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LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE leaves of this plant - and that it seriously con
cerns the health and comfort of every man to Iron Carriages. The tendency of the last know something of the history and qualities of few years to substitute iron for wood has been
so essential an ingredient of his daily breakfast shown in ships, ploughs, and other machines. - it is a matter of surprise that such a work had It has even been attempted in houses; but here, not been undertaken long ago. There have we believe, without that success which is shown been, it is true, a good many pamphlets and disin extensive use or practice. A gentleman of sertations on the subject published at various the north of Scotland is now experimenting, times; but none, so far as we know, stamped with good ground of hope, on the introduction with any authority. Mr. Ball has strong claims of iron carriages. He proposes that the bodies to credit in the matter;- having resided twenof such vehicles should be formed entirely of an ty-six years in China, and been during the whole iron frame, the panels of plates of galvanised of that time officially engaged in the selection iron, and the axles of iron tubes filled with wood; and examination of teas for the British market. the wheels to have for spokes double rods His is the only book in which we have ever met pyramidally arranged, or on what is called the with any thing like a clear and distinct explanasuspension principle. The advantages proposed tion of that curious process by which the leaf of are — first, a lightness as about two to three; the tea-plant - though perfectly devoid of flavor second, a saving of cost in about the same pro- and smell in its fresh and natural state - is portion. Thus, a pony-carriage, which, of the found capable of being converted into one of the usual materials, would weigh five hundredweight, most delightful and at the same time most innoxis only about three when constructed of iron; an ious of our aromatic stimulants. The details are omnibus, which, of the ordinary construction, dry, and may be tedious to some persons; but would be twenty to twenty four hundredweight, they will be invaluable to those who are now can be formed of iron at about eleven. The endeavoring to raise and prepare this article in same in respect of external decorations and in
our own colonies. Mr. Ball has clearly shown ternal comforts. A carriage of this kind effects that in British India — in some parts of which an important saving in the inotive power. If the tea-plant is indigenous - the cheapness of successful as an invention, it must be of no small labor compared with its price in China gives us importance to humanity, both in sparing the ample power to compete with the Chinese in the muscles of individual horses, and allowing of a production of the commodity, and deprive them greater share of the fruits of the earth being of their present absolute monopoly in its supply. turned to the use of human beings. For use in There are some curious and interesting notices tropical countries, there is a further advantage about tea in this volume which will amuse even in the non-liability to cracking and shrinking, the general reader; and it is illustrated by a and the unsuitableness of an iron frame for be- great number of neat vignettes and a couple of coming a nest of noxious insects. Apart from pleasing views of Chinese tea plantations. the mere substitution of one material for another, which is the leading feature of the invention, Mark Wilton; or, The Merchant's Clerk. By much is claimed for it on the ground of the su Charles B. Tayler, M. A. — We are no loversperior springs employed in these carriages. as must, by this, time, be pretty well known They are spiral, and vertically arranged, work of what are called “ religious novels ;” but leaving in a case, with an apparatus which precludes ing the doctrines inculcated by Mr. Tayler to their falling from the perpendicular.
stand or fall by their own truth - - to be conWe have seen one of Mr. Aitken's carriages, firmed or set aside by such as find duty and and taken a drive in another, without being able pleasure in controversy — we may frankly say to detect any point in which they are likely to that his tales are in many points superior to the prove a failure. Their success, however, must larger portion of their family. Not only is the be matter for larger experiment, requiring time absence of bitterness in them commendable, — for a satisfactory issue.
but they contain quiet, unobtrusive markings of
character, and a feeling for manners, humors, An account of the Cultivation and Manufac- scenery, and costume, such as is generally disreture of Tea in China. By Samuel Ball, Esq., garded, from right royal asceticism or vacant inlate Inspector of Teas to the East India Compa- competence, by the fabricators of similar producny in China. — A complete treatise on the cul- tions. The argument of Mark Wilton' is simture and manufacture of tea has long been a ple enough; — the story being devoted to the desideratum both in science and social economy. contrast of “ The Industrious and Idle ApprenConsidering that we now consume annually be- tices" in London mercantile life. The time is tween forty and fifty millions of pounds of the the period at which flourished highwaymen of a
fur more " tiffany " quality than the hungry bru- | know to have their warrant in the real annals of talized “navvies” who are this winter playing crime and suffering. -- but the contemplation of pranks, near certain of our provincial towns, which true taste rejects. The brutal master of after the fashion of Duval and Sheppard. Mark the lonely house on “Wuthering Heights" — a Wilton is tempted with desperate perils ; prin prison which might be pictured from life - has cipally by one Desmond Smith, -- whose gen. doubtless had his prototype in those ungenial tlemanly rakery is neatly contrasted with the and remote districts where human beings, like coarse ruffianism of others who inveigle “ the the trees, grow gnarled and dwarfed and distortMerchant's Clerk” to his ruin. How he is ed by the inclement climate; but he might have throughout admonished, and finally extricated, been indicated with far fewer touches, in place by an angelic friend of his, Angus Stanley – of so entirely filling the canvas that there is and what happens consequent to his extrication hardly a scene untainted by his presence. It
the reader will do best to learn from the book was a like dreariness — a like unfortunate selecitself.
tion of objects — which cut short the popularity
of Charlotte Smith's novels, rich though they be Essay on the Constitution of Society as de- in true pathos and faithful descriptions of Nature. signed by God. By Dr. Bishop. — The attempt Enough of what is mean and bitterly painful made in this brochure is not new. Theorists have and degrading gathers round every one of us from time to time sought to construct a system during the course of his pilgrimage through this of society in accordance with the ancient Scrip- vale of tears to absolve the Artist from choosing tures; but they have been always baffled by the his incidents and characters out of such a dismal complications of modern interests. A return to catalogue; and if the Bells, singly or collectivethe simplicity of first arrangements is impossible. ly, are contemplating future or frequent utterIt may, at the same time, be beneficial to have ances in Fiction, let us hope that they will spare attention occasionally directed to these ---as per us further interiors so gloomy as the one here haps first principles are best studied in connexion elaborated with such dismal minuteness. In this with them. There are accordingly some excel- respect. Agnes Grey'is more acceptable to us, lent suggestions in this little work — which is though less powerful. It is the tale of a goverclearly and intelligibly written. The reign of ness who undergoes much that is in the real Love, here advocated — and which the specula- bond of a governess's endurance:— but the new tive reasoner, as well as the poet, anticipates, victim's trials are of a more ignoble quality than is not, however, a state producible by legislation, those which awaited • Jane Eyre.' In the housebut one that must come (if at all) by develop-hoid of the Bloomfields the governess is subjectment. It is a dream of the enthusiast and the ed to torment by Terrible Children (as the philosopher — which may be realized, but not French have it); in that of the Murrays she has by external pressure. It must proceed from to witness the ruin wrought by false indulgence such evolution of man's higher capacity as can on two coquettish girls, whose coquetries jeoparonly be promoted by the universal extension of dize her own heart's secret. In both these tales the best education both public and private. there is so much feeling for character, and nice
marking of scenery, that we cannot leave them
without once again warning their authors against SHORT REVIEWS AND NOTICES. what is eccentric and unpleasant. Never was
there a period in our bistory of Society when we Wuthering Heights. By Ellis Bell English could so ill afford to dispense with sun- AGNES GREY. By Acrox BELL. 3 vols. shine.
• Jane Eyre,' it will be recollected, was edited by Mr. Currer Bell. Here are two tales so
THE COUNCIL OF FOUR; a Game at Defininearly related to ‘Jane Eyre’in cast of thought, tions. Edited by Arthur WALLBRIDGE, auincident, and language as to excite some curiosity: thor of Torrington Hall,' &c. London: Olli
vier. 1848. All three might be the work of one hand, - but the first issued remains the best. In spite of Four friends were accustomed to meet. They much power and cleverness; in spite of its truth resorted to bouts rimés, in order to while away to life in the remote nooks and corners of Eng- an idle hour, but did not find the amusement land, Wuthering Heights' is a disagrecable they expected. They then tried a new exercise story. The Bells seem to affect painful and ex- for their wits. A word being appointed, each ceptional subjects:— the misdeeds and oppresset himself to give a definition of it; and, when sions of tyranny- the eccentricities of woman's done, all the four were brought together. Thus fantasy." They do not turn away from dwelling were formed the materials of a very small book, upon those physical acts of cruelty which we called . The Council of Four,' which has just
made its appearance. It contains exactly a hun- | the daughter of Lord Eustacé, whom he had dred subjects — as Language, Mirror, Death, known a little girl before the field of Worcester, Paper, Luxury, Politics, &c. There is an inter- and subsequently woos when she is disguised as est in seeing how four clever men are to make a peasant to save her father and serve the King. out something pointed on each of these themes Except that the wriling is too predominant in a single sentence, and often the definition small book does not bear so much composition as given is one of no inconsiderable force. As an three volumes — the story is interesting. The example of one subject
substance, however, is not that of the tale or
sketch, but of the circulating library romance. CHILD.
This is especially the case with the supernatural The ever renewed hope of the world. parts. The fairy is as large as life; and she A conscript for the wars.
carries the hero into churches, and vaults with The future in the present.
ghostly lights, and toads, and bats, and owls, God's problem waiting man's solution.
while a death-cold hand leads him along dark Of single definitions, some have a pungency and dismal passages, fearful to think about, albeit which throws the rest of their several groups smacking of the playhouse. THE LAST OF THE much into shade, as
Fairies is the section of an historical romance, IGNORANCE — A dark place, where poor people condensed into a small volume, and garnished are allowed to grope about till they hurt themselves with some supernatural touches from the Rador somebody else.
cliffe school ; except that they are not FAMILY- An item in a poor nation's wealth and plained" properly. Mr. James breaks off a rich nation's poverty. IRON — The bones of the giant Civilization.
abruptly, implying that the heroine was the EXPERIENCE - The scars of our wounds. fairy; but there are some things that are only DEBT — A slice out of another man's loaf. resolvable on ghostly supposition. Others are too much of the character of conceits or rebuses, though these are fewer in proportion than might be expected from the present strain
RECENT PUBLICATIONS. of light literature in the metropolis. Our object,
ENGLAND. however, is less to criticize this clever little work than to introduce it as a vade-mecum for a very
Baker's (T.) Railway Engineering or Field rational, and, as far as we know, novel plan of
Work, 5s. fireside amusement, which may be followed with the Middle Ages, 523. 6d.
Blackburne's (E. L.) Decorative Painting of pleasure and advantage by our readers, especially Daubeny's (C.) Description of Volcanoes, those of tender age. The definition assignable Earthquakes, &c. 21s. to Wallbridge's “Game at Definitions' is
Derchenier; or, the Revolt of La Vendéc,
4s. 6d. The Hoyle of its subject.
Fortune and Fortitude, by Thomas Miller, 5s.
Greville's (R. N.) Poetic Prism, 10s. 6d. THE LAST OF THE FAIRIES. By G. P. R. Hactenus, 2s. 6d. JAMES, Esq., Author of "Margaret Graham,' Kendall's (H. E.) Designs for Schools and &c. With Illustrations from Designs by JOHN School Houses, £2 12s. 6d. GILBERT; engraved by HENRY VIZETELLY. Marriotti's (L.) Italy, Past and Present, 2
vols. 21s. In the crimson and gold of its cover, its pretty Marriotti's (L.) Present State and Prospects landscape wood-cuts, its striking heads and of Italy, 10s. 6d. figures, the ornamented framework of varied O'Donovan's (J.) Annals of Kingdom of Iredesign and colors to each page, as well as in the land, 3 vols. 4to. £8 8s. subject of the tale, this publication is fitted for
On the Nature and Elements of the External a New Year's gift-book. The treatment is not
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145 149 162 174 177 186
The Convent-Kitchen in the Eleventh Century, Morgenblatt,
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Dublin University Magazine,
Eternal City, .
and a brother Artist,
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Translated for the Daguerreotype.
AN EDUCATIONAL PROBLEM OF THE PRESENT AGE.
FROM A LECTURE BY PROFESSOR STOY.
I will lead you at once into the midst of the endless catalogue of inventions, for each of which subject of Education, that is to say, into the the martyr's stake would have been the reward questions agitated on this field; for on all sides of our ancestors. And the generation which is there is agitation and commotion. Are we sur- grown up proceeds on its way, — not unmoved, prised at this ? No; it is a necessary condition; for it is impossible to seclude one'sself: with the it has been so from the remotest times. The rapidity of the electric telegraph every new inideal of every age is the ideal of its youthful vention flies through the world, and finds in education, and hope sees in youth the promise every country a thousand organs to proclaim it: of her fulfilment. The giant-forms which ac but an uneasy feeling takes possession of us; our complish the restoration of the arts and sciences, spiritual eyes were not trained in our childhood, the reformation, the revolution, — they entered and they cannot follow the astronomer in his upon their career within the narrow limits of the researches among the stars of far distant systems, school-room, there learned to destroy walls or to or with the physiologist trace the workings of build them up, to throw down pillars of support or the subtle gases upon the organic structure of to erect them. And in our own time, in which the world. We cannot, but our first and most an agitated ocean is dashing against rugged natural thought is, “Our children shall and will cliffs, can the educator carelessly float upon a be able to do this.” smooth unrippled tide ? From the busy hum of What is the consequence ? we turn round to commerce, from the halls of statesmen and from the school and impose upon it the enormous the pulpits of theologians, so many questions are task. And the school — has assented! During constantly going forth, addressed to the educator, every hour in which the glad light of the sun all demanding replies, that I perform but a small beams down upon earth, it calls together the portion of the task if I apply myself to the consid- little ones into its narrow limits, and for the eration of a single one of the problems proposed. dark evening, yes, even for the night, for the
The School has always had, shall we call it hours of rest, it condemns them to the solitary the good or the bad luck, to be subjected most desk. I am not exaggerating: I have before me easily and most quickly to the influences of the the latest reports of the studies pursued in many age; more so than a family, more so than the schools, and I feel myself unwillingly compelled life of grown up persons. It has the difficult to reproduce them in the form of the following task of maintaining the independence of its edu “Receipt for an education." cational principles. Rationalists and orthodox, “Take 2 or 3 drachms of religious instruction, reformers and reactionists, republicans and des- 2 drachms of reading, 1 drachm of writing, potists, in short, parties of all kind turn in the spelling, composition, and grammar; the same first place to the school and demand that their of mythology, anthropology, geography, astronospirit and no other, shall be disseminated. The my, geometry, logic, mathematics, psychology, case is the same in a more general point of view. natural philosophy, universal, ecclesiastical, and Consider the present state of civilization, the enor natural history, a double dose of arithmetic, mous activity in every branch of human industry, and a little drawing, singing and declamation ; in science and art, in trade and manufactures. add quantum suff: of Latin, Greek, French, New worlds are laid open to the spiritual as to English, Spanish, and Italian; mix it all well the physical eye; man begins to find himself at together, shake it several times a day, and home in the most distant spaces of the heavenly give the child a teaspoonful of it every balf-hour vault as well as at the sources of the Amazon. from seven o'clock till twelve, and from two to From the North pole and from the South, re four. During the remaining hours administer a ports come crowding upon us; the riches of cre few pounds of lessons to prepare, some music, ation are spread out before our wondering eyes, and if a female, add knitting, sowing, embroideand the microscope lays bare the most hidden ry, and crotchet work.” mysteries of nature. From the daguerreotype Thus imperative is the spirit of the age, but and chemical matches up to the steam power. there are two opponents who rebel against his press and the atmospheric railroad, what an / authority, the spirits of medical and of psycholog