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a beautifully figurative sense : and the every one of their own sins. Now to phrase "privily entered" answers well make any one righteous to life from to the subintravit of the vulgate ; not many, and those his own sins, besides according to Locke's version of the that one that lay on him before, is word, entered a little, which the usage greater grace, than to bestow on him of the Latin language will by no means justification to life only from one sin, warrant, but conveying the sense of and that of another man.
To forgive secrecy and stealth. The law, when the penalty of many sins, is a greater first its requisitions and its penalties grace than to remit ihe penalty of one.” began to unfold, silently convinced But man of the abundance of his guilt, and 2. We may meet the opponent's made known the abundance of that question in another way; though pergrace which removed the stain. But I haps the solution will amount to nearly am willing, for the sake of argument, the same with that just stated. Before to allow, that the reference in this the introduction of the Mosaick dispen, place, if applied to the Mosaick law, sation, offence did indeed prevail, and is to its actual promulgation upon Sinai: grace was exerted in its pardon. But yet in this case, I know not that we it was not till the entrance of that are obliged of necessity to attach the divine code, that the enormity and peculiar force above given, to the pre- multiplied number of man's sins were positions with which the verb is com- clearly and distinctly seen. He then pounded. liageo jaosv, according to a knew precisely the accumulation of his very common Greek usage, and parti- guilt; perceived the impossibility of cularly frequent in the new testament a complete obedience to the requisiwriters, may easily enough be account. tions of the law; and discerned the ed as the same with sexoriali, in its plenitude of heavenly grace as if writsimple and original state ; and the ten before him in characters of light. whole signification be nothing more, St. Paul might therefore affirm with than a mere delivery, or enactment. peculiar force, Νόμος δε παρεισήλθεν,
The second objection to the definite ένα πλεονάση το παράπτωμα" οι δε έπλεrendering of νόμος in this passage is of oνασεν και αμαρτία, υπερεπερίσσευσεν η χάρις. a more general nature, and is thus IV. The occurrence of város in vii. 1, stated by Macknight. “Can any one must certainly be allowed to favour with Locke imagine, that no offence either a general or a definite rendering. abounded in the world, which could It has, therefore, nothing opposed to be punished with death, till the law of the theory of Middleton; and perhaps Moses was promulgated? And that his conception of the passage is, above grace did not superabound, till the of every other, probable and ingenious. fence against that law abounded ?" v. In ver. 23, of the same chapter, (Macknight, in loco.) As Locke is roues, though anarthrous, throws no most directly impugned, I shall light upon the subject in dispute.
1. Permit him in his own judicious Βλέπω δε έτερον νόμον εν τοις μέλισί μου, , words to answer for himself, 66 The &c. For the word here takes on a rest of mankind were in a state of death sense entirely new and unusual : though only for one sin of one man. This the same translation with that of our the apostle is express in, not only in version is given it, in all the others to the foregoing verses, but elsewhere. which I have bad access.
Schleusner, But those who were under the law, however, copying from Bengel, has (which made each transgression they very aptly rendered it dictamen ; were guilty of mortal,) were under the which might be properly termed in condemnation of death, not only for our own language, an impelling printhat one sin of another, but also for ciple of action. I proceed,
vi. To the last place for considera- which rests purely upon individual tion, in xiii. 8. o yaz úvara tòy éregov, opinion : at any rate, we may comfort Your het nuwne. Upon this passage ourselves with this reflection, that the Middleton remarks, " that voor bere general truth of bishop Middleton's docappears to be used in the same sense trine, as built upon accurate examinaas above, ii. 5." I take the reference tion, and the reality of sound learning, is to be a typographical errour for ii. 25; too firm to be moved from its foundation. as vouos does not occur in any shape in And with respect to the language of the the passage cited. The author would new testament writers, contradictory then here adopt the term moral obedi- cases will show a want of uniforinity in ence or virtue : it is certainly needless, their mode of expression, but will not, and not drawn from the plain letter of as was before hinted, invalidate those the proposition. At the commencement examples, which nothing, but principles of chap. xii, the dogmatick part of the like Middleton's, can explain. The epistle ends, and the exhortatory begins: learned author might well have looked and the present portion in particular with self-gratulation upon the succeshas a reference to the rebellious risings sive labours of his glorious task: and of the Jewish inhabitants of Rome, cried, in Lucan's words, when it was against the constituted authorities of the over, empire ; in opposition to which he Sit pietas aliis, miracula tanta silere: urges the general duty of love, for- Ast ego cælicolis gratum reor, ire per omnes bearance, and the evangelical spirit of Hoc opus, et sacras populis innotescere leges. peace. This, moreover, he affirms to
PAARSALIA, L. X. v. 15. be in effect the fulfilinent of their whole
M. E. law of social duties, as enjoined in the Mosaick commandments: and imme
New Haven, Oct. 13, 1821. diately, in ver. 9, he proceeds to the illustration of his rule, by allusions to separate and well known maxims in
For the Gospel Advocate. the decalogue; το γάς, « Ου μοιχεύσεις, ou Doveúteis, où xabyers, &c. referring expressly to the preceding vózes in the Among the numerous weapons which assertion of ver. 8. The signification is the opponents of the church have too palpable to be mistaken.
caught up in their rage against her, The passages first proposed for dis. she has been assailed with the imputa cussion having thus been examined in tion of prescribing a creed which is not their regular series, the amount of the founded on scripture. The apostles' whole stands thus: three of the cita- creed, it is said, is of this character. tions adduced were claimed as exam- The best refutation of the charge is ples of youos in the anarthrous form, yet the collation of passages of scripture with a definite sense; one was sup. with the creed itself, showing at one ported by evidence, producing not cer. view how ignorantly or uncandidly the lainty, but extreme probability: one church is aspersed ; and how truly was left evenly balanced ; and the re- and exactly every word of this admiramaining instance had no connexion ble suminary of Christian faith is foundwith the inquiry.
ed on the words of our Saviour and the If one exception on this point be inspired writers of the bible. . established, however desirable in itself I believe in God: Be ye sure that an infallible criterion might be, the the Lord he is God, Psalm c. 2. The system in its application here undoubt- Father: The God and Father of all, edly must fall. How far the present Eph. iv. 6.: Even the Father of our Lord observations have attained the end for Jesus Christ, 2 Cor. i. 3. Almighty: the which they were first begun, is a matter Almighty God, Gen. xvii. 1. : Trust ye
in the Lord for ever, for in the Lord heaven : And it came to pass while he Jehovah is everlasting strength, Isaiah blessed them, he was parted from them, xxvi. 4: Great is the Lord and great and carried up into heaven, Luke xxiv. is his power; yea, and his wisdom is 51. And sitteth on the right hand of infinite, Psalm cxii. 5. Maker of God the Father almighty: And sat on heaven and earth : In the beginning the right hand of God, Mark xvi. 19. God created the heaven and the earth, From thence he shall come to judge the Gen. i. 1. And in Jesus Christ: Jesus quick and the dead : Our conversation is said, ye believe in God, believe also in in heaven; from whence also we look for me, John xiv. 1. : I am Jesus of Na. the Saviour, the Lord Jesus, Philip. iji. zareth, John xviii. 7. 8.: I am the Mes. 20.: He commanded us to preach unto siah, John iv. 26. His only Son: I am the people, and to testify that it is be the Son of God, Mark xiv. 62: God so which was ordained of God to be the loved the world that he gave his only Judge of quick and dead, Acts x. 42. begotten Son, that whosoever believeth I believe in the Holy Ghost : Go ye and in him should not perish, but have teach all nations, baptizing them in the everlasting life, Jobin iii. 16. Our naine of the Father, and of the Son, and Lord: Ye call me Master and Lord, of the Holy Ghost, Matthew xxviii. 19. and ye say well; for so I am, John The holy catholick church: Christ loved xiii. 13. : Our Lord and Saviour Jesus the church and gave himself for it, that Christ, 2 Peter i. 11. Who was con- he might present it to himself a glorious ceived by the Holy Ghost: The angel church, holy and without blemish, Eph. of the Lord appeared unto Joseph in a v. 25, 27. The communion of saints : dream, saying, Joseph, thou son of Ye are fellow citizens with the saints, David, fear not to take unto thee Mary Eph. ii. 19. : Our conversation (the thy wife ; for that which is conceived city and society to which we belong) is in ber is of the Holy Ghost, Matt. i. in heaven, Philip. jji. 20.: That they 20. Born of the virgin Mary: The all may be one ; as thou, Father, art in virgin's name was Mary, and she brought me, and I in thee, that they also inay forth her first born son, and his pame be one in us; that the world may bewas called Jesus, Luke j. 27. ii. 7, 21. lieve that thou hast sent me, John xvii. Suffered under Pontius Pilate : Pilate, 21.: That ye may bave fellowship with willing to content the people, released us, and truly our fellowship is with the Barabbas unto them, and delivered Faiber, and with his son Jesus Christ, Jesus, when he had scourged him, to be 1 John i. 3. : If a man love me he will crucified, Mark xv. 15. Was crucifi. keep my words, and my father will ed: And when they were come to the love him, and we will come unto hin place, which is called Calvary, there and make our abode with him, Jobn they crucified bim, Luke xxiii. 33. xiv. 23. The forgiveness of sins: In Dead and buried: And Jesus cried with Christ we have redemption through a loud voice, and gave up the ghost, his blood, even the forgiveness of sins, Mark xv. 37: And Joseph of Arimathea Col. i. 14. The resurrection of the took down the body of Jesus and laid body: So is the resurrection of the it in a sepulchre, Luke xxiii. 53. He dead-it is sown in dishonour it is descended into hell : this day shalt thou raised in glory. It is sown a natural be with me in paradise, Luke xxiii. body, it is raised a spiritual body, 1 43: His soul was not left in hell, Cor. xv. 42, 44. : Jesus Christ will neither his flesh did see corruption, change our vile body, that it may be Acts ii. 31. The third day he rose, fashioned like unto his glorious body, from the dead: Him God raised up the Philip.iii. 21. And the life everlasting : third day, and showed him openly, And many of them that sleep in the Acts x. 40: Whereof we all are wit. dust of the earth shall awake, some to besses, Acts ii. 32. He ascended into everlasting life, and some to shame and 3
ADVOCATE, VOL. II.
ererlasting contempt, Daniel xii. 2.: cause their function is of more imporAnd this is the will of him that sent me, tance to the happiness of the world that every one which seeth the Son than any other; and the success of and believeth on him, may have ever their labours must inevitably depend, lasting life ; and I will raise him up at in a great degree, upon tbe reputation the last day, John vi. 40.
they preserve. This collation, originally made by If we inquire in what estimation they bishop Burgess, of St. Davids, in Eng. have been held, since the church of land, claims no merit but its intrinsick Christ was first instituted, we shall find force and plainness. The passages are that it has been very different in three carefully given from the bible; and un- great periods, which I shall call the less the authority of this book is re. primitive, the middle, and the present, jected, the words of this creed must be period. received as a true and adequate ex During the first of these, the clergy pression of every Christian's faith and appear to have lived on terms of the belief. For here is no question touch- utmost love and cordiality with their ing the import of the words ; but people, like fathers with their children, whether the words themselves are found labouring night and day, in publick, in the scriptures. And all that the and from house to house, for their spichurch calls on her members to be- ritual improvement, willing to spend lieve when they repeat this creed are and to be spent, often, very often, laying the truths which these words express down their lives, (which they mig at in the bible itself. That the words are have saved by flight,) rather than desert warranted by scripture, cannot, it is their beloved flocks. believed, be honestiy denied. That Those flocks, on the other hand, held the meaning of them in the creed is the their pastors in the greatest respect, as same as in the bible, cannot, with can- the stewards of the mysteries of God, dour, be even questioned. How then and ambassadors to them for Christ. the charge against the church, that she They loved them, as they saw daily prescribes a creed not founded in scrip- proofs that they were loved by them; ture, is sustained on authority, let can. and they were grateful for the benefits did and serious minds decide. It is which they daily received. enough for us that we have repelled But this happy state of things did the imputation. The motives and the not continue. After a few centuries, temper with which episcopacy is thus ignorance overspread the Christian assailed, we forbear to exhibit in their world; religion itself was corrupted ; true light. The church is peaceable and neither clergy nor people were any and unoffending. Reviling not when longer what they had been, or what she is reviled; forbearing when traduc- they ought to be. The former indeed ed, she calmly refutes, with reasonings preserved their influence, or rather it and authorities, unjust or unfounded ac was excessively increased, just in procusations.
portion as they deserved it less. The
people held them in great reverence ; SERMON.-No. X.
but it was not now a rational respect, DELIVERED AT THE ADMISSION OF THREE founded on the real dignity of the office,
or on the worth of the officer, but a superstitious awe, the offspring of ignorance,
and a slavish fear of the power of the 1 Tim. iv. 12. Let no man despise thy keys, whereby it was conceived the youth.
clergy could lock out from heaven, or The character of the clergy is of more admit, whomsoever they pleased. importauce than that of other men, be The light of learning, at last, broke
GENTLEMEN TO THE ORDER OF PRIEST
in upon this long and dismal night, and I say, it is quite impossible that such introduced our third, or modern period. an office can be generally despised, And as the character of the clergy had except through the fault of those who been too much exalted in the former, bear it. so perhaps it has been held in too little We have indeed a treasure commitesteem since the present bas com- ted to us. But we have it in earthen menced.
vessels. Our office never can bring I own I am not the fittest person to contempt on us ; but we may bring un. decide upon that question, but I think it deserved contempt upon it. We may is not difficult to assign a reason why be despised for our follies or vices; the case is so. For, besides that men for intemperance, levity, ignorance, are ever prone to run from one extreme vanity, indolence, covetousness. All to another; besides that the liberty of of us, therefore, old and young, should canvassing the character of their teach- take great care not to let men despise ers, being new, would be apt to be us for any of these things. exercised a little intemperately ; be. But as the admonition, in the text, sides those every day jests of common has particular reference to youth, and wits upon our profession, which are I now see before me certain younger made with impunity, because the pro- brethren, to whom I once stood in a fession is too grave to answer or retort very interesting relation,* and who are them; besides these minor causes, and about to be admitted to the sacred ofotbers of the same sort, there was one fice of priesthood, I hope it will be of a deeper and more designing na- excused, if I address the remainder of ture. So long as Christianity was on this discourse to them, and employ it that footing, that men might contrive in offering two or three points for their to profess it, and yet keep their sins, no consideration, on which young men body quarrelled with it; but when it have, perhaps, more need to be guardcame to be preached, as it is in Christ ed than those more advanced in years. Jesus, and universal holiness was laid First, then, my young brethren, if it down as its fundamental law, and the be asked why does the world bestow indispensable condition of acceptance more respect upon an old man than with God; then it found (as its author a young one, the chief reason must had) many enemies; and to bring re- be, because the former has acquired ligion into disrepute, they knew there (or is supposed to have acquired) more was no better way than to bring its knowledge and experience than the ministers into contempt; and we may other; and therefore to be better able appeal to persons acquainted with the to serve the interests of the society in literature of the last century, how in- which he lives. dustriously the infidel writers laboured If then you wish to procure respect that point, and how fatally, in some for your youth, what is more obvious countries, they succeeded.
than that you should anticipate this Yet, notwithstanding all that such state of things as much as you can. men bave done, or ever can do, it is Strive to be old in useful knowledge, utterly impossible that an office, de- even whilst you are young in years. rived from the authority of heaven, and Your seniors will not be jealous of instituted for the greatest good of men; such an emulation ; but will even reexercised for their consolation here, joice to see you overtake and surpass and their eternal happiness hereafter; them, hoping that you will do good in an office ever employed about the your generation, and be the blessing highest things, and, to its right execu
* They had been the author's pupils ; were tion, requiring the greatest talents, and in deacons' orders; and were now to be adgreatest cultivation of the human mind; mitted to the order of priesthood.