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having been made for this purpose by head and supreme governour; and that the Rev. Dr. Samuel Seabury, presbyter under him the chief ministers or manain Connecticut, to the right reverend the gers of the affairs of this spiritual sociebishops of the church in Scotland ; the ty are those called bishops, whose said bishops having taken this proposal exercise of their sacred office being in. into their serious consideration, most dependent on all lay powers, it follows heartily concurred to promote and en- of consequence that their spiritual aucourage the same, as far as lay in their thority and jurisdiction cannot be afpower, and accordingly began the fected by any lay deprivation. pious and good work recommended to Article nt. They agree in declaring them, by complying with the request of that the Episcopal church in Connectithe clergy in Connecticut, and advanc- çut is to be in full communion with the ing the said Dr. Samuel Seabury to Episcopal church in Scotland, it being the bigh order of the episcopate ; at the their sincere resolution to put matters same time earnestly praying that this on such a footing, as that the members work of the Lord, tbus happily begun, of both churches may with freedom might prosper in bis hands, till it and safety communicate with either, should please the great and glorious head when their occasions call them from the of the church, to increase the num. one country to the other : only taking ber of bishops in America, and send care, when in Scotland, not to hold comforth more such labourers into that part munion in sacred offices with those perof his harvest.

sons, who, under the pretence of ordinaAnimated with this pious hope, and tion by an English or Irish bishop, do, earnestly desirous to establish a bond or sball, take upon them to officiate as of peace and boly communion between clergymen in any part of the national the two churches, the bishops of the church of Scotland; and whom the church in Scotland, whose names are Scottish bishops cannot help looking under written, having had full and free upon, as schismatical intruders, designconference with bishop Seabury after ed only to answer worldly purposes, bis consecration and advancement as and uncommissioned disturbers of the aforesaid, agreed with bim on the fol. poor remains of that once flourishing lowing articles, which are to serve as a church, which both their predecessors CONCORDATE, or bond of Union be. and they have, under many difficulties, tween the catholick reinainder of the an- laboured to preserve pure and uncorcient church of Scotland, and the now rupted to future ages. rising church in Connecticut.

Article iv. With a view to this salu.

tary purpose, mentioned in the precedArticle 1. They agree in thankfully ing article, they agree in desiring, that receiving, and humbly and heartily there may be as near a conformity in embracing the whole doctrine of the worship and disipline established begospel, as revealed and set forth in tween the two churches, as is consisthe holy scriptures : and it is their tent with the different circumstances earnest and united desire to maintain and customs of nations; and in order the analogy of the common faith, once to avoid any bad effects that might delivered to the saints, and happily otherwise arise from political diffepreserved in the church of Christ, rences, they hereby express their ear. through his divine power and protec. nest wish and firm intention to observe tion, who promised that the gates of such prudent generality in their publick bell should never prevail against it. prayers, with respect to these points as

Article 11. They agree in believing shall appear most agreeable to apostothis church to be the mystical body lick rules, and the practice of the of Christ, of which he 'ne is the primitive church.

Article v. As the celebration of the Connecticut, and such a mutual interholy eucharist, or the administration of course of ecclesiastick correspondence the sacrament of the body and blood carried on, when opportunity offers, or of Christ, is the principal bond of union necessity requires, as may tend to the among Christians, as well as the most support and edification of both churches. solemn act of worship in the Christian Article vii. The bishops aforesaid, church, the bishops aforesaid agree in do hereby jointly declare in the most desiring, that there may be as little va. solemn manner, that in the whole of this riance here as possible. And, though transaction they have nothing else in the Scottish bishops are very far from view but the glory of God, and the good prescribing to their brethren in this mat- of his churcb; and being thus pure and ter, they cannot help ardently wishing, upright in their intentions, they cannot that bishop Seabury would endeavour but bope, that all whom it may conall he can, consistently with peace and cern, will put the most fair and candid prudence, to make the celebration of construction on their conduct, and take this venerable mystery conformable to no offence at their feeble but sincere the most primitive doctrine and prac- endeavours to promote what they betice in that respect, which is the pattern lieve to be the cause of truth and of the the church of Scotland has copied after common salvation. in her communion office, and which In testimony of their love to which, it has been the wish of some of the and in mutual good faith and confie most eminent divines of the church of dence, they have for themselves, and England that she also had more closely their successors in office, cheerfully put followed, than she seems to have done, their names and seals to these presents, since she gave up her first reformed li. at Aberdeen, this fifteenth day of Noturgy used in the reign of king Edward vember, in the year of our Lord one VI; between which and the form used thousand seven hundred and eighty in the church of Scotland, there is no dif- four. ference in any point, which the primitive Sic subscribitur church reckoned essential to the right (l.s.) ROBERT KILGOUR, Bp.& Primus. ministration of the holy eucharist. In this (L.s.) ARTHUR PETRIE, Bp. capital article, therefore, of the eucha (l.s.) John Skinner, Bp. ristick service, in which the Scottish bi- (L.s.) SAMUEL SEABURY, Bp.* shops so earnestly wish for as much unity as possible, bishop Seabury also agrees to take a serious view of the com

REVIEW. munion office recommended by them; and if found agreeable to the genuine Sermons on those Doctrines of the Gosstandards of antiquity, to give his sanc- pel, and on those Constituent Princition to it, and by gentle methods of ar- ples of the Church, which Christian gument and persuasion, to endeavour, Professors have made the Subject of as they have done, to introduce it by Controversy. By Aaron Bancroft, degrees into practice, without the com- D.D. Pastor of the Second Congrepulsion of authority on the one side, or gational Church in Worcester. Wor. the prejudice of foriner custom on the cester, May, 1822. 8vo. pp. 429. other. Article vi. It is also hereby agreed

The title
page indicates the

very and resolved upon, for the better an

tifarious character of these discourses. swering the purposes of this concor. date, that a brotherly fellowsbip be possession of the bishops of the church of

* As this is the copy of the concordate in henceforth maintained between the Scotland, the signature of bishop Seabury is Episcopal churches in Scotland and properly put last, but we presume that isa

mul.

They are twenty-nine in number; into all the subjects on which Dr. B. and they embrace almost all the points has written, to separate accurately the which are now in dispute ainong our truths from the errours of his statements, dissenting brethren. Dr. Bancroft to give bim the credit due to many of disbelieves the trinity ; bas great his remarks, which are often excellent, doubts respecting the nature of our and to detect at the same time the inLord, though on the whole he inclines stances of crude conceptions, and into consider him as more than buman; conclusive reasoning with which the wholly denies, however, that religious volume abounds, would demand more worship should be paid to him, and time and space and patience than we represents his death as only an evi- can possibly bestow. Besides, if Dr. dence of his sincerity, his benevolent B., as his partial publishing committee intentions towards mankind, and his affirm, be considered by the most submission to the will of God. He zealous Calvinists” as a “ formidable disbelieves the five points of Calvin. opponent," we have no doubt that our ism ; thinks ibat, with the exception of orthodox friends at Andover will make Christmas, which he says ought to be him feel a little the force of their critiobserved by all Christians, publick cal acumen. We are the more willing worship should be confined to the to have them take a considerable por. Lord's day ; disapproves of prayer tion of this labour, because we verily and conference meetings, and night believe that much of the present dispreaching ; thinks that the Lord's sup- tracted state of religion is to be atiriper is not more holy than are some buted to the principle of dissent; and other offices of our religion ; and de- that if they had remained under the nies the eternity of the future punish- safeguard of episcopacy and a scripment of the wicked.

tural liturgy, they would not now bave On those subjects which constitute been so miserably rent into the partythe points of difference between us coloured patch-work which is extended and our dissenting brethren, and which over the face of our country. bave unhappily led them to separate

We have another reason for confining from our communion and fellowsbip, our attention to those parts of Dr. B.'s Dr. B. maintains the validity of dis• book in which we are more immedisenting ordinations and the scriptural ately concerned. The churchmen in character of congregational discipline; the eastern diocese are few in numtalks much against creeds and publick ber; and surrounded as they are by formularies of religion ; and maintains large bodies of religionists who, while that the term heretick, in the bad they agree in nothing else, unite in all sense affixed to it in Titus iii. 10, ap. the principles of dissent, they are in plies only to persons who are guilty of great danger of losing sight of their

own distinctive principles. “ProfesOn the subjects in dispute among sors with us," says Dr. Bancroft, “ at the two classes of dissenters distin- the present day may be classed in two guished by the names of Calvinistick great divisions, Calvinists and liberal or orthodox and unitarian or liberal, or unitarian Christians." And his we do not, for several reasons, intend publishing committee echo the same to dwell. In the first place, to enter sentiment, stripped of its restrictive

and qualifying clauses. Speaking of copy

sent to the church of Connecticut, the sermons in the present collection, bishop Seabury signed first, and the Scottish the committee observe that“ they form bishops last: this interchangable mode of signature being customary in all agreements a regular series upon those permanent between equal parties.

doctrines of Christianity wbich now

immoral practices.

the

divide the TWO PRINCIPAL CLASSES, sound doctrines which they did not called orthodox or Calvinistick and carry with them when they separated liberal or unitarian."* Now such from our common mother, the church assertions, constantly repeated, may of England. These they now hold in have a very prejudicial influence upon common with us, but they hold them the inembers of our communion. Those with difficulty, because they have dewho have a great abhorrence of the serted the external protection of episCalvinistick doctrines of election and copacy and the liturgy. The mempredestination, which are in their view bers of our communion are never to only a system of fatalism, may be in- forget, that those congregational socieduced to regard with indulgence the ties, which bave now become unitarian, destructive principles of unitarianism. were once orthodox. There is no se. And, on the other hand, those who look curity therefore for themselves, unless with just abhorrence upon the unita- they adhere to apostolick institutions, rian tenets as subverting the whole and thus endeavour to restore the unity foundation of Christianity, may be led of the Christian church. to think that there is nothing valuable We have been thus explicit in stat. in the church, but its opposition to ing the reasons which induce us to unitarianism; they may consider it confine our remarks to certain parts of as holding every tenet coinmon to or. Dr. B's book, because we wish it to be thodox dissent; and they may finally understood that in upholding the disimagine that a continuance within its tinctive principles of Episcopalians, pale is of no consequence, provided we act from no motive of hostility to. they retain their attachment to those wards those who unhappily dissent cardinal and distinguishing doctrines from us, but from the firin. conviction of the gospel, the divinity and atone. that those principles form the only se. ment of our blessed Saviour. In our curity against anarchy and schism. view therefore, it is of great conse- The first subject which we shall quence,

that the members of our church consider is the account Dr. B. gives should understand, and know how to of the primitive state of the Christian set a proper value upon, the privileges church they enjoy. They are to be remind

It is the result either of imperfection ed that their orthodox, dissenting bre. in the reasoning power, or of ignorance thren can offer them no privilege in re- concerning the main subject in dispute, turn for the sacrifices they would make

or of design and artifice in the controwere they to leave the communion of versialist, that subjects on which there the church. The dissenters retain no is no debate are often gravely proved,

or that the very point which is the • Christians divided into two principal great source of contention is constantclasses, and unitarians one of them: How ly assumed. Such, if we mistake not, potent an effect does the nearness of the ob

is the fault which generally pervades ject produce upon the eye! "Its orb so full, its vision so confin'd!"

Dr. B.'s discourses, and such is more This result of the privilege of private judg- especially the fact in all that he has ment made us think of capt. Ross's arctick said on the subject of the primitive highlanders, the Esquimaux sately discovered church. We acquit bim, however, of in Baffin's Bay. 66 These poor people are so completely shut out by mountains, covered any design to deceive his bearers, and with perpetual snow, from their southern believe that he is quite honest in all neighbours, as to have no knowledge of any his remarks. But, unfortunately, other human beings besides themselves ; judge are obliged to praise his integrity at ing from surrounding appearances that all the the expense of his knowledge. He rest of the world to the southward, was a mass of ice and snow.” Quarterly Re. evidently knows little of church bisview, vol. 21.

tory; and that by his own confession.

we

one

When the discourses were written," nals it is not difficult to foretell what he observes in his preface, “the au- the copy must be. "Christianity," thor bad no intention of publishing says Dr. B., " was designed to be a them, and was not, therefore, careful universal religion ; and in its constituparticularly to note his authorities for tion and general principles it is fitted the facts stated. This neglect he now for this purpose. The divine Author regrets, more especially in relation to left nations and communities of men that part of the work which contains a at liberty to adapt external forms to the succinct history of the corruptions of state of society, to the nature of civil the papal church, and of the protes, government, and to the general imtant reformation ; because a review of provement of particular ages and Mosheim, Priestley, Campbell, and the countries." p. 96. Undoubtedly. To appropriate articles in Rees's cyclo. this general assertion no one will ob: pædia, (the principal authors consulted,) ject; and it was the practice of the would require more time than he has church in all ages until the extravato bestow on the subject.” And these gant pretentions of the papacy were are all the authorities within Dr. B.'s set up, to adapt its internal regulations, reach, on the important subject of the upon things indifferent, to the state of primitive church ! Mosheim, a presby- civil society. But what follows ? " In terian historian, in whose first volume every communion, the sincere worshipcontaining an account of the church per will be accepted. Indeed, no in. for the first four centuries, scarcely dividual of the human family, as I veany ancient author is quoted as sup- rily believe, is necessarily excluded porting his assertions; Priestley, whose from the acceptable service of his Ma. great and avowed object was to prove ker; and without sincerity no the primitive church corrupt, and will find acceptance." We had the whose unfairness and blunders in the simplicity to imagine that our Saviour citation of ancient authors have been instituted but one communion. But detected by the Ithuriel spear of no: it seems, according to Dr. B., Horsley; Campbell, a presbyterian di. " that because Christianity was devine of acknowledged abilities and signed to be a universal religion, candour in every thing else but where therefore there must be different com. presbyterianism is concerned, whose munions in different nations, and acwork has been most ably answered by cording to the different forms of civil the late bishop Skinner, and who, it is government.” There must be a moadmitted by most of his admirers, never narchical communion, and an aristocrawrote so feebly as he did on the subject tical communion, and a democratical of the Christian church ; and Rees, a communion. We begin now to ununitarian dissenter, in whose cyclo- derstand this sly mode of begging the pædia, on every subject into which question. The papal communion is unitarianism and the principles of dis. fitted for despotick civil governments ; sent can by fair means or foul be foist- the Episcopal, for a limited monarchy; ed, no opportunity is lost of incul. the presbyterian, for an aristocracy; cating his sentiments, and buttressing and the congregational, for the demoup by uncandid and discoloured state. cratick institutions of New England. ments, the rotten fabrick of his heresy ; Our Roman brethren will be very much Such, Christian reader, are the authori. obliged to the doctor, for a concession ties, and the only authorities, of Dr. which yields to them the palm of anBancroft, on the government, disci. tiquity for which they have been so pline, and worship of the primitive long contending. Our Saviour and Christian church !

his apostles were the subjects of the From the knowledge of such origi- Roman emperor, and as “ Christian.

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