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it is said, which was added to Noah, and his sons, and of which the Jews interpret, Gen. ix. 4.-7. Concerning judgments or punishments to be inflicted on those who broke the above laws: this command obliged them to regard the directions, judgment, and sentence of the judges appointed to see the said laws put into execution, and to punish delinquents.

Now such Gentiles, who laid themselves under obligation to observe these commands, had leave to dwell among the Israelites, though not in every one of their cities; not in Jerusalem particularly 9; wherefore those devout men and proselytes said to dwell in Jerusalem, Acts ii. 5. 10. were not proselytes of the gate, but proselytes of righteousness. Nor are such sort of proselytes now received, only whilst the Jews lived in their own land, and were not under the jurisdiction of another people; or as they express it, while jubilees were in use and observed'. This sort of proselytes, though they did not enjoy the privi leges the proselytes of righteousness did, yet some they had; they might worship and pray in the court of the Gentiles, though not in the temple; they might offer burnt offerings, though not other sacrifices; their poor were fed with the poor of Israel, their sick were visited by Israelites, and their dead were buried with them ".

Such proselytes as these, as they were not obliged to circumcision, nor to other commands peculiar to the Jews; none but those before obsevred; so neither were they baptized, or dipped, when made proselytes, which is said of others. Maimonides affirms of such a proselyte, that he is neither circumcised nor dipped. Bishop Kidder" is therefore mistaken in saying, that proselytes of the gate were baptized, but not circumcised.

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Second, There was another sort of proselytes, which are taken notice of, at least, by soine as such; who were called mercenary ones, and are reckoned as between proselytes of the gate and Gentiles. In Exod. xii. 44, 45. a mercenary, or hired servant, is distinguished from a servant bought with money; he being hired only for a certain time, as for six years; and also from a foreigner, a stranger in the gate, a proselyte in the gate; and both of them are distinguished from the servant bought with money, who was circumcised, and might eat of the pass-over, when neither of the other might, being both uncircumcised; and therefore R. Levi Barzelonita" is thought to be mistaken when he says, "a mercenary is a proselyte, who is circumcised, but not dipped; for so the wisemen explain it:" but if a stanger or proselyte of the gate was not circumcised, much less a mercenary, who was far below him; besides, if he was circumcised, he might eat of the pass-over; which is denied him: and so Ben Melech observes of these two, the foreigner and the hired servant; they are Gentiles, and uncircumcised: and Abendana, in his notes upon him, from the

Maimon. Hilchot Beth Habechirah, c. 7. s. 14.
Obede Cochabim, c. 10. s. 6. Milah, c. 1. s. 6.
Biah, c 14. S. 7.
"Demonstration of the Messiah,
Miclol Yophi in loc.

T. Bab. Eracin, fol. 29. 1. Maimon Maimon. Melacim, c. 10. s. 12. Isure part 2. p. 176. Chinnuch, p. 17.

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Rabbin's, says, the former is a proselyte-inhabitant, or a proselyte of the gate, who takes upon him the seven precepts of the sons of Noah; the latter is a servant whose body is not possessed, that is, is not in the possession of his master, not being bought with his money, is only an hired servant, and so not circumcised. But perhaps Jarchi's note will reconcile this to what Barzelonita says; “Toshab, a foreigner, this is a proselyte-inhabitant; and Shacir, or hired servant, this is a Gentile, but what is the meaning? are they not uncircumcised? (that is, both of them) and it is said, No uncircumcised person shall eat thereof. but they are as a circumcised Arabian, and a circumcised Gabnunite, or Gabonite though circumcised, yet not by Israelites, but by Gentiles, which gave no right to the pass-over. Hottinger thinks these mercenary-proselytes, and with him Leusden scems to agree, were mechanic strangers, who left their own country, and came among the Jews for the sake of learning some mechanic art; and who, conforming to certain laws and conditions, prescribed by the Jews, were permitted to sojourn with them until they had learnt the art. There are but few writers who speak of this sort of proselytes. However, it seems agreed on all hands, that whether circumcised or not, they were not baptized, or dipped.

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Third, There was another sort of proselyte, called pa a proselyte of righteousness; see Deut. xvi. 20. a stranger circumcised, and who is so called when he is circumcised; and sometimes a proselyte, the son of the covenant the same as an Israelite; see Acts iii. 25. This sort of proselytes were the highest, and had in greatest esteem; who not only submitted to circum. cision, but embraced all the laws, religion, and worship of the Jews; and were in all respects as they, and enjoyed equally all privileges and immunities, civil and religious, as they did; except being made a king, though one might if his mother was of Israel; and being members of the great Sanhedrim, yet might be of the lesser, provided they were born of an Israelitish woman; nay, even such have been in the great Sanhedrim, as Shemaiah and Abtalion, who were of the posterity of Sennacherib; but their mothers being Israclites, it was lawtul for them to judge, that is, in the great Sanhedrim, for one was the prince, and the other the Father of that courts. So the Jews say, the posterity of Jethro sat in Lishcat Gazith, that is, in the great Sanhedrim, which sat in that room; and for which they quote I Chron. ii. 55. yet it has been a question, whether a proselyte should be made a public minister, or president of the congregation, called may now; but the common opinion was, that he might be one of this

y Vid T. Bab. Avodah Zarah, c. 2. iol. 27. 1. & Edzard. not. in ib. p. 292. Philolog. I. 1. P. 18. Philolog. Heb. Mixt. Dissert. 21. vid. Carpzov. not. ard. Jus Regium, p. 323. Zohar in Exod. fol. 36. 1. & in num. fol. 69. 4. Ben Gersom, in Exod. xxii. 21. fol. 95. 2. Maimon. Melacım. c. 1. s. 4. hedrin. c. 2. s. 1.9. f T. Bab. Sanedrin, fol. 96. 2.

T. Bab. Sanhedrin, fol. 104. 1. &. 106. 1. & Sotah, fol. 11. 1. vet. par. 2, 1. 3. c. 6. p. 943.

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e Ibid. Sau

Juchasin fol. 17. 2. &. 18. 1, ¡Vid Vitringam de Synagogi

sort of proselytes, of whom they boast, some were persons of note for learning, or wealth, or worldly grandeur; but without sufficient ground. Sone, they own, were not sincere who became proselvtes, either through fear, or to gratify some sensual lust, or for some sinister end or another. Some were called proselytes of lions', who becaine so through fear; as the Samaritans, because of the lions sent among them, and that they might be freed from them, embraced the worship of God, though they retained also the worship of their idols. Others were called proselytes of dreams; who were directed and encouraged to become proselytes by such who pretended to skill in dreams, as being omens of good things to them. Though some, in the place referred to, instead of nisba dreams, read man windows, and render the words proselytes of windows, so Alting, meaning the windows of their eyes, who, to gratify the lust of the eyes, became proselytes; as Shechem, being taken with the sight of Dinaḥ, submitted to circumcision for the sake of her; and others were called, pr selvtes of Mordecai and Esther, who were like those who became Jews in their times, Esther viii. 17. through fear of the Jews, as there expressed. Others were true and sincere proselytes, who cordially embraced the Jewish religion, and from the heart submitted to the laws and rules of it; these were called

drawn proselytes", who were moved of themselves, and of their own good will, without any sinister bias, and out of real love and affection to the Jewish religion, embraced it. Compare the phrase with John vi. 44. And such, they say", all proselytes will be in the time to come, or in the days of the Messiah; and yet sometimes they say, that then none will be received: and when persons propose to be proselytes, the Jews are very careful to ask many questions, in order to try whether they are sincere or no; and such as they take to be sincere they speak very highly of; "Greater, say they, are the proselytes at this timej than the Israelites when they stood on mount Sinai; because they saw the lightening, heard the thunder, and the sound of the trumpet; but these saw and heard none of these things, and yet have taken upon them the yoke of the king dom, and are come under the wings of the Shechinah." though elsewhere, and in common, they speak but slightly of them; and say; They are as grievous to Israel as a scab in the skin, or as a razor to it, because they often turn back again, and seduce the Israelites, and carry them off with them; yea, they say

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* As Aristotle, Meor Enayim, c. 22. fol. 91.2. Izates and Monbaz, the sons of Queen Hele na, both kings, ibid. c. 51. fol. 161. 2. & c. 52. fol. 164. 2. 166, 167. Tzemach David, par 1. fol. 26. 1. & par. 2 fol. 15. 8. Nebuzaradan, the general of Nebuchadnezzar, T. Bab. Sanhedrin, fol. 96. 2. Antoninus Pius, the Roman emperor, T. Hieros. Megillah, fol. 72. 1. & 74. 1. Ketiah, a prince in Cæsar's court, Avodah Zarah, fol. 19. 2. Juchasin, fol. 66. 2. Nero, a general of Cæsar's army, from whom sprung R. Meir, T. Bab. Gitin, fol. 56. 1. Jucna. sin, fol. 41. 1. & 63. 2. Tzemach David, par. 2. fol 16. 1, 2. Of the circumcision of these the Jews speak, but say nothing of their baptism. IR. Nehemiah in T. Bab. Yebamot, fol. 24. 2.

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Heptas Dissertat. para. Diss. 7. de Proselytis, s. 20.

Ibid. fol. 34. 1.
P Zohar in Gen. fol. 33. 1. & 40. 9.
Talmud. Col. 411.
IT. Bab. Yebamot, fol. 47. 2.

T. Bap. Avodah Zarah, fol 3. t. 1 Medrash apud Baxtorf. Lexic. & 109. 2. Kiddushin, ful. 70. 24

they stop the coming of the Messiah "." However, they have a saying' which shews some regard to them; "A proselyte, even to the tenth generation, do not despise a Syrian, or an heathen before him, he being present, or to his face; because till that time their minds are supposed to incline towards their own people;" and so it is said ", the daughter of a proselyte may not be married to a priest, unless her inother is an Israclitess, even unto the tenth generation. And there is another saying" of theirs, Do not trust a proselyte until the twenty fourth generation, that is, never; not only priests, Levites, and Israelites, but even bastards, and the Nethinim, or Gibeonites, were preferred to proselytes'. Some of these sayings do not seem so well to agree with the words of Christ, Matt. xxiii. 15. to reconcile which, it is thought, that while the temple was standing, the desire of making proselytes was stronger than after it was destroyed by the Romans; resenting that, they became indifferent about making proselytes, and were unconcerned about the salvation of the Gentiles, and contented themselves with receiving such only who freely came over to them. It never was deemed so honourable to be the descendents of proselytes, as of original Hebrews. Hence the apostle Paul gloried that he was an Hebrew of the Hebrews, both his parents being Hebrews. A Rabbi of note among the Jews, whose parents were both proselytes, or Gentiles, is called not by his proper name, Jochanan, but Ben Bag-Bag; that is, the son of a Gentile man, and the son of a Gentile woman; and for the same reason he is called in a following paragraph, Ben He-He, numerically He being the same with Bag; though it is said, these abreviations were used from reverence to him, and a regard for him2; and, indeed, the Jews were not to reproach and upbraid proselytes with what they and their ancestors had been, or had done; they were not to say to a proselyte, Remember thy former works; nor were they to say to the sons of proselytes, Remember the works of your fathers; for this is the affliction and oppression of them, as they understand it, they are cautioned against, Exod. xxii. 21. Lev. xix 33. nay, they were to love them as themselves, because the Lord God loved the the stranger, Lev. xix. 34. Deut. x. 18. for of proselytes of righteousness they interpret these passages.

Now it is of this sort of proselytes, proselytes of righteousness, that it is said, they were admitted into covenant, and into the Jewish church, as the Israelites were; the males by circumcision, by no baptism, or dipping, and by sacrifice; and the females by baptism, or dipping, and by sacrifice; and it is the baptism or dipping of these proselytes, that will be inquired into, and be the subject of the following Dissertation.

a Mis.

■ Niddah, fol. 13. 2. T. Bab. Sanhedrin, fol. 94. 1. Jarchi in Exod. xviii. 9. nah Biccurim, c. I. s. 5. Yalkut in Ruth, fol. 163. 4. * T. Hieros. Horaiot, fol. 48. 2. Vid. Wagenseil. not. in Sotah, p. 754. z Pirke Abot, c. 5. s. 22, 23. Vid. Fagium & Leusden. in ibid. a Vid. R. David Kimchi, Sepher Shorash, rad. ny DR. Levi Ben Gersom, in Lev. xiv. 33, 34. fol. 163. 13. Ez Hechayim M. S. apud Wagenseil, not. in Sotal P. 805

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THE OCCASION OF THIS DISSERTATION.

SEVERAL learned men, and some of our own nation, whom I shall chiefly
take notice of, have asserted, that it was a custom or rite used by the Jews
before the times of John the Baptist, Christ, and his apostles, to receive prose-
lytes into their church by baptism, or dipping, as well as by circumcision; and
these both adult and infants; and that John and Christ took up the rite of bap-
tizing from thence, and practised, and directed to the practice of it, as they
found it: and which, they think, accounts for the silence about infant-baptism
in the New Testament, it being no new nor strange practice. The writers
among us of most note who make mention of it are, Broughton, Ainsworth,
Selden, Haminond, and Lightfoot; men justly esteemed for their learning and
knowledge in Jewish affairs. Mr. Hugh Broughton is the first of our nation I
have met with who speaks of it. "The Babylonian Talmud, and Rambam
(Maimonides) he says, record, that in the days of David and Solomon, when
many thousands of heathens became proselytes, they were admitted only by
baptism, without circumcision. So now, when the New Testament was to be
made for the many, that is for all nations, baptism was not strange; neither is
John an astonishment for that; but demanded whether he be Elias or Christ, or
that special prophet named in Deuteronomy." A little after he observes, that
"Christ from baptism used of them (the Jews) without commandment, and of
small authority, authorized a seal of entering into the rest of Christ, using the
Jews weakness as an allurement thither " Where, by the way, he makes this
usage to be without commandment, that is, of God, and to be but of small autho-
rity, even from men, and a piece of weakness of the Jews, and yet authorized by
Christ; which seems incredible. Mr. Henry Ainsworth is the next I shall
mention, who takes notice of this custom. His words ared, "That we may the
better know how they (the Jews) were wont to receive heathens into the
church of Israel; I will note from the Hebrew doctors:" and then gives a large
quotation from Maimonides; the substance of which is, that as by three things
Israel entered into the covenant, by circumcision, and baptism, and sacrifice;
in like manner heathen proselytes were admitted; on which he makes this
remark: "Whereupon baptism was nothing strange unto the Jews when
John the Baptist began his ministry, Matt. ii. 5, 6. they made a question of
his person that did it, but not of the thing itself, John i. 25." Dr. Hammond,
another learned man, speaks of the same custom or rite with the Jews: he
says that "proselytes born of heathen parents, and become proselytes of jus-
tice, were admitted by the Jews, not only by circumcision, (and while the
Annotat, on Gen. xvii. 12. e Annotat, in Matt. iii, 1.
3 L

· Works, p. 201, 203. VOL. III.

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