Obrazy na stronie


ence will not serve to assist it in the ballot-box. | warded; namely, in the strength or cunning of There is no fear that coqs de village will, as a the laborer's arm. The heart of labor is “coin'd matter of course, crow in the Deputies.

for drachmas ;” and the selfishness and injustice There will, however, be workmen in the new of the world return him something like a fracFrench Parliament. At which innovation Eng. tion of a farthing in the pound. As the world lish Toryism is naturally wroth; inasmuch as it progresses, this old form of calculation will be is gross sacrilege to the Property God set up in reformed. For it is a truth, certain as arithmethe English Commons. For in England a man tic, that the question has taken root, and is vigis only acknowledged to speak from his breeches orously growing. And as for crushing it to its pocket: otherwise he is a “dumb dog." Witness first insignificance, you might as well expect to the millions of Englishmen whose only voice in condense and return a sapling oak into its prithe matter of taxation is in the ringing of the mal acorn. coin they cast into the exchequer. They speak With much ignorance, there is great common. to taxes only when they pay them. And there and withal, there is a great desire for fore to Tory, aye, and to Whigs — for like toad education among the working men of France. stool and mushroom they often demand a curious They are, moreover, to a man, Republicans ; eye to mark their difference a workman in a and tradition and their own experience tell them national assembly is an abomination both to eye that in France at least, the blood and sweat of and nostril. They consider the evil flourishing labor have been too long transmuted into the - if it should flourish — in its mischief some superfluous wealth of king and class. It may eighteen miles from England, as a political chol- be objected to this praise of the French laborera threatening to the lords spiritual and tem-ers, that with all the injustice and cruelty of poral, and the Parliament assembled. The ignorance, they have hurried the Englishman plague that decimates a nation may be conveyed from the soil. Very true this, and very sad. in a single garment. Who shall predict a limit But how many respectable, educated, liberal to the social disease invading England from Englishmen have sometimes in their dealings a workmen's coats in the French Chamber of like tyrannous spirit ? How often every week, Deputies? A disease — more fatal than moth’s – and in how many advertisements to the unemto velvet and ernine? And therefore is the ployed — does the spirit of persecution insulting. French Republic abused and heavily ridiculed ly proclaim to millions that — “No Irish need by English party. Now, it is assailed with dirty apply ?” words; and now with drollery in labor, miscarry Unemployed foreign workmen still flock to ing of a pun.

France. At this moment there are bills upon The sittings of the workmen continue to be every wall, giving notice to such aliens that they held at the Luxembourg, — Louis Blanc work will not be employed alike with Frenchmen out ing there like the incarnated spirit of industry. of the Government allowance — and further, that What a mighty question for the human race is they are liable to be expelled the kingdom. now in course of solution in that old palace - Thousands of English laborers -- to the sorrow that old fastness of human tyranny feasting upon of the Provisional Government — have been human wrong. And gentle Whigs and Tories, driven from France. Yet, in the face of such and breeches pocket bigots of all denominations, expulsion, other workmen have crossed the

whatever be the result of this Parliament of Channel, in the hope of participating in the Industry, this Wittenagemote of hard hands,- wages promised by the Government to the whatever be its ending, whether in the fulness native workman. What does this prove? The of assured success, or in complete but passing existence of an universal and deeply-seated failure, — the question of the rights of labor will / wrong. The laborer is the pariah of our transibecome the one possessing question throughout tion state, in which machinery is the despot of the civilised world. Kings, and thrones, and the multitude. Set in motion by a more equitadynasties, and standing armies, — will be power- ble spirit, it will work for, and not against its less, put aside, defeated by the onward progress makers. of that invincible question ; invincible, because Hitherto, the workmen of Paris have, in the animated by eternal justice. It is in vain for heaviest destitution, exhibited noble patiencesocial selfishness to hope to avoid an acknowl- touching forbearance. They are supported by edgment of the claims of the men who make a great hope; they, moreover, have a deep faith wealth. We look for no Utopia, when the gold in the honesty of the government; in the power in the Bank cellars will be estimated as so much and unanimity of the Chambers about to assemdross; but we know the time will come when ble. Here and there an inflammatory, felonious the true source the real mine whence the metal placard is addressed to their passions ; read, and is obtained — will be acknowledged and duly re hitherto unheeded. One of these counsels the

unemployed to take to themselves as a matter of alty must have its sufferings of splendor. For faith a determination not " to suffer any man to my plebeian part, I could as soon find repose in enjoy a superfluity, while others want." Now the furnace of Abednego, as comfort in the this same “superfluity " might be somewhat ar- blazing rooms of Louis the Fourteenth,' who bitrarily interpreted; but hitherto, in any sense, crushed whole generations to sepulchre their the interpretation has been unattempted. happiness in a garish palace.

The English continue to quit Paris. This is Louis Philippe, among his other good deeds, scarcely to be wondered at, for the writings of bas brought together all the pictures historical of their countrymen, like a firebrand, are of a sort Napoleon's victories. Battle-pieces in almost to make them take to their heels again. Timid every room.—Yes; through almost every apartEnglishmen write spasmodic letters, when once ment, the God or rather the Devil of Battles safe at home. British subjects are at the mercy has stalked his way, tracing history with his of the trading Gaul. A milliner threatens to bloody fingers upon every wall

. denounce her customers unless a new gown be But let us get back to Paris. paid for at a double price. And straightway, As I have already said, the city is perfectly the affrightened lady has throughout the day a calm ; awaiting the elections. In the meanwhile cold thrill at the neck, thinking of the guillotine the Provisional government work almost day and —and Robespierre, Marat, Danton, and the rest night. No doubt, they have committed their of the bloodsuckers smack their lips at her from mistakes; but how few in comparison with the the chintz of her bed-curtains through the difficulties that beset them! When we consider night.

the load upon their shoulders, let us wonder that If the English inhabitants — the few that re- they have stood so unshrinkingly beneath it. main are outraged, they may mainly thank But there are folks who, considering Atlas himEnglish printers’-ink for the insult. When self, would wonder why he bent quite so much ladies and gentlemen—the latter good old women taking it for nothing that it was only the world spoiled are permitted to put each his day- upon his back. dream and night-mare into print - when the A little more generous sympathy—a little less lightest expression of the merest gamin of Paris readiness to be severe, or scornful, or even huis set forth as the heart-deep sentiment of morous towards the gentlemen whose noble and Frenchmen; and the quick sensibilities of a no less difficult task it is, to keep in harmony nation are stung by pismire gossip — shall we the social elements of a mighty kingdom ---- can wonder if the follies of the absent are visited be no hard or useless sacrifice on the part of upon the guiltless ?

Englishmen. For let us, for only a moment, At present, however, I have witnessed nothing consider what France has accomplished by this but courtesy towards the English. Indeed, a her last — may it be her last ! — revolution. courtesy refused to Frenchmen. On a recent Has she not awakened all Europe ? From visit with other Englishmen to Versailles, we state to state, the torch of freedom — like the were informed that only a part of the palace torch in the olden dance — has passed on; the was open to the public. The governor was ap- torch lighted at the blazing throne, consumed at pealed to, when he immediately granted free the Bastille. A few days ago, and the Emperor entry to every part. He could not refuse such of Austria - imperial hydrocephalus ! — talked hospitality to Englishmen; though, in his own about using against his discontented subjects words, he was " impitoyable à ses compatriots.” “ the powers that Providence had placed in his

Here we found the statue of the Duke of hands.” Such powers of Providence in the Orleans removed to a place of safety, and the dictionary of kings - mean bayonets and arstatue of Joan of Arc — the beautiful work of a tillery. The Divine right of royalty is always good and gifted woman-walled up and protect- manufactured in the royal arsenal. Well; ed against the wild outburst of republican rage. where is the Emperor now? Why, abject Pictures, illustrative of Louis Philippe's lying before his risen people! Europe, drugged by royalty, were in the course of removal. (Is there despotism, was falling into torpor, when the tocroom for them at Claremont ?) That painted sin of Notre Dame awakened her to strength perjury, the swearing to the Charter, was — - like and liberty. Where is Austria, where Prussia, the perjurer - laid flat upon the floor. What Saxony, Bavaria ? Why, there is not a gamin tedious, teazing magnificence is in this palace of of Paris who may not rub his hands, and kick Versailles ! Gold, gold, everywhere gold, that his heels, rejoicing at the task that even he – the sense is jaded with it. After it a plain small political schoolmaster !— has taught the wainscot room, with the decencies of furniture, imperial and kingly dunces. comes quite refreshing to the spirit, parched as Whatever be the issue of the French Repubit is with such a heat of glory. After all, roy- / lic, mankind must be its everlasting debtors. It

296 Newspaper Press in France During the First French Revolution. has gloriously worked out the liberation of from the consolidation of the French Republic ? thought. The free intellect of man is no longer We have other means to work out such reforms snipped and killed by the censor's scissors. as the spirit of our times demands, and will bare. There is not a press throughout Europe, whose Our émeutes are public meetings; and our baruntrammelled working is not an added voice to ricades in the House of Commons.- Douglas Jerthe choral burst of Freedom.

rold. And for us, what have Englishmen to fear Paris, March 23.

Translated for the Daguerrrotype.



A real history of the French Revolution, and there in each year there naturally arose many a history of the newspapers and newspaper-writ. new journals which had disappeared before the ers, during the period of the Revolution, would next. We are acquainted with many which be the same thing. We cannot, however, at attained the age of three, of six, of twenty numpresent, attempt such a bistory, and must con- bers, which endeavoured to gain popularity by tent ourselves with presenting to the reader a the most extravagant titles and mottoes, by the few statistics connected with this subject. most shameful language and obscene emblems,

The literature of the Revolution was entirely wood cuts and caricatures, by extraordinary a newspaper literature; it cannot lay claim to form and size, -- and for which all these manæuany other. The spoken word, alone, could have vres only gained the brief existence of a week. stemmed the power of the newspaper press ; but Among such were “Le Journal des Sans Cufor men like Mirabeau, Robespierre, Brissot, and lottes," with the motto: " Les âmes des empemany others, the heaving public of the legisla- reurs et celles des savetiers sont jetées dans le tive assemblies was far too small; their speeches même moule ;” “Le véritable ami du peuple, were spoken newspaper articles, and as soon as

par un

* sansculotte qui ne se mouche pas they had passed their lips, were transferred to du pied et qui le fera bien voir;” “Le furet the columns of the innumerable editions of Parisien" with the motto, “ Je dévoilerai vos in" Letters to my Constituents,” “Defender of the trigues ;” “ La liste des ci-devant nobles;” “ Le Constitution,” and “French Patriot,” and flew, tailleur patriote;" “ Le journal de la Rappé ou like a shower of winged arrows, into every cor- Ça-ira, Journal * patriotique,” &c. If any ner of revolted France. French literature bad, paper was successful, a number of imitators therefore, completely resolved itself into jour- immediately stole its title, and thought to ennalism. The stream continued to swell until rich themselves by making it their capital. the ninth of Thermidor, and then flowed more Thus there were a number of “ Patriote franquietly along until the times of the Consulship, çais,” but Brissot's Patriote was the only one when it disappeared and left no traces of its which maintained itself. The celebrated name existence. We are speaking only of Paris, and of Herbert's Journal called forth a number of although we would not venture to fix, within - Père Duchesne,” of “ Mère Duchesne,” and several hundreds, the precise number of the some of them have copied Herbert's style and journals which were published between the method so accurately, that the genuine Père years 1789 and 1800, we can assert that we Duchesne can only be distinguished by the overhave ourselves seen more than one thousand turned stove (le fourneau renversé) on the last which appeared and expired during this period. page. In the year 1789 appeared about 160 new jour Of the mass of journals which survived but a nals, in 1790 about 140, and in 1791 about few days or weeks, the most celebrated is “ Le 185. The existence of these journals was just vieux Cordelier” of Camille Desmoulins. It as insecure and ephemeral as the influence of was the second year of the republic; the Jacothe party leaders. Days like the 10th of August, bins were engaged in purifying their club, and the 5th Germinal, the 9th Thermidor, which the cheerful, lite-loving part of the revolutionists, demanded


victims, terminated at the same to which belonged Danton and Camille, were an time the existence of all the journals which sup- eye-sore to the stern, narrow-hearted Jacobins, ported the defeated party. Where each one who had been indoctrinated by Robespierre. could say what he wished, where each could try When it was the turn of Camille to justify himto play the part of a great man and a writer, I self for having undertaken the defence of the


Newspaper Press in France During the First French Revolution. 297 brave General Dillon, he could only stammer | long about a dozen “Défenseurs,” including the forth a few unmeaning excuses. Robespierre “ Défenseur de la Constitution," by Maximilien volunteered to defend him, only in order to Robespierre; also the “ Ennemis,” the “ Antis,” make his ruin more certain. Camille possessed (Anti-Marat, Anti-Brissotin, &c...) the “ Connot the gift of oratory,* but no man on earth tres," (Contre-Révolutionnaire, Contre-poisson ever had in a higher degree the talent of writing des Jacobins) and finally, the “ Bonnet Rouge,” powerfully. He rushed home, and on the next the “ Sans-quartier," “ l’Espion,” and “ l'Emorning appeared the first number of the couter aux portes.” These were all serious Vieux Cordelier;"— with the sixth, his head papers. The place of the Charivari and Corupon

the scaffold. The “ Vieux Cordelier” saire of the present day was occupied by the is not, however, the best of Camille's journals ; Journal des Rieurs,” the “ Journal en Vaudehis whole power is manifested in his “ Revolu- ville," and others of less notoriety. But the tions de France et de Brabant;" but the Vieux most justly celebrated of these was Peltier's Cordelier is a tragedy, such as never before “ Les actes des apôtres." It was strictly royalwas written. In the bosom of poor Camille all ist, and after the deposition of Louis XVI., on the elements of the revolution contended for the the 10th of August, Peltier was obliged to fly. mastery, - enthusiasm for all that is great, ad- In London he then edited “l'Ambigu," in which miration of the chief party-leaders, pride in his he wrote most severely against the Revolution, own share in the events of the period, compas- and subsequently agair.st Bonaparte. sion for the victims, despair of the final result, – It is, in fact, only a thorough knowledge of all these had turned the amiable Camille's head, the neúspapers of the period, that can give a before he lost it on the guillotine.

true insight into the revolution. Such a knowlThe names of the journals of the revolution-edge is by means easily gained, and the foreary period strongly indicate the social principle going sketch will only give a faint idea of the of division of labor. There were more than two vastness and complexity of the subject. hundred papers under the name of “Journal,”

- Dampfboot. " Le Journal des Mécontents," “Le Journal des Paresseux,” “Le Journal des droits de l'homme," &c. Then there were a mass of

We translated the curious particulars con“ Bulletins," “ Feuilles,” “ Annales," “ Chron- tained in the foregoing article under the strong iques," “ Courriers,” “ Messagers," Correspon- impression that, as like causes produce like dences;” and a few “ Tribunes,” “ Avant-effects, a state of things so similar to that which gardes,” “Avant coureurs,” “ Vedettes,” “ Sen-existed in France during the last ten years of tinelles," “ Miroirs," " Tableaux,” Fanaux," the eighteenth century, would be likely again to and “Lanternes." In addition to morning, throw enormous gains and enormous influence evening, and midnight papers, there was a into the hands of the journalists of Paris, and “ Point du jour” (Daybreak), an “ Etoile du thus to lead to a large increase in the number of matin ” (Morning-star), an “ Aurore,” and even journals, and to a repetition of many of the exa “ Lendemain," with the motto “Je cours toute travagances committed at that period. Even la journée, je lis toute la soireé, j'écris toute while we were engaged in translating these parla nuit pour le lendemain.” (I go about all ticulars, the intelligence was crossing the Atlanday, I read all the evening, I write all night for tic, that the fulfilment of our expectations bas the morrow.)

already commenced, and we subjoin an extract These were titles under which any senti- from one of the foreign journals, which fully ments might be promulgated; but there were


that the revolution of 1848 appears likely, many others, the names of which indicated their in this respect, to rival that of 1789. Our readspecial design. Among these are the many ers will perceive that the names of some of the " Patriotes,” the " Republicains," and the most celebrated of the old papers have been “ Amis;" of the latter the most celebrated was revived. With regard, however, to at least two Marat's dreaded “ Ami du peuple.” It com of those which it names, the journal, from which menced its fearful course on the 12th of Sep- the following extract is taken, is in error. L'Atember, 1789, and closed it in September, 1792, telier and La Fraternité are not new papers, a few days after Marat had been elected a mem

but have for some time had a large circulation ber of the Convention. To the same class be- and very great influence among the workmen of

Paris, and the editors, strenuous advocates of the *"Camille Desmoulins," says Lamartine in the rights of labor, the former a compositor, and the History of the Girondins, “ was small

, thin, and had latter a working shoemaker, are among the canbut a leeble voice, that seemed to pipe and whistle in the wind, after the tones of Danton, who possessed didates recommended by the central Committee, the roar of the populace."- Ed. Dag.

and will probably be among the representatives

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of the city in the approaching National Assem L'Ami du Peuple, La Fraternité, bly.

La Republique,

Le Saint Public,

La Democratie, La Peuple Constituant, “ One of the most striking examples of the La Liberté,

L'Assemblée Nationale, late political catastrophe, is exhibited in journal. La Voix des Clubs, Le Journal des Ouvriers, ism. Not only is the circulation of the estab L'Atelier,

La Voix des Femmes, lished journals enormously increased, that of La

La Liberté Religieuse, &c. Presse alone having risen from 36,000 to nearly These are distributed in all the public prom80,000, but a swarm of smaller journals have enades by thousands, free from the control of come into existence. A sort of spurious race of any police. On the public ways the venders newspapers, distributed by hawkers in all quar. spread them out on the trottoirs, stick them on the ters of Paris

, and sold usually for one sou, the bands of their hats, and hang them round their profits being two fifths of a sou, , has begun. The persons, by way of provoking the appetite of names of these feuilles are sufficiently significa- purchasers; they sometimes shout out the leadtive of their quality and character. Here are ing lines of remarkable news, just so much as to some specimens given from memory.

tantalize the buyer and extract the sou.”


Biography is a branch of literature that is it in the power of fiction ever to move the daily gains ground with the public ; and which sympathies of the heart so deeply as real soris proportionably cultivated, not so much, per- rows, hopes betrayed, wayward wishes disaphaps, in consequence of the encouragement thus pointed nor any thing so elevating as the conheld out to it, as from the bent towards it being templation of the persevering etruggle crowned quite as strong in the writer as in the reader. with success, or so touching as enduring and inThe thoughtful, philosophical style, which poets nocent affections, well depicted, that we know introduced, and romancers have adopted, from to have existed, not in the imagination merely, Goethe and Byron down to speculative Bulwer but to have passed through this world in a tanand practical Dickens, has taught the present gible form. Besides, how often will the selfworld of readers to study their own hearts, and sufficient spirit rebel against the author's foresearch those of others, with a keener interest ; gone conclusions! Life's conclusions cannot be and memories, which in the days of Charlotte disputed ; and how often, were the tale of each Elizabeth of Orleans were mere tittle-tattle, that life revealed, would one be forced to own, “que Madame de Pompadour and Trenck almost le vrai n'est pas toujours vraisemblable.” Real elevated to the dignity of history, offer, now, all life has alternations of good and evil — of high the heightened interest which truth can impart and low in sentiment, action, and situation, to a pleasant or wondrous tale.

which the boldest pen, except in France, could True, even this tendency has its abuse; and not venture upon — which all silently know to often are people reproached with bringing be- be true, but none dare step forth and openly fore the public memoirs of insignificant people – proclaim. of people, in short, who have played no con The maliciously-inclined may, indeed, insinuspicuous part, either by their position, merit, tal- ate that the widely-spreading taste for memoirs ent, or even chance, in the shifting scenes of life. is akin to that peculiar quality inherent in the Yet there is not one flower that blooms on earth, children of Eve, which prompts us to discuss however humble its appearance, and small its the affairs of others, while living, and to investivirtues, which the botanist would disdain, or gate their lives and sentiments after death. look upon for the first time with an incurious Something of this there may be. Gold itself eye;— thus to the philosopher there is not a only becomes fit for use by alloy; why sbould mind that has not developed some strange, un not the powers of the mind be of a complicate looked-for quality, be it good or bad — that has nature too? Be that as it may, no biography not, by the manner in which it embraced life, can be totally uninteresting; and that which thrown some peculiar light upon it — in short, has just appeared of the late Princess Augusta that is not worth the analysis. There is not a of Nassau Usingen will, doubtless, attract notice, tale of real life, however common-place, that as well from the rank of its subject and its condoes not read a lesson or point out a moral; nor tents, as from the easy manner, which adds so * Aus dem Leben einer deutschen Fürstin. By It is by a lady of society — this is felt at every

much charm to thought, be it spoken or written. Maria Feodora Baroness Dalberg, born Baroness Mulmann.

line it breathes malevolence to none, and is

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