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ity was designed to be a universal re can only say that he does not think on ligion," " and external forms adapted this subject with much precision. to the nature of civil government,” it But how do all these declarations must have been at its first formation

comport with what follows ? “ The imperial, Peter must have been the ecclesiastical polity established by our emperor of the apostles: Apostolo- divine Lord is fully adapted to the rum omnium princeps ac patronus, as purpose of his reign. Christ declares, Valesius calls him. - This is a most * that his kingdom is not of this world.'si glorious discovery, and with regard to p. 98. Excellent! Nothing could have the form of primitive Christianity, must been said better. There was, then, shut all protestants' mouths for ever. an “ecclesiastical polity" "established

To use the imposing title which one by our DIVINE Lord.” It was “fully of the papal polemicks has given to his adapted to the purpose of his reign," book, it is, 1. The end of all contro- and therefore there was no possible versy."

pretext for men to change it, on the plea But Dr. B. is still more liberal in of necessity or expediency. his concessions. “No individual of kingdom of Christ is not of this world;"' the human family, as he verily believes, it is therefore wholly independent on is necessarily excluded from the ac. human policy, and in all that is essen. ceptable service of his Maker.” We

We tial, uninfluenced by the mutability of say so too, provided they accept the political institutions.

political institutions. “The ecclesiterms on which salvation is offered; astical polity established by our divine but if this was all that Dr. B. meant, Lord,” consisted in the entire transfer it is a truism which does not seem to of his authority to his apostles; their have much connexion with his subject. power in ordering and establishing the Perhaps he meant every individual of church being guided by the influences the human family in his present condi. of the Holy Ghost.-John xx. 21. tion; whether he calls upon Jehovah, As my Father bath sent me, even so Jove, or Lord ; in which case, the Hin- send i you.-Luke xxii. 29. I ap. doos and Hottentots, as well as the point unto you a kingdom, as my Father savages of America, are as likely to hath appointed unto me.-Mait. xxviii. be saved as Christians, and we are 18, 19, 20. All power is given unto great fools to be at the expense and me in heaven and in earth. Go ye trouble of sending missionaries to con. therefore, and teach (nantebrate make vert them. “Without sincerity,” says disciples of) all nations, baptizing Dr. B.,“ po one will find acceptance." them, &c. teaching them to observe all How true! But it would have been a things whatsoever I bave commanded litle more in point, if he had asserted you: and lo, I am with you alway, the converse of the proposition: with even unto the end of the world. sincerity, every one will find accep- Jobn xvi. 12, 13, 14, 15. I have yet tance ! the sincere Mahonetan and the many things to say unto you, but ye sincere pagan, as well as all the sin, cannot bear them now. How beit, cere hereticks and schismaticks who, when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, witb wrong-beaded turbulence have in he will guide you into all truth : for all ages destroyed the peace of the he shall not speak of bimself;

but Christian church, might have been, and whatsoever he shall bear, that shall he may be, quite sure of doing accepta, speak: and he will show you things to ble service to their Maker. Perhaps coine. He shall glorify me; for he Dr. B. did not intend to say this, and shall receive of mine, and shall show we should be very unwilling to charge it unto you. All things that the Fahim with more than he is willing to ther haih are mine ; therefore said I, admit; but if he did not intend it, we that he shall take of mine, and shall

show it unto you.-Acts i. 2. After known axiom of common sense, as well that he (Jesus) through the Holy as of law, that qui facit per alium facit Ghost had given commandments unto per se: whatsoever we do by the inthe apostles whom he had chosen ; v. strumentality of another, is to be con3, 4, being seen of them forty days, sidered as done by ourselves. and speaking of the things pertaining

Let us then consider what the aposto the kingdom of God, and being as- tles established. In the first place, we sembled together with them command. find, that they filled up the vacancy ed them that they should not depart in their own order, occasioned by the from Jerusalem, but wait for the pro- treachery, and subsequent death of mise of the Father, wbich, saith he, ye Judas. Acts i. 26. Matthias was have heard of me.-V. 8. But ye numbered with the eleven apostles. shall receive power, after that the Ho- Tbe twelve aspostles, answering to the ly Ghost is come upon you: and ye twelve tribes of Israel, being thus conshall be witnesses unto me, both in stituted, “ to go unto the circumcision," Jerusalem, and in all Judea, and in Sa- (Gal. ii. 8, 9.) God was pleased soon maria, and unto the uttermost parts of after, to convert the persecuting Saul, the earth.

and constitute him an apostle, to go Put all these declarations together, unto the gentiles. Acts ix. 15.

With and weigh well their import, and it him Barnabas was associated, in the will be seen that our Saviour made a same apostleship; for Barnabas is excomplete transfer of his authority in pressly called an apostle, as well as bis church on earth, to his apostles, or, Paul; (Acts xiv. 14,) and St. Paul, in as we should say in the language of order to prove to the Galatians that he political diplomacy, gave full powers to was in nothing behind the very chiefhis apostles to act in his name, and to est apostles, (2 Cor. xii. 11,) tells represent him in constituting the church. them that James, Cephas, and John, The great object of his mission was to who seemed to be pillars, that is, Pedie for mankind; and all the time he ter and the two sons of Zebedee, the spent on earth, after he began bis mi- most eminent of the apostles of the cirnistry, was employed in teaching his cumcision, gave unto him and Barnaapostles. This done, they were to bas the right hand of fellowship, (Gal. teach the disciples whom they baptiz. ji. 9) acknowledging their equality. ed, to observe all things that Christ Here then are fourteen apostles ; and commanded them, and they were as. a fifteenth is mentioned by St. Paul, in sured, that the Holy Ghost would the same epistle. Three years after bring all things to their remembrance, his conversion, he went up to Jerusawhatsoever Christ had told them. Both lein to see Peler, and abode with him they, then, were assured, and we may fifteen days.

“ But other of the aposbe assured, that what the apostles in- tles,says he,

none, save stituted, was of divine institution. James, the Lord's brother." This And this, indeed, is expressly affirmed James, the Lord's brother, is so called, by St. Paul.

“God hath set (?:Peto, to distinguish him from James the son hath appointed, as in Luke xxii

. 29,) of Zebedee; and he was not therefore some in the church, first apostles, se one of the original twelve. Here then is condarily prophets, thirdly teachers, conclusive proof, that the apostles en&c. 1 Cor. xii. 28. But the prophets larged their number. We forbear to and teachers certainly were appointed mention further proof at present, beby the apostles. Therefore, accord. cause we shall have occasion hereafter ing to St. Paul, those appointed, or set to mention Epaphroditus, and others, in the church by the apostles, were who are called aróraros são órxadores, set, or appointed by God, on the well apostles of the churches. That the 36


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apostles constituted an order of the apostles; secondarily, elders, or presininistry, called presbyters (* per bútapos). byters ; (per búrepos,) and, thirdly, or elders, we presume, will not be younger men, (vewrépoi,) or deacons. questioned. We read of the apostles, But our author affirms, (p. 100,) that Barnabas and Paul, (Acts xiv. 23,) that: “ there is no proof from the new tes-, during their mission in Asia minor, tament, that the apostles instituted "they ordained them elders in every more than one order of ministers." church ;' and in the next chapter, that The apostles themselves, he of course on their return to Jerusalem, they were excludes ; and of deacons, he also afreceived of the apostles and elders; firms, (p. 102,) that they “ were not, in that the apostles and elders came to the primitive age, considered as an gether, to consider the case of the order of the priesthood.” Of the gentiles ; that it pleased the apostles priesthood, they certainly never were and elders with the whole church, to considered as an order; and any one, send chosen men to Antioch, with Paul accustomed to accurate language on and Barnabas, &c. evidently showing, this subject, would never have em. that a distinction existed between these ployed the term. But deacons were, two orders. See Acts xv. 2, 4, 6, 22, and still are, considered as an order of 23.

the Christian ministry. As Dr. B. It is equally unquestionable that produces no proof of his assertion, the another order of men was appointed, reader, we trust, will consider ours, as and solemnly ordained, by the laying equivalent, at least, to his. As an evion of the apostles' hands. Seven of dence, however, that we do not speak these are mentioned, as having been without book, we would simply refer appointed from the Grecian, or Hel. to the eighth chapter of the Acts, and lenistick converts ; (Acts vi. 3, 5,) ask, whether Philip, one of the seven and though they are not there called appointed by the laying on of the deacons, yet it is sufficiently evident, apostles' hands, did not preach and that they were distinct from the el. baptize ? By another affirmation equalders.* Here, then, we have, first, ly positive, he gets rid of the apostles.

“It is unnecessary to bring into vieir * On the subject of the appointment of the distinction, between apostles who deacons, Mosheim maintains, that the seven were supernaturally endued to exe. mentioned, Acts vi. 3, 5, were not the first cute their high commission, and the who were appointed in the church of Jerurusalem, but only the first who were appoint ordinary ministers of the gospel.” p. ed among the Greek, or Hellenistick con. 103. We, on the contrary, think it verts. He considers the young men,” very necessary to bring into view this (rec tépos) who were in waiting on the apos- distinction; and, if Dr. B. did but tles, and who committed the bodies of Ana- know it, the whole of the question, be nias and Sapphira to the earth, (Acts v. 6, has undertaken to discuss, turns upon 10,) as in fact the deacons of the church. "Now, if this opinion be correct," he adds,

as it really appears to me to be, there is cumstances of the church at that time." See al once an end of the notion, enlerlained by Mosheim's commentaries on the affairs of some, that the deacons of after-ages, differed Christians before the time of Constantine the from those of the primitive times; in that it great, translated by Vidal. vol. i. p. 237, was the office of the original or primitive note. But if we are to believe Dr. B. “deaones to take care of the poor, but, that those cons originally were considered as the alof after times, had duties of a very different moners of the church; and do service was nature assigned to them by the bishops. To performed by them, in the offices of publick me il seems clear, that no such alteration took worship, but serving the bread and wine to place in the funclions of the deacons, but that communicants, and providing materials for from the first, il was their duty to render them- baptism." p. 112. We may surely be selves serviceable in all things, which might be permitted to use Dr. Bancroft's own authorirequired of them, by the situation and cir« tjes, when they evidently make agaiast him.

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this point. But let us attend to the The apostolick commission is not, and reason be assigns, for its not being ne. will not be fulfilled, till all nations cessary. The apostles," he says, are converted to the Christian faith,

were supernaturally endued to exe. baptized, and instructed, in the duties cute their high commission." And of their religion. For the accomplishwere not others thus endued, beside ment of this great purpose, our Lord, the apostles? Were supernatural gifts who hath all power in heaven and confined to them ? Did not Stephen, earth, will, by his authority, be with the deacon, do "great wonders, and his apostles in their official character, miracles among the people ?" Acts and consequently with all who derive vi. 8. Did not Philip, the deacon, authority from them, 'till the end of work miracles ? Acts viii. 6. Did the world.

Then be will come again, not Cornelius and his company, who to judge the world in righteousness, were laymen, speak with tongues ? Acts and to demand from his apostles, and x. 46. If these things are so, the work from all whom they have commissioning of miracles bad no necessary con- ed, an account of their trust. Such is nexion with the question about the or- the declaration of the scriptures; and ders of the ministry, or even with the such is the foundation of Episcopacy ; ministry itself. The fact is, that all or- namely, that our Saviour appointed ders of men in the church, laity, as in his church, an order of men, investwell as clergy, received, at that time, ed with plenary powers to continue those extraordinary manifestations of the office, given to them, to the end of divine power, which were predicted the world ; that this order of men apby the prophet: “It shall come to pointed under them two other orders, pass in ibe last days, (saith God,) I elders, or presbyters, and deacons ; will pour out of my spirit upon all · but that the apostles confined to their flesh: and your sons and your daugh- own order the right of commissioning ters shall prophesy, and your young to the ministry, for this plain reason, men shall see visions, and your old because they were the only order apmen shall dream dreams: and on my pointed with plenary powers by our •servants, and on my hand-maidens, I Saviour bimseli. will pour out in those days of my spi.

But Dr. B. having, in this summary rit

, and they shall prophesy." See way, turned the apostles out of doors, Acts ii. 17, 18, compared with Joel ii. and disfranchised the deacons, pro28, 29. If, then, the apostolick office ceeds to prove, that there was but one ceased, when miraculous gifts ceased, order of the ministry, by showing, by the same mode of arguing, we may that in the new testament, the words prove, that all orders of the ministry presbyter or elder, and bishop, are have ceased. But the assertion is di- used to denote the same office. A very rectly contrary to our Saviour's pro. useless labour; for if he had known mise, contained in his commission. any thing of the controversy, or at least, Matt. xxviii. 18, &c. Jesus came, if he had read on both sides of the and spake unto them, (i. e. the eleven question, he would have known that disciples, v. 16, the whole body of this was never disputed. He assumes the apostles which remained after the throughout his book, the very point to treachery and death of Judas,) saying, be proved, and proves what is not de·all power is given unto me in heaven -nied. The term bishop is applied, in and in earth. Goye, (apostles) there. the new testament, both to apostles fore, and make disciples of all nations, and elders; the office of an apostle baptizing them, &c. teaching them, &c. being called, Acts i. 20, TH) BRICKOR And lo, I am with you (apostles) al. an episcopate or bishoprick. So the way, even unto the end of the world.” terin presbyter or elder is also applied

to the apostles. 1. Pet. v. 1. The The source of the fallacy may be elders (spooburipovs) which are among very easily traced. Dr. B., and all you, 1 (Peter) exhort, who am also an the advocates of presbyterian parity, elder ; (i OULT PECCÚTipos, their fellow assume, that the term bishop was used elder.) So St. John, in the salutation in the same restrained signification in of his second and third epistles, calls the apostolick age, in which it is used himself, the elder, • apocúrepos. And now. But there is a constant fluctuain Acts xi. 30, both the first and se- tion in language, a constant contraccond order of the ministry seem to be tion from general to specifick, which comprehended under this name. The vitiates every argument of this nature. disciples at Antioch, in expectation of Hooker has assigned the reason of this a great dearth predicted by one of change, with his usual acuteness : the prophets sent to them from Jeru. “Sith the first things," says he, “ that salem, determined to send relief to the grow into general observation, and do · brethren in Judea, “which also they thereby give men occasion to find name did, and sent it to the elders (opòs tous for them, are those which being in #perbutépous) by the hands of Barnabas many subjects, are thereby the easier, and Saul.” As the apostles were re. the oftener, and the more universally siding still at Jerusalem, and it ap- noted; it followeth that names impospears, from Acts iv. 35, 37, that it ed to signify common qualities of opewas the practice to deposit the chari. rations, are antienter than is the reties of the church with them, the term straint of those names, to note an eselders, must here signify either the cellency of such qualities and operaapostles alone, or at most the apostles, tions in some one or few amongst others. and those of the second order. If For example, the name disciple being then, both offices, that of apostles, as invented to signify generally a learner, well as that of elders, were called in it cannot chuse, but in that significathe new testament by the same titles, tion be more antient than when it nothing is gained to the argument by signifies, as it were, by a kind of approving that the two titles were appli. propriation, those learners wbo being ed indiscriminately to the same office. taught of Christ, were, in that respect, When St. Paul sent for the elders of termed disciples, by an excellency. Ephesus to come to him at Miletus, a The like is to be seen in the name distance of fifty miles, and gave them apostle, the use whereof, to signify a a charge to take heed unto themselves, messenger, must needs be more antient and to all the flock over which the than that use which restraineth it unto Holy Ghost had made them (itioné- messengers sent concerning evangelical Tous) overseers or bishops, Acts xx. affairs ; yea, this use more antient 25, the whole of the transaction than that whereby the same word is shows that be considered himself, and yet restrained farther to signify only was considered by them, as their ec- those, whom our Saviour himself imclesiastical superiour. Of what conse- mediately did send. After the same quence then, is the name by which the manner, the title or name of a bishop, inferiour order is called, provided the having been used of old to signify both fact be established, that it is inferiour ? an ecclesiastical overseer in general, This petty verbal criticism is unwor. and more particularly, also, a princithy of a rational and learned mind.- pal ecclesiastical overseer; it followIt is precisely the same quibbling eth, that this latter restrained signifisophistry, which would strip the Re- cation is not so antient as the former, deemer of his attributes, because one being more

Yet because of the names of God was employed the things themselves are always anamong

the Jews, to designate a civil tienter than their names ; therefore ruler.

that thing which the restrained use of


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