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the word doth import, is likewise an- official, as well as their private chatienter than the restraint of the word racter, worthy of confidence, being is; and consequently that power of APOSTLES of their churches, and the chief ecclesiastical overseers, which the glory of Christ. “If any inquire conterm of a bishop doth import, was be- cerning Titus, he is my partner and fore the restrained use of the name fellow helper, concerning you: or if wbich doth import it. Wherefore a our brethren be inquired of, they are Jame and impotent kind of reasoning the messengers (exósáros apostles) of it is, when men go about to prove, that, the churches and the glory of Christ." in the apostles' times, there was no Such apostles were Timothy and such thing as the restrained name of a Titus. Of this the epistles addressed bishop doth now signify ; because, in to them exhibit internal evidence. their writings, there is found no re- Timothy is required to lay hands sudstraint of that name, but only a general denly on no man; not to receive an use, whereby it reacheth unto all accusation against a presbyter without spiritual governours and overseers.". sufficient witnesses ; to reprove, reHooker's Eccl. Pol. book vii. sec. ii. buke, exhort ; to hold fast the form of
Let' any unbiassed man, therefore, sound words; and to commit what he read the Acts of the apostles, and the bad heard of St. Paul, to faithful men, epistles to Timothy and Titus, and he who should be able to teach others. will see, that there were three orders Titus was left in Crete, to set in order of the Christian ministry ; 1. apostles, the things that were wanting, that is, or chief bishops ; 2. presbyters, or to complete what St. Paul bad left un. inferiour bishops; and 3. deacons. done, and to ordain presbyters in every We have already mentioned four apose city: to exhort and rebuke with all tles, added to the original number; and authority, and to reject a beretick that there were others, is, we think, after the first and second admonition. intimated in Romans xvi. 7, and 2 In the language of the new testament, Cor. viii. 23. In the latter passage, they were the apostles of their respecour translation calls them the mes tive churches; in the language of the sengers of the churches; the word church at a later period, Timothy was apostle, as Hooker in the above cited bishop of the church of Ephesus, Titus passage has observed, originally signi- the bishop of the church of Crete, havfying a messenger. St. Paul, exhort- ing presbyters under him in all the ing the Corinthians to make contri cities of that island. butions for the poor Christians in Judea, Dr. B. (p. 101.) produces the salutells them that he had sent Titus to tation of the epistle to the Philippians receive their alms, and that with him, as an evidence that there was not one he had sent two other brethren, whom presiding officer there. “To all the he highly commends, (verses 18 & 22,) saints at Philippi with the bishops and but does not name. He then adds, deacons.” A little attention to this tbat if any of the Judaizing party, who epistle will enable our readers to perwere opposed to bim in that church, ceive how easily the objection is obshould make any objections to their viated. St. Paul being a prisoner at trusting these persons, and should ask Rome, the Philippians raised a sum of information concerning their charac. money to supply his wants, and sent ters, they might reply, that as for Titus, it to him by their chief officer, their he was already well known to them, apostle, Epaphroditus. When Epaph. having been the partner and fellow roditus returned, be carried an epistle Jabourer of St. Paul, in founding their from St. Paul to them, thanking all orown church, and that, as for the two ders in the church for their care of other brethren, they were from their him. Let any one read the epistle,
and especially the second chapter, from the presiding officer of the church in the twenty-fourth verse to the end, and Jerusalem ? In the fifteenth chapter of he will perceive that this was the real the acts there is an account of a meet. state of the fact. In verse 25, St. ing, or council of the apostles and presPaul calls Epaphroditus, “ My brother byters, concerning the question wheand companion in labour, and fellow- ther the gentiles should be obliged to soldier, but your messenger.” In the observe the Mosaick law; at which original it is, úão de áróconor, but your council we find James speaking in the APOSTLE. . In the church at Philippi, language of authority, and giving senthen, there were three orders of minis. tence in the case, after St. Peter and ters--1. An apostle; 2. bishops ; 3. others had done speaking; and to this deacons; in modern language, a bishop, sentence all concurred. How can it be with several presbyters or deacons un. accounted for, that one who was not der him.
of the original twelve, should have reIf we look to the example of the ceived all this respect and deference, church of Jerusalem, we shall find unless we admit the solution, that be traces of the same mode of administra- was the apostle or chief bisbop of the tion. It must be borne in mind how church in Jerusalem ? In the twenty. rapidly the Christians increased in Je- first chapter, St. Luke thus describes rusalem. On the day of Pentecost, the return of himself and St. Paul to ·Peter converted three thousand souls; Jerusalem, “ And when we were come three thousand adults ; enough to form to Jerusalem, the brethren received us three very large congregations. A gladly, and the day following Paul short time after, five thousand more went in with us unto JAMES
and were added. Not more than twenty all the elders (πάντες οι πρεσβύτεροι, all years had elapsed, before we find that the presbyters) were present." Acts there were many myriads, many ten xxi. 17, 18; see also Gal. ii. 12, where thousands of Jews in Jerusalem who persons coming to Antioch who were had become Christians. (Acts xxii. 20.) members of the church in Jerusalem, Ecclesiastical antiquity constantly and are said to come "from James.” If unanimously affirms that James the James had not been pre-eminent in the less, our Lord's brother, called by church of Jerusalem, why should his Josephus James the just, was the first name have been singled out in this bishop of Jerusalem. James the son manner ? View him as the apostle or of Zebedee, who was one of the twelve bishop of the church in Jerusalem, and apostles, was put to death by Herod all is clear. It was a proper act of about ten years after the martyrdom respect in St. Paul to visit the bishop of Stephen, and at the same time Peter on his arrival ; and he found the preswas cast into prison. This is related byters there with their bishop ready in the twelfth chapter of the Acts ; to receive him. Here is all the proof and in the same chapter it is mention of Episcopal government which the naed that St. Peter, on his miraculous de- ture of the narrative admits, and it apo liverance from prison, came to the pears to us impossible to give a satis, house of Mary, the mother of John factory explanation of it on the ground whose surname was Mark, where many of ministerial parity. were gathered together, praying. And We have seen from the twentieth when he had gained admittance, and chapter of the Acts, that there were a had told them how he had been de- number of presbyters or bishops of the livered, he added, “Go show these church of Ephesus. Yet in the Rethings unto James, and to the breth- velation, the epistles addressed by ren.”. Why was James so particularly the command of Christ to the seven . mentioned, unless it was that he was churches of Asia minor, in which
Ephesus was included, are directed to year 97, and Onesimus about the year the angels of the several churches. 109. The primary signification of the word But Dr. B. asserts, in terms of great ayyéros, angel, is a messenger or am- confidence, that ordinations were not bassador. It is therefore synonymous uniformly administered by the apos with apostle. St. John in his mystick tles. “From scriptural history," says vision of our Lord, saw him surrounded he, “it is evident, that pastors of parwith seven golden candlesticks, and ticular churches were not uniformly having in his right hand seven stars. ordained by the apostles, or by evan. In this symbolick representation, the gelists during their lives. Nay, it is seven stars were the angels or apostles apparent, evangelists themselves diờ of the seven churches, and the seven not always receive ordination from candlesticks the seven churches. When the apostles. St. Paul thus exhorts bis therefore, St. John says, “ Unto the son Timothy, “Neglect not the gift angel of the church of Ephesus write," that is in thee, which was given thee Rev. ii. 1. we are warranted to con- by prophecy, and the laying on the clude that there was an angel or apos. hands of the presbytery:"" p. 105, tle presiding over the presbyters or 106. It is a little unfortunate that he bishops of that church. And what ren- should have forgotten to mention anoders tbis conclusion the more certain, ther passage, which, being collated with is the fact, that not more than ten or the above, will serve to define its twelve years after the Revelation was meaning: "Wherefore I put thee in written, Ignatius the bishop of Antioch remembrance, that thou stir up the addressed a letter to the church in gist of God, which is in thee by the Ephesus, containing among others, putting on of my hands. 2 Tim. i. 6. equally explicit, the following remark- If Timothy received the gift by the able expressions : “Since in the name laying on of the hands of the presbyof God 'I have received your numerous tery, it is certain that St. Paul was body, in the person of my inexpressi- one of them, and that he was the chief bly dear Onesimus, your bishop accord- agent in the transaction. If Dr. B. ing to the flesh, I pray that you may had recollected this text, it would have love him as Christ hath cominanded, taught him what sort of presbytery it and that you may all resemble bim; was which thus ordained or consecrat. for blessed be God that he hath made ed Timothy. We think we have shown you worthy of possessing such a bishop. that the title of presbyter was applied Likewise concerning my fellow.servant to the apostles ; and this is the sense Burrhus, who by the will of God is in which this passage was understood your deacon, I pray that he may con- by Chrysostom and Theodoret, who tinue to be an honour to you and to the probably knew as much about the use bishop. It becomes you in every way of Greek words as Dr. Bancroft. But to glorify Jesus Christ, who bath glori- be that as it may, so long as Timothy fied
you, that by uniform obedience received the gift by the putting on of you may become perfect in the same St. Paul's hands, the passage in quesmind and sentiment, and may all say tion cannot be adduced to prove that the same thing of the subject, so that pastors “ were not uniformly ordained being under subjection to the bishop by the apostles.” and presbyters, ye may in all things But 6 Paul and Barnabas," says Dr. be sanctified.” Ign. ad Ephes. sec. 1 B. (p. 106,) “ as well as Timothy, and 2. This Onesimus appears to have were separated to their work by the been the immediate successor of Timo- imposition of the bands of the presbythy; the latter, according to Cave, tery.” Yes : one is quite as likely as having received martyrdom about the the other. St. Paul says of himself,
Gal. i. 1. that he was “an apostle, Antioch. The Holy Ghost indeed ornot of men, neither by man, but by dered the prophets at Antioch (Acts Jesus Christ and God the Father;" xiii. 2,) to separate Paul and Barnathat is, as Macknight, a presbyterian bas ; but it was to the work, whereunto writer, paraphrases it, “ Paul, an apos- he had called them formerly. This tle, not sent forth from any society of separation was simply a recommending men, neither appointed by any parti- them to the grace of God by prayer.' cular man, but by Jesus Christ. He Macknight Comm. in loc. vol. iii. p. received his commission as the first 108. Any one, who is at all acquainttwelve did, directly from our Lord ed with ecclesiastical antiquity, well himself.” The fact to which Dr. B. knows, that it was a common practice alludes, and which has led him into whenever the blessing of God was inthis strange mistake, is as follows: In voked to accompany the invocation, the thirteenth chapter of the Acts it is by the laying on of hands. said, that “there were in the church We have now, with some diligence, that was at Antioch, certain prophets examined Dr. B's. account of the priand teachers; as Barnabas, and Sime- mitive church; and we give ourselves on that was called Nige and Lucius some credit for patience in thus inof Cyrene, and Manaen—and Saul, vestigating assertions, made with a As they ministered to the Lord, and bardibood which may go down in fasted, the Holy Ghost said, Separate Worcester, but wbich certainly cannot me Barnabas and Saul for the work be very composedly tolerated by men whereunto I have called them. And who know that there are other people when they had fasted and prayed, and in the world, beside Calvinists and Jaid their hands on them, they sent unitarians. Perhaps our readers have them away.” Now from the very considered their patience quite as much terms of the narrative, this could not exercised in the perusal of our lucu-. have been an ordination. Barnabas brations, as we have thought ours to and Saul were already possessed of have been, in the lucubrations themthe same powers as Simeon, Lucius, selves. We shall therefore reserve and Manaen. They are all spoken what we have to say further with regard of as already prophets and teachers. to Dr. B's. book, for another number : What Dr. B. mistakes for an ordina- and shall conclude at present, with a tion, was merely the solemn invocation quotation from Hooker, which expresof the divine blessing on them, for a ses our own convictions, and which particular work, namely, that of visi. will, we hope, be equally expressive of ting the churches of Asia minor; and those of our readers. it is expressly stated, Acts xiv. 26, “ A thousand five hundred years
and that they returned to Antioch,“ whence upward, the church of Christ bath now they had been recommended to the grace continued under the sacred regiment of God, for the work which they fulfil- of bishops. Neither for so long hath led.” The most candid and intelligent Christianity been ever planted in any presbyterian writers, have acknow. kingdom throughout the world, but ledged, that this was not an ordination. With this kind of government alone; “ Paul,” says Macknight, was first wbich to have been ordained of God, made an apostle by Christ, when he l am, from mine own part even as reappeared to him, in the way to Da- solutely persuaded, as that any other mascus, Acts ix. 15.
And three years kind of government in the world, af tbat, his apostolick commission wbatsoever, is of God. was renewed, Acts xxii. 21. So that “We are not through errour of mind he was sent forth, neither by the deceived, but some wicked thing, bath church at Jerusalem, nor by that at undoubtedly bewitched us, if we for•
sake that government, the use whereof To slaves of heaven, as they crouch! O seer, universal experience bath for so many Seer, doom'd to dust thy fame bath even
For sure would Mary ne'er immortals bear; years approved, and betake ourselves
pierc'd unto a regiment, neither appointed of the darkness of my bell; and Satan's self, God himself, as they who favour it Be proud upon the thought, had left his throne pretend, nor 'till yesterday ever heard to see in thee the future Saviour of, among men.
Of slaves that bow to God. Yet wert thou “ The time may come,
But a poor prophet, whose chimerick dreams, shops, whose regiment doth now seem O heaven, multiply like those the arm a yoke, so beavy to bear, will be longed of death entombs beneath their kindred sod. for again, even by them that are the I care not for immortals; yet, to while readiest to have it taken off their necks. My time of idleness away, I plague But in the bands of divine Providence, And torture, as thou seest, thy lov'd man
kind. we leave the ordering of all such Look on this place of wretchedness, and say, events."
Are Satan's words belieing ? Now I haste
Back to my hell in triumph, that again
My subject banda may greet me; and, mean
time, EXTRACT FROM THE MESSIAA,
Will'st thou work miracles, now have thy BOOK I.
wish, Translated from the original German of Seer of mortality; for Satan leaves K lopslock.
The field to thee, and soon his mighty foot
Shall cleave a blasting passage thro' the (Continued from p. 259.)
depths He cried aloud, and wept tow'rds heaven, of ocean and of earth till straight again, and strove
King, he return to claim his wrested world. To speak his transports. But, so long ex. But, 'e'er A part, die wretch! he said, and pos'd
vast To hellish torments, his enfeebled soul Rush'd upon Samma : but the sleeping force Could dought save stammer; yet his longing of the peace-loving Mediator now
Repelld him; as th’ Almighty's, when Stretch'd toward th’ Eternal, and his look worlds of joy
Are doom'd to ruin by the powers of hell. From forth that darksome rock, proclaim'd The arch fiend fled deep trembling, and forfull well
got His raptur'd feelings. So the sage's soul, To fray bis passage thro' the ocean depths! That, long the future poodering o'er, yet Samma, meanwhile, with looks of rapture doubts
lest Of future life, and trembles in itself
The rock to seek his Saviour. So the banks To be annibilated. Should a friend, Of proud Euphrates, him of Babylon* Sore of eternity and proud in God
Full joyful left; when first he had regain'd Console, and shed the balm of pity o'er it, His pristine form, and dar'd to look anew Sudden the sad one breaks forth into joy Upon the orb of heaven ; feeling no more Knowing the truth ; and blesses Heaven The fearful touch of God at ev'ry rusho aloud;
Of the broad stream ; nor trembling at each And feels repose ; and is again iminortal.
storm So 'twas with Samma at that new-felt ease, That rolled like the storms of Sinai's mount, So balmy, so unwont.
Messias now When towards his hanging shades he hasWith mighty voice the lord of hell address'd : ten'd back Spirit of desolation, who art thou
An humiliated monarch, now no more That thou should'st thus the race of man af- Issuing the vain command to adore his front?
shrine I am, replied a voice of deafʼning awe, Ev'n with such joy knelt Samma down and Satan, the world's true king; the lord of spake; those
May I not follow thee, thou holy man That live, unconquer'd spirits, 'neath my And spend the life thou givest me anew realm ;
In thy blest service? Thus he said ; and held, An occupation, which methinks more bright, And more exalted is, than those ordain'd
* Nebuchadnezzar. 37
ADVOCATE, VOL. II.