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Jesus Christ, that ye all speak the Spirit. From this comparison he then same thing, and that there be no takes occasion to warn the Corinthians divisions (cxionata, schisms) among to be content with their several stayou ; but that ye be perfectly joined tions in the church and not to assume together in the same mind and in the the offices of others. They are warnsame judgment. For it bath been de- ed that the body of man is kept in perclared unto me of you, my brethren, fect order and sound health, by the rethat there are contentions among you. gularity with which the sereral memEvery one of you saith, I am of Paul, bers perform their operations; and and I of Apollos, and I of Cephas, that for this very purpose God had adand I of Christ. Is Christ divided ? justed the several parts, assigning to was Paul crucified for you? or were each its proper office, and making each ye baptized in the name of Paul ?” useful in its own way to the rest, Where, then, the parties were at- (13—24.) And then he assigns the tached to ministers of equal authority, reason why God had done this: that and who preached the same doctrine, there should be no schism (oxíouce) in as was the case with all the apostles, the body; but that the members should even there we see, that to indulge a have the same care one for another ; party spirit and to contend on that ac- and whether one member suffer all the count, is pronounced to be contrary to members suffer with it; or one memthe duties of Christians. How much ber be honoured all the members remore so must it be when these quali- joice with it.” If the smallest memfications of the Christian ministry do ber of our body suffer violence, the not exist.
whole body feels the pain; if any one Chap. xi. 18. When ye come togeth- of our senses is gratified, the whole er in the church, I hear that there be body partakes of the enjoyment: what divisions (xiouata, schisms) among a delightful picture of the unity of the you. 19. For there must be here. Christian church! and this unity is sies (sects) among you, &c. We destroyed by schism. In the 27th and have already noticed this passage in following verses, the apostle applies our comment on the word heresies or the allegory to the Corinthian Chris. sects; and it is mentioned again only tians. “ Ye are the body of Christ to impress on the minds of our readers and members in particular, and God the intimate connexion of heresy and hath set (1.9To constituted or appointschism, and the opposition of both to ed) some in the church, first apostles; the true spirit of the gospel of peace, secondarily, prophets; thirdly, teach
Ch. xii. 25. The apostle in this chap- ers, &c. Are all apostles ? &c.” Let ter compares the Christian church un- the members of the Christian church, der the influences of the Holy Spirit to both clergy and laity, learn to confine one human body animated by one soul. themselves to the station in which God He affirms that the Spirit fits men by has placed them. The moment they diverse gifts and operations for the intrude themselves into the functions performance of their various employ- of other members, the whole body is ments in the church, as the soul by its disordered. union with the body of man enables The unity of the Christian church the different members to perform their is described, Acts ii. 42. They who various functions, (1-12.) He tells had been baptized into the one body the Corinthians that by one Spirit we the church, "continued steadfastly in are all baptized into the one body, the apostles' doctrine and fellowship, (the church,) and, alluding to the sa- and in breaking of bread, and in praycrament of the Lord's supper, that we ers.” This unity was the subject of have been all made to drink into one our Saviour's pathetick prayer imme49
ADVOCATE, VOL. 11.
diately before he suffered. John xvii. church, the question must rest between
“ Neither pray I for these him and the Searcher of all hearts. alone, (the apostles,) but for them also We do not say that he is innocent ; which shall believe on me through their for that must depend upon the subword : that they all may be one ; as ject, and the extent of his doubts. thou, Father, art in me, and I in thee, We are assured by an inspired aposthat they also may be one in us ; that tle that “the ignorant and unstable the world may believe that thou hast wrest the scriptures to their own desent me." This unity all Christians struction ;” and we consider it as inare exhorted to keep,“ with all lowli- consistent with Christian humility to ness and meekness, with long suffering, lean so much to our own understandforbearing one another in love,” (Eph. ing as to make it a judge from whose iv. 2.) and they are entreated to decisions there is no appeal. We only “ mark them which cause divisions say that his innocence or guilt is cog(dizootarices) and offences contrary to nižable by him alone who formed and the doctrine" learned from the apos- who knows the heart. tles, “ and avoid them. For they that But the case is different, the moare such serve not our Lord Jesus ment he promulgates his sentiments Christ, but their own belly ; and by and endeavours to lead other men to good words and fair speeches deceive embrace them It is no longer a the hearts of the simple.” (Rom. xvi. matter of private conscience; and if 17, 18.)
he now forms a party, in opposition We do not think it necessary to pro- to what has the three great characterduce any further authorities from isticks, of antiquity, universality, and scripture to prove to our readers that consent, the quod semper, quod ubiheresies and schisms are utterly re- que, quod ab omnibus, of Vincentius of pugnant to the express injunctions of Lerins, he becomes a heretick.
It was the Holy Spirit, and of course utterly in this sense that St. Augustin said, inconsistent with the duties of the “ Errare possum, bæreticus esse nolo," Christian life. But we shall proceed I may be in errour, but I will not be a to make a few remarks upon the prac- heretick. I may be in errour myself, tical evils resulting froin the sectarian but I will not disturb the peace of the spirit.
.church by persuading others to adopt We have defined heresy to be that my sentiments for the purpose of exercise of choice or private judgment forming my own sect or party. Is’ which leads men to form sects or par- this the surrender of any Christian ties. All truths necessary to salvation privilege ? Is it a violation of reliare contained in the scriptures, and we gious liberty ? Is it an undue restraint hold that in the interpretation of the upon the inherent right of private scriptures on doubtful and difficult judgment? We think not; for it is no points, that sense for which antiquity, inore than what is done every day universality, and consent can be plead- in civil society. It is a restraint put ed, is more likely to be true, than any upon the private members of a comsense affixed to it by private or indi- munity for the benefit of the whole ; vidual judgment. In other words, we a restraint, without which liberty prefer the choice or judgment of the must degenerate into licentiousness; catholick or universal church to the order be subdued by confusion ; choice or judgment of any private per- peace and harmony exchanged for
Supposing, however, that an in- strife and discord; indifference to redividual does reject the sense so Jigious truth substituted for zeal ; recommended, we hold that as long as and practical piely lost amid the he does not disturb the peace of the janglings of vain controversy.
We appeal to every serious and re- which we may be awfully afraid. flecting Christian, and ask him to consi- Means will be wanting to maintain a der whether experience does not justify pious and learned ministry : destitute our assertion. We might ask him to parishes will be left open to imprese survey the whole history of the church, sions from ignorant and enthusiastick and see how the perpetual divisions itinerants ; and the worst evils of by which it has been more or less in party, and the most extravagant excesevery age rent in pieces, have mar ses of fanaticism, it must be expectred its beauty and prevented its in- ed, will prevail.” Serm. xiii. p. 195.
But we confine ourselves The evil is faithfully stated, but the to our own country, and ask, with a attention of the reader is diverted doubting and a fearful heart, what will from its real cause. It is not ecclebe the inevitable result of this factious siastical censures, but it is the spirit spirit of party.
of heresy, the disposition to create Every man, it is said, has an inherent new sects, which is the parent of these right to choose for himself in matters of disorders. And how does Dr. B. religion. He may belong to any one or think they are to be remedied ? Why to none of the existing denominations. truly the self-named unitarians must He may with all freedom proclaim his be permitted to propagate the tenets own sentiments, and use every other of their sect without any censure. means excepting brute force, to propa. Opposition to what he calls liberal gate his tenets. If he can collect a suffi- Christianity, is the source of the whole cient number of hearers, he may take evil. Every minister must be perupon himself, or, what amounts to the mitted to preach what he pleases to same thing, may be appointed by call the gospel; and no man must them, to dispense the word and sa- censure him for so doing hecause he craments. In this way there can be has a right to think for himself. If no end to the formation of sects. unitarians may do this, why not the min“ There is no errour," says Raleigh, isters of every other sect?- The way, “ which hath not some appearance of then, according to Dr. B., to heal diviprobability resembling truth ; which, sions, is to give every man, who chooses wbere men, who study to be singular, to call himself a minister of the gospel, find out, straining reason, they then full liberty to promote them. publish to the world matter of con- fearful that the unity for which our tention and jangling." Dr. B., himself, Saviour prayed, in order that the world cannot contemplate the prospect which might believe in his divine mission, lies before him without having some- will not be promoted by such means. thing of a right feeling respecting the The wall of God's holy temple is not fatal effects of the sectarian principle. to be built with such untempered " The thought,” says he, “ of crushing mortar. When “ everyone hath a liberal Christianity, as many denomi- psalm, hath a doctrine, hath a tongue, nate it, (i. e. unitarianism,) by eccle- hath a revelation, hath an interpretasiastical censures, is idle. But I am tion,” (1 Cor. xiv. 26,) bow is it posappalled, by a view of the temporary sible that all things should be done evils which must arise from the at- unto edifying. Such things cannot tempt. Angry disputes will prevail, proceed from above ; for « God is and those divisions may take place, not the author of confusion but of which must paralize the strength peace. of many of our parishes, and leave What is left to the discretion of the no denomination the ability to sup- minister is left also to the indiscre. port the publick institutions of the tions of the man.
For the laity, the gospel. Evils, then, may follow, of terms of communion should be as broad
and extensive as possible. There practice enjoined in the protestant Episshould be no attempt, in the language copal church which will not bear the of the wise secretary of queen Eliza- test of antiquity, universality, and conbeth, 6 to make windows into men's sent. There is not therefore a single hearts and secret thoughts,” for the principle insisted on, which, in the purpose of excluding them from the proper sense of the term, can be privilege of unity with God's holy called heretical. We disclaim the church.-—But the case is very differ. title of a sect, or a party. Our obent with regard to the clergy. They ject is the promotion of unity ; not are the publick teachers of religion. the unity of indifference, but of zeal The views which the great body of and love. We think we have reason the laity take, depend almost entire- to doubt whether this can ever be ly upon their representations. How accomplished till there shall be a unity important is it for the promotion of in the body, as well as in the spirit, unity, and for the avoiding of schism, in the outward form, as well as in the that they should agree together as inward temper, of the catholick church. touching the doctrines which they in the mean time we continue to prepreach! And how can this be done, serve that outward form with unvaunless there be some standard, some rying strictness, praying constantly confession of faith, some articles of that God will preserve us " from all agreement, by a conformity to which false doctrine, heresy, and schism,” and their conduct is to be estimated. that he will be pleased so to guide Blessed be God, through the control- and govern his holy church universal, ling influence of Episcopal govern " that all who profess and call them. ment, and the catholick and temper- selves Christians, niay be led into the ate formularies of our church, we way of truth; and hold the faith in have such a safeguard. There is not, unity of spirit, in the bond of peace, we may safely say, a doctrine or a and in righteousness of life.”
Of the thirteen counties into which New TAE thirty-ninth annual convention of the Jersey is divided, ten contain churches. We diocese of New Jersey was held in Christ notice with pleasure that the parochial rechurch, Shrewsbury, on the 21st and 22d turns in this diocese as far as they have been days of August, 1822. The condition of the made, are in general very full and accurate. church is not materially altered since the We are sorry however to find no report from report of last year. There has been but ten, and very imperfect reports from three. one ordination; that of the reverend John A little pains in all the dioceses would enable M. Ward, to the order of deacons; and the us to give every year an accurate account reverend Daniel Higbee, a presbyter, has left of the state of the church throughout the the diocese and removed into that of Dela- union. We proceed to give as full a sum
We reported last year twenty-five mary as we are able. congregations, fifteen of which enjoyed the In Sussex county, there are three churches, stated ministrations of clergymen. This Christ church, Johnsonborough, vacant, no year the bishop states that there are eighteen report. Christ church, Newton, and St. which have regular service, and ten which James'a, Knowllon, reverend Clarkson Dunn, have been occasionally, though often served minister. * T'he congregation at Newton by the missionary and other clergymen. He observes that more of the churches have had stated regular service during the year * The distinction of rector and minister is just past, and the residue still vacant more as follows: rector denotes a preshyter who frequently opened for publick worship than has been instituted into his parish by the ec. at any forrner period.
clesiastical authority of the diocese : minister
continues to flourish, and means are in pro- Since the last report, a commodious edifice gress to erect, with the divine blessing, a with two rooms has been erected and finishhandsome stone church next summer. ed for the accommodation of the Sunday
Essex county. Four churches. Tri- school. The number of scholars,” says nity, Newark, H. P. Powers, rector elect the rector, "attached to this school, is much Increasing in numbers, unanimity, and it is smaller, than attended during the last year. thought, in piety. The Sunday school, though This decrease is to be ascribed chiefly to the small, increasing Christ chapel, Belleville, impossibility of keeping a competent pumvacant, no report. Patterson, vacant, the ber of teachers engaged. By the gentlemen congregation are endeavouring to obtain of the congregation, little or no attention funds to build a church. St. John's, Elisa. has ever been paid to the school; and, even beth Town, John C. Rudd, rector. Flourish- among the ladies, the burden falls upon a ing. An excellent organ has been put up. very few. Had it not been for the great Sunday school has varied from sixty to forty and unremitted exertions of these few, the regular attendants.
school must have become utterly extinct. BERGEN county. One church. St. Mat- Too great praise cannot be bestowed upon thew's, city of Jersey. Supplied every second those, who have thus persevered, notwithSunday by the reverend Cave Jones, of New standing the many discouraging circumstanYork, no report.
ces they have had to encounter. It affords HONTERDON C. Two churches. St. Tho- pleasure to the rector to state, however, mas, Alexandria. Vacant. The bishop on that he has reason to hope and trust, that his visitation preached there to a large and an institution of so much importance to soattentive congregation, and administered the ciety will not be suffered to perish ; but that holy communion. • The building belonging it will continue to prove an effectual means to this congregation”, says the bishop," after of grace to many of the rising generation, having laid in ruins many years, is at length who might otherwise perish for lack of neatly repaired and improved." St. An- knowledge.” St. Andrew's, Mount Holly, drew's, Amwell. Vacant, no report. George Y. Morehouse, rector. The young
SOMERSET C. One church. Christ ladies who teach the Sunday school manichurch, New Brunswick. Right reverend Dr. fest the most exemplary attention, faithfulCroes, bishop of the diocese, rector. The ness, and perseverance. St. Mary's, Colescongregation have lately repaired and im- town. This congregation, long vacant, and proved their church; and though not large, hitherto supplied with only occasional serare attached to the doctrines and worship vices, has engaged the reverend Mr. Ward of our communion, and unite in the services to officiate there one half of his time. Mr. of the church in a very proper and devout W. reports - That the situation of the church
The number of Sunday scholars is such as to render the institution of a Sunabout forty.
day school in it, quite impracticable. The MIDDLESEX C. Four churches. St. chren, however, have been taught their James's, Piscataway, and Trinity, Wood- catechism, and an increasing attention to bridge, vacant and no report. Si Peter's, religion and divine service, generally apSpotswood, vacant. Visited twice by the pears, in the congregation." Sl. Mary's bishop. St. Peter's, Perth Amboy, James Burlington. Reverend Charles H. Wharton, Chapman, rector.
D. D. rector. The congregation increasing Monmouth C. Three churches, Christ and attentive. St. John's, Chew's Landing. church, Middletown, and Christchurch, This church has been vacant for many Shrewsbury, both under the rectorship of the years, and has become almost extinct. reverend John Croes, jun. a son of the There is no parochial report, but it has been bishop. “ The church at Shrewsbury," says visited by the bishop and several of the the bishop,“ preserves its strength and re- clergy, and the congregation is mentioned by spectability : and its spiritual, as well as its one of them as attentive to his preaching. teinporal concerns, may be considered in an GLOUCESTER C. Four churches. St. improving state Since my last visit, the T'homas, Glassborough, vacant, no report, congregation has repaired and painted the visited by the bishop and two of the parointeriour of its house of worship St. chial clergy. St. Stephen's, Mullica Hill, Peter's, Freehold, still vacant, but has the vacant, no report, visited by the bishop and prospect of obtaining a minister very shortly. clergy. Trinity, Swedesborough, Jacob M. BURLINGTON C. Five churches.
St. Douglass, rector. Mr. H. reports that the Michael's, Trenton, Abiel Carter, rector. congregation is large and respectable, and
manifests an increasing zeal and fondness for is one in deacon's orders only, or an uninsti- the services and principles of our church; and tated presbyter,
that the Suoday school is improved as to its