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to appearance, a wounded Indian had initials of their names, to enable them been weltering in his blood, and near to know the horses and colts belonging this, marks of blood on the canoe. to each other. But many of these acPoor creatures ! being disarmed; as cusers knew well, that the Christian they, with those of Gnadenhutten, had Indians were becoming an agricultural freely given up their guns, axes, and people—were making use of the plough, knives, to those who had solemnly pro- raised large crops, and lived chiefly by mised, that on their arrival at Pitts- the produce of the field, and the cattle burg, all should be returned to them they raised. That more or less of again. But had they even been in them could set a decent table to a possession of their arms, they could stranger, furnished with bread, meat, not conscientiously, and probably, butter, cheese, milk, tea, coffee, chowould not have attempted to resort to colate, &c. together with such other these in their defence. Being taken articles as the season afforded. Besides over to the town, O how the prospect this, the Christian Indians were well was changed ! the language now held known by their dress, which was plain to them, was the reverse of what it had and decent, no sign of paint to be seen been at Salem, and on the road hither. on their skin or clothes, they wore no The Gnadenbutten brethren, sisters, feathers about their heads, neither did and children, were already confined they shave and trim them as every Infor the purpose of being put to death; dian warriour does ; but wore their hair they were no longer called Christians as the Christians did. These, with other as before, but warriours !-the same marks on them, were alone sufficient language was also held to the Salem to prove that they were not warriours. Indians, -all were declared enemies But the number of horses and other and warriours, and all they could offer property which they possessed, was in their defence, was of no avail. They an object with these murderers, who were further told: that the horses concluded, that—when they killed found with them, had been taken from the Indians, the country would be white people, they being branded with theirs ; and the sooner this was done, letters, with which Indians were unac. the better !* Accordingly they told quainted ; that the axes found with the poor creatures that they must die. them, had the names of white people Finding that all entreaties to save stamped upon them. Pewter basins their lives was to no purpose and and
spoons were stolen property; the that some, more bloodthirsty than their Indians making use of wooden bowls comrades, were anxious to begin upon and spoons. Tea-kettles, pots, cups, them, they united in begging a short and
saucers, were also declared stolen delay, that they might prepare them. property. In short, every thing they selves for death-which request at possessed, was said to have been taken length was granted them. Then asking froin the white people whilst at war pardon for whatever offence they had with them; and to this they would given, or grief they had occasioned to
each other, they kneeled down, offer“How must those poor creatures ing fervent prayers to God their Sahave felt, being sensible of their inno. viour and kissing one another, under cence ! They could have given a satis- a flood of tears, fully resigned to his factory account of every article found will, they sang praises unto him, in in their possession, where, and from the joyful hope, that they would soon what frader or mechanick they had pur. be relieved from all pains, and join chased it. As for the branding irons, their Redeemer in everlasting bliss. it was common among them, to get these made by the smiths, with the * The language of backwoods-men. 39
ADVOCATE, VOL. II.
During the time of their devotion, first victim. After they had finished the murderers were consulting on the the horrid deed, they retreated to a manner, in which they would put them small distance from the slaughter houses, to death. Some were for setting fire but after a while returning again to to the houses they were in, and burn. view the dead bodies, and finding one ing them alive. Others wanted to take of them, (Abel) although scalped and their scalps home with them, as a sig. mangled, attempting to raise himself nal of victory ; while others remon. from the floor, they so renewed their strated against either of these plans, blows upon him, that he never rose declaring, that they never would be again; then baving set fire to the guilty of murdering a people, whose houses, they went off, shouting and innocence was so satisfactorily evinced, yelling, on having been so victorious. and these proposed to set them at “ The number of Christian Indians liberty, or, if they would not do that; murdered by these miscreants, exceedat least to take them as prisoners, and ed ninety; all of whom, except four, deliver them up to the proper authori- were killed in the slaughter houses. ty ; but, finding that they could not The four, were young Shabosh, who prevail on these monsters to spare was killed before the murderers reachtheir lives, they wrung their hands- ed the town, Jacob, who had been shot and calling God to wilness, that they down in the canoe, and two young were innocent of the blood of these brethren, Paul and Anthony, who perharınless Christian Indians, they with ceiving the murderers' intentions, were drew to some distance from the scene shot down under the bank of the river, of slaughter.
whilst attempting to escape." “ The murderers, impatient to make
Your readers will lament to learn, a beginning, came again to them, while that the chief, of whom an account has they were singing, and inquiring whe- been given, Isaac Glickhican, was ther they were now ready for dying, among those who were thus cruelly they were answered in the affirmative; murdered. The following is the chaadding : 'that they had commended racter which Mr. Heckewelder gives their immortal souls to God, who had of the principal sufferers: “Of the given then the assurance in their hearts, above number, sixty-two were grown that he would receive their souls: persons, one third of whom were woOne of the party now taking up a coo. men; the remaining thirty-four were per's mallet, which lay in the house children. Five of the slain were re(the owner being a cooper) saying: spectable national assistants, viz. Sa
how exactly this will answer for the muel Moore, Tobias, Jonas, Isaac and business,' he began with Abraham, and John Martin. The two former, bad continued knocking down one after the been members of the pious missionary other, until he had counted fourteen, Brainard's congregation in New Jerthat he had killed with his own hands. sey, and, after his death, had joined He now handed the instrument to one themselves to the Christian Indians liv. of his fellow-murderers, saying, 'my ing on the Susquehanna. The first, arm fails me! go on in the same way! (Samuel) was a very useful member of I think I have done pretty well !* In the church ; he had received his eduanother house, where mostly women cation from or under Mr. Brainard, and children were confined, Judith, a could read well, and understood the remarkably pious aged widow, was the English language so well, that he was
for many years, and until his death, an So related by a lad who escaped out of interpreter of the sermons preached. this house, and who understood English well He was, perhaps, never seen without and confirmed by several of the party. being at some occupation. Of reading
he was very fond, especially in the powerful, then, was that principle, bible or hymn book. Tobias' appear. wbich, while they retained all their ance alone, commanded respect: he former power of inflicting injuries, also led the life of a true Christian. could render them so mild and patient The same may be said of Jonas, and and forgiving under injuries, so confidof Isaac Glickhican, the reader of this ing and submissive, so industrious and narrative bas already been informed, regular, so ardent in their love towards how useful a member of the congrega. God, so constant in their friendship for tion he was—how prudently he acted mankind !
J. on all occasions, and how ready and fearless be was in time of dangerhow faithful to his teachers, and doubt.
To the Editor of the Gospel Advocate. less he would have risked his life for A WEEKLY paper, called the Roman them if occasion had required it. John Catholick Miscellany, is published in Martin, one of the chapel interpre. Charleston, South Carolina, which I ters at Gnadenbutten, was an exem- sometimes see and peruse. It is, as plary and worthy man. Three of might be supposed from its title, devotthese five brethren were above sixty, ed to the interests of the Roman church, and the other two about fifty years of but, in addition to this, is filled with age. Many of the brethren and sisters the local concerns of the Irish. In this who were murdered, were born of paper of July 10 last, p. 46, is the folChristian parents in the society, and lowing paragraph : were part of those who in the years " To this moment, many well-dis. 1763 and 1764 had been taken under posed, and otherwise well-informed the protection of the Pennsylvania go people, in the south, are really under vernment, while the Paxton boys (as the impression, that catholicks believe they called themselves) daringly threat. the pope can dispense with the obligaened to murder them. Here they were tion of oaths, contracts, and
agreenow murdered ! together with the chil- ments." dren ! —the loving children !- who so Upon this passage, I ask permission harmoniously raised their voices in the to subjoin a few remarks. chapel-at their schools, and in their If the pope be infallible ; if the uniparents' houses, in singing praises to ty of the Roman catholick church, in the Lord !—those, whose tender years, her faith, her discipline, and her coninnocent countenances, and tears, made duct, be the saine in all ages of the no impression on these pretended white world, as the catholicks teach, and, I
were all butchered with the presume, believe, then the infallibility rest."
of bis holiness, and the principles of It is not necessary to make many the church, must be the same, in every comments upon this narrative. The respect, now, as they were in days of doctrine of passive submissson, and old. If the Roman Catholicks do not non-resistance under the infliction of now believe that the pope “can disinjuries, is undoubtedly carried to an pense with the obligation of oaths,” it extreme; but this very circumstance is a gratilying evidence of the increasrenders the change of character the ed illumination of their mind, of their more surprising. These Indians, be honesty, their good sense, and their fore their conversion to Christianity, obedience to God, and the laws of the were as brave and fearless, as pas. country in which they live. But, in sionate and revengeful, as unshackled this respect, I apprehend, his holiness and uncontrollable, as averse from la- and they will be at issue ; for we find bour, and impatient of domestick life it upon record that the popes not only as any of their beathen brethren. How claimed the right, but exercised the
power of dispensing with the obligation deavoured to take the kingdom from of oaths."
God's church.” I am, Mr. Editor, one of the “
peo Pope Innocent III. deposed the emple in the south,” who, from my course peror Otho IV. when a council, held at of reading, have believed in this fact. Rome, ordained that, if a “temporal If my impressions are wrong, I freely lord, being required and admonished declare, I shall take great pleasure in by the church, should neglect to purge abandoning them. It is my desire to his territory from heretical filth, he think well of all churches, which are should, by the metropolitan, and the built upon the “Rock of ages ;” and other comprovincial bishops, be noosed I take more delight in viewing the in the band of excommunication; and bright, than the dark side of a picture. that if he should slight to make satisOn the present subject, I would wish faction within a year, it should be sig. that the fact could be proved against nified to the pope, that he might from me. It is my wish to think differently that time denounce the subjects abfrom what I do; and if the following solved from their fealty to him, and facts can be disproved, I shall cheer- expose the territory to be seized on fully yield my opinion.
by catholicks." "For the dignity and defence of Pope Innocent IV. declared the em. God's holy church,” says pope Gre- peror Frederick II. to be his vassal, gory VII., " in the name of almighty and in his general council of Lyons, God, the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost; denounced a sentence of deprivation I depose from imperial and royal ade against him in the following words : ministration king Henry, son of Henry, "We having, about the foregoing and sometime emperor, who too boldly and many other bis wicked miscarriages, rashly hath laid hands on thy church; had before a careful deliberation with and I absolve all Christians subject to our brethren, and the holy council, the empire, from that oath whereby seeing that we, although unwortby, do they were wont to plight their faith hold the place of Jesus Christ on earth, unto true kings: for it is right, that he and that it was said unto us in the per. should be deprived of dignity, who son of St. Peter the apostle, whatever doth endeavour to diminish the majesty thou shalt bind on earth -the said of the church. Go to, therefore, most prince (who hath rendered himself unholy princes of the apostles, and what worthy of empire and kingdoms, and I said, by interposing your authority, of all honour and dignity, and who for confirm ; that all men may now at his iniquities is cast away by God, that length understand, if ye can bind and he should not reign or command, being loose in heaven, that ye also can upon bound by his sins, and cast away, earth take away and give empires, deprived by the Lord of all honour and kingdoms, and whatsoever mortals can dignity,) do show, denounce, and acbave."
cordingly by sentence deprive ; absolvPope Urban II. declared, that “sub. ing all who are held bound by oath of jects are by no authority constrained to allegiance, from such oath for ever.” pay the fidelity which they have sworn Pope Boniface VIII. bath a decree to a Christian prince, who opposes God extant in the canon law, running thus ; and his saints, or violateth their pre “ We declare, say, define,
it to be of necessity to salvation, for Pope Paschall II. deprived Henry every human creature to be subject to IV. and excited enemies to persecute the Roman pontif;" and that he might bim ; telling them that they could not not be misunderstood, he declares that offer a
more acceptable sacrifice to one sword must be under another, God, than by impugning him, who en- and the temporal must be subject to
the spiritual power--whence if the Bullarum Romanum, which, since ma. earthly power doth go astray, it must ny have the confidence to deny matbe judged by the spiritual power.” ters of fact, though most publickly actThis was confirmed by pope Leo X. ed, should be found in the collection and the Lateran council.
of papers, the substance of it is as folPope Clement V. declared, in the lows: • The pope, being God's vicar great synod of Vienna, that the empe. on earth; and according to Jeremy's ror was subject to him.
prophecy, set over nations and kingPope Clement VI. pretended to de- doms, to root out and destroy; and pose the emperor Lewis IV.
having the supreme power over all the Pope Pius V. begins his bull against kings in the whole world, was bound to queen Elizabeth in these words: “He proceed to due correction,' &c.that reigneth on high, to whom is given And declares, that if the king (Henall
power in heaven and in earth, bath ry VIII.] and his complices do not apcommitted the one holy catholick and pear, (at Rome) he has fallen from the apostolical church, out of which there is right to his crown, and they from the no salvation, to one alone on earth, right to their estates ; and when they namely, to Peter, prince of the apos- die, they were to be denied Christian tles, and to the Roman pontiff, succes. burial. He puts the whole kingdom sor of Peter, to be governed with a under an interdict; and declares all plenitude of power: this one he hath the king's children by the said Anne, constituted prince over all nations, and [queen Anne Boleyn) and the children all kingdoms, that he might pluck up, of all his complices, to be under the destroy, dissipate, ruinate, plant anil same pains, though they be now under build.” And in the same bull he de- age: and incapacitates them for all clares, that “he thereby deprives the honours or employments ; and declares queen of her pretended right to the all the subjects or vassals of the king kingdom, and of all dominion, dignity, or his complices, absolved from all and privilege whatsoever; and absolves oaths or obligations to them, and requires all the nobles, subjects, and people of them to acknowledge them no more.' the kingdom, and whoever else have This bull was dated at Rome, Aug. 30, sworn to ber, from their oath." 1535, and was carried into execution
The bull of pope Sixtus V. against by another bull, dated Dec. 17, 1538." Henry, king of Navarre, and the prince Burnet's Hist. of the Reformation, vol. of Conde, contains the following pas. i. p. 245, fol. ed. Lond. 1681. See sage : By the authority of these pre- likewise Father Paul's Hist. of the sents, we do absolve and set free all Council of Trent, p. 86, 87, Lond. persons, as well jointly as severally, 1629, or in the Latin edition, A. D. from any such oath, [of allegiance) and 1622, p. 97, 98. from all duty whatsoever in regard of The foregoing extracts, I trust, will dominion, fealty, and obedience, and be deemed sufficient to warrant the do charge and forbid all and every of “people in the south,” in believing them, that they do not dare to obey that the pope does, or did, claim and them, or any of their admonitions, laws, exercise the right of " dispensing with and commands."
the obligation of oaths.” The above extracts are taken from The pope is a temporal sovereign, Barrow's Works, tom. i. p. 540-543. with troops at his command, as well fol. ed. Lond. 1741; where the ori. as a bishop directing the spiritual ginal Latin is quoted. I shall make concerns of the church of Rome. In but one quotation more.
which capacity he pretends to this dis. " The bull of deposition,” says bio pensing power, I am at a loss to deshop Burnet, “ is printed in Cherubin's termine. I do not see in the scrip