are subject the members of which shall be elected by the to a grievance for which most of our readers may working classes, and in virtue of their appointbe unprepared, and that is the competition with ment be entitled each to a sitting in the House selon labor. Government having determined to of Commons, the president being a member of make the prisons self-sustaining if possible, the the Cabinet, as the representatives of labor and convicts are employed at the trades to which

the guardians of its rights.” they have been habituated, and they are thus To the principle of this measure we see no made to compete against those whose good con-objection. We have already a Board of Trade, duct keeps them without the walls of the gaols. which professes to regulate commerce and record As a specimen of the system we are assured that its statistics; but as all commerce is the result at Pentonville prison three pairs of boots can be of labor, why should it also not have its special bought for less than the leather can be purchased superintendent? It is demanded, however, that in the ordinary retail way, and any person can

the “ Lałor Board" should be elected by the go to the establishment and supply himself with working classes, and that its president should have boots and shoes. From the information we have a seat in the Cabinet. Here very grave difficulreceived it appears to be the intention of Govern- ties arise ; how is this election to be determined ? ment in all the model prisons to classify the con

is it by universal suffrage, or by delegates victs according to their trades, so as to form shops selected by the trades ? — is the appointment to or rather bazaars in which all sorts of goods can be for life, or for a term of years ? — is the office be purchased at the lowest possible price; the di- to be salaried ? —would it confer any patronage ? etary of the prison, which will measure the cost On these points the Report is wholly silent: so of production, will become the standard of the that while we accede to the principle, we must dietary of all our operatives, with this further suspend our judgment till we are furnished with disadvantage to them, that Government, purchas- further details. At any rate, the appointment ing the raw materials in large quantities

, will be would involve an interference with the prerogable to buy those materials on cheaper terms than ative, nor does it appear that the Crown could private tradesmen. The underselling process will put even a velo on the selection. On the whole become maximized by the double competition of we consider that this proposition requires more the foreigner and the convict, and this extension mature consideration than it has yet received of the principle of free trade can have no other from the committee, to win the favor of public result than to make a prison a desirable retreat opinion. for native industry. There ought to be a new The Report concludes with assuring the Govinscription on the walls of the gaols, to this ef- ernment that “ the Trades of London are formed fect : Taxed Labor undersold by Felon Labor. of men of peace, who wish to maintain order.”

We pass over the fifth proposition, as it is fully of the truth of this statement we have the most supported by the extract quoted from the Report, profound conviction. It has been proved by a which refers to the monetary system, and pro- fortitude under suffering which has on several ceed to the sixth proposition, which complains occasions elicited the commendation of parliathat Government does not usefully employ the ment. The working classes are not to be condestitute, or properly educate the ignorant. Here founded with the rogues and vagabonds who again we recognize the doctrines constantly enun- smash windows for the love of mischief or plunciated in this journal. Over and over again have der. Let it not be forgotten that last month the we endeavoured to enforce the principle of a coal-whippers, 2,000 strong, offered to be sworn minimum of wages in lieu of the Poor Law sys- in as special constables to preserve the peace of tem, by which Government should be compelled the metropolis. They spoke the sentiments of to employ on national works that labor which all the respectable operatives in England, who private enterprise cannot absorb. As to public are interested in the maintenance of order, education, we have contended that this is a fam- without which industry cannot flourish. Is it ily obligation, not a duty of the State, and that not the Legislature which introduces the prinit ultimately resolves itself into a question of ciple of disorder, when it exposes taxed industry wages; for all men should be paid sufficient to to competition with felon labor, and drives the enable them to educate their children, instead of mechanic and artisan out of his native market, sending them to labor at an age when they ought by permitting the comparatively untaxed forto be receiving instruction.

cigner to undersell him on his own soil ? Are We now come to the most important demand we astonished at murmurs and remonstrances

when men able and willing to work for their remediable. These are not times in which indaily bread are denied the means of employment differentism can be tolerated, much less proved through measures sanctioned by Parliament? | injustice. The manifesto of the trades should For is it not Parliament that has fixed the price elicit the sympathy of the middle classes and of gold in our coinage, though it cannot fix its claim the anxious attention of Government. Let price as a commodity, that encourages the for them beware lest a refusal to redress wrongs eigner to supersede native labor, and permits should convert “men of peace, who wish to the felon to cut down the wages of the bonest maintain order” into open enemies of all the man, untainted with crime? Surely these are institutions of the State. grievances which give rise to justifiable com

- Douglas Jerrold's Newspaper. plaints, and the more so because they are easily


Now comes the question whether the work., be induced to do what is done already in many man can, or ought to be, associated on the foot- quiet respectable firms and old families, as well ing of a partner; he contributing his labor and as by the State, namely, to provide for all who skill, the capitalist his capital. However, there have been disabled or worn out in their service, is nothing at all alarming in the proposition, or have served them during a given number of considered apart from the mischievous doctrine years with fidelity. It is surely better to pay of Government interference that has been con our contributions towards the relief of poverty nected with it in France; but it is obv that in a shape which elevates instead of degrading the proposition itself implies a partial attainment — which soothes instead of irritating — the of the object we have in view, namely, the poor. - Morning Chronicle. moral and material improvement of the working class. The laborer who lives from hand to mouth, and has neither capital nor credit, still Success in Life. In no department of life less the one who has not acquired a character do men rise to eminence who have not underfor regularity or skill, cannot expect to be as- gone a long and diligent preparation ; for wbatsociated with his employers with regard to profits, ever be the difference in the mental powers of or to be permanently provided for at their ex- individuals, it is the cultivation of the mind alone pense. But, if we are rightly informed, there that leads to distinction. John Hunter was as are causes even now in operation in the manu- remarkable for his industry as for his talents, of facturing districts, which give reason to hope which his museum alone forms a most extraordithat the consummation, which the Provisional nary proof. If we look around and contemplate Government strains to bring about in France by the history of those men whose talents and acbreaking down the masters, will be attained by quirements we most esteem, we find that their the willing co-operation of these self-same mas- superiority of knowledge has been the result of ters in this country; and we make bold to say great labor and diligence. It is an ill-founded that, if it is not attained by or through them, it notion to say that merit in the long-run is negwill never be attained at all. The fact is, ma lected. It is sometimes joined to circumstances chinery is becoming so complicated and so val that may have a little influence in counteracting uable in many branches of manufactures, that it, as an unfortunate manner and temper; but it the owners are afraid to trust it to any but the generally meets with its due reward. The world best and most careful workmen. They find it are not fools — every person of merit has the best profitable to give high wages in such cases ; and, chance of success; and who would be ambitious by the same rule, they may soon find it profit of public approbation, if it had not the power of able to give the best and most careful workmen discriminating ?- Physic and Physicians. a direct interest in the concern. At Nottingham a machine for making lace, which cost less INDIGNITIES TO “Punch." — A French offithan £15, has been replaced by one of very cial the other day tore the wrapper from a packdelicate construction, which costs £1,500. This et of perfidious English sandwiches, and exhibis a fact well worth the attention of political | iting the well-known picture of the long-nosed thinkers. Again, is there anything extravagant philosopher and his dog, ejaculated, with patriin supposing that the great manufacturer, the otic firmness, “ Ponche n’entre pas." railway companies, and large proprietors may

- Daily News.

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