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termarriages, have undermined many of en great interest in it, was preparing to give their customs. The Choctaws formerly the children "a talk, previous to returning scaffolded their dead, in a house appropriated home, sixty miles distant. He is a very in. for the purpose, in their different towns; and fluential chief, and a man of comprehensive in these houses, the various families were views : he first translated, into Choctaw, a kept distinct. Sometime, they bury them in letter to the children, from some benevolent their dwellings, like the ancient Egyptians. friends in the north, who had sent it with a

6 Mr. Hodgson left the Kentucky trace; present of a box of clothes : he then gave with the intention of visiting the missionary them a long address in Choctaw. When he settlement, among the Choctaws, at Elliot, took leave, he shook hands with me-said about sixty miles from the road. Of this he was glad to hear that the white people in visit he gives the following narrative : England were interested in the welfare of

" Our course was through the woods, their red brethren-that the Choctaws were along a blazed path about a foot broad; and, sensible of their want of instruction, and that as it was necessary to procure a guide, our their teachers were pleased to say that they host rode with us till he had engaged an In were not incapable of it-that they were dian, who, for a dollar attended us twenty- grateful for what had been done ; and were five miles on his little horse. At night we aware that it was their duty to co-operate, reached the cabin of a half-breed, who took to the utmost of their ability, with those who us in. We found him setting a trap for a were exerting themselves on their behalf. wolf, which had attempted, a few hours be As soon as school was over, the boys refore, to carry off a pig in sight of the family. paired to their agricultural labours ; their

"lo the course of the evening, one of the instructer working with them, and commumissionary brethren arrived from Elliot, fornicating information in the most affectionate some cattle, which were ranging in the manner : the girls proceeded to their sewing woods : he promised us a hearty welcome at and domestick employments, under the misthe establishment.

sionary sisters. They were afterwards at lib. " The following day we set off early, our erty, till the supper bell rang; when we all sat friends having procured us an Indian to take down together to bread and milk, and various as the first twelve miles : lie could not speak preparations of Indian corn; the missionEnglish ; but, having received his quarter of aries presiding at the different tables, and a dollar, and parted from us at the appoint. confining themselves, as is their custom exed place, he returned to draw our track in cept in case of sickness, to precisely the same the sand, pointing out all the forks and little food as the scholars. After supper, a chapcross paths, and again left us. After pro- ter in the bible was read, with Scott's prac. ceeding about a mile, where we were a little tical observations. This was followed by embarrassed, we were surprised to find him singing and prayer; and then all retired to again at our side, making motions to direct our their little rooms, in their log cabins. route. Again we shook hands and parted: but “ In the morning, at day.light, the boys being again puzzled by a diverging path, half a were at their agriculture, and the girls at mile distant, we looked round almost instince their domestick employments. About seven tively, and there was our faithful fellow still o'clock, we assembled for reading, singing, watching our steps : he then came up and and prayer ; and soon afterward for breakset us right-made signs that our road now fast. After an interval for play, the school lay in the direction of the sun-and then opened with prayer and singing, a chapter in finally disappeared ; leaving us much affected the bible, and examination on the subject of by his disinterested solicitude.

the chapter of the preceding day. The “We had a delightful ride along our Ix- children then proceeded to reading, writing, dian, path, through a forest of fine oaks ; accounts, and English grammar, on a modiwhich, within ten or twelve miles of Yaloo fication of the British system. The instrucBusha, was occasionally interspersed with ters say that they never knew white children sta all natural prairies, and assuined the ap- learn with so much facility; and the specipearance of an English park. I felt as if I mens of writing exhibited unequivocal proof's

was approaching consecrated ground; and of rapid progress. Many spoke English very L

the confidence which I had in the kindness well. DED

of those on whom I was going to intrude my “ Toward evening I was gratified by the self (Christian kindness is not capricious) re arrival of the reverend Cyrus Kingsbury, who lieved me from any awkwardness about my has the general superintendence of the misreception. If I had felt any, it would soon sion. He had been determining the direchave been dismissed by the simple hospitality tion of a path, to be blazed to another setof the missionaries.

tlement, on the Tombigbee river, in Ala"Soon after my arrival, we proceeded to bama ; and although he had slept in the the school, just as a half-breed, ivho has tak. woods in heavy rain the preceding night, he

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sat up in my room till after midnight, and the children ; another, the manager of the farm : following morning rode with us seven miles, to the females also bave separate and definite see us safe across the Yaloo Busha.

duties. At present, they are overworked ; “ The immediate object of the settlement and the reverend Mr. Kingsbury greatly reof Elliot (called by the Indians Yaloo Busha, gretted that so much of his attention was from its proximity to a little river of that name necessarily engrossed by his secular concerns. which falls into the Yazoo) is the religious But, coming into a wilderness, in which the instruction of the Indians. The missionaries first tree was felled but about eighteen are, however, aware, that this must necessa- months since, they have had something to do, rily be preceded or accompanied by their to erect ten or eleven little log buildings, to civilization ; and that mere preaching to the bring into cultivation forty or fifty acres of adult Indians, though partially beneficial to woodland, and to raise upward of two hunthe present generation, would not probably dred head of cattle. A deep sense, however, be attended with any general or permanent of the importance of their object, and an unresults. While, therefore, the religious in- faultering confidence in God's blessing on terests of the children are the objects nearest their exertions, have supported them under to their hearts, they are anxious to put them the difficulties of an infant settlement; and in possession of those qualifications, which under the still severer trials of a final separamay secure to them an important influence in tion from the circle of their dearest friends, and the councils of their nation, and enable them a total renunciation of every worldly pursuit. gradually to induce their roaming brethrento

(To be continued.) abandon their erratick habits for the occupations of civilized life. The general feelings of

FOREIGN. the nation, at this moment, are most auspi- From the Missionary Register for November. cious to their undertaking. For the reasons Extract of a letter from the reverend Henwhich I assigned when speaking of the Creeks, ry Davies to the church missionary sothe community at large is most solicitous for

ciety, dated Bombay, June 2, 1821. civilization. In this they have made some

" Death of Mr. Newell. progress ; many of them growing cotton, and “Among the losses which we have met with, spinning and weaving it into coarse clothing. you will be sorry to hear of that of Mr. New

“Of the three districts or towns into which ell, one of the American missionaries. He its fifteen or twenty thousand souls are divid

was attacked about ten o'clock, on the ed, one has appropriated to the use of schools, morning of Wednesday last, the 30th of May, its annuity for seventeen years, of two thou- and died about six in the evening. The sand dollars per annum, received fro:n the usual symptoms of violent vomiting and diar. United States for ceded lands; another, its rhoea came on, attended with spasıns, and it anduity of one thousand dollars per annum, pleased God, in the course of a very few with the prospect of one thousand more: and hours, to release this faithful servant to take one has requested the United States, not only him from his abode on earth to his abode in to forbid the introduction of ammunition into heaven. He is gone !—but, being dead, be the nation, that the hunter may be compelled yet speaketh to us, for he has left this testito work ; but to send their annuity in iinple. mony--that he loved, and feared, and gloments of husbandry... At a recent general rified God in this his day and generation. council of the chiefs, thirteen hundred dollars

“ We knew much of bim; and found him a in money, and upwards of eighty cows and meek, and humble, and affectionate follower and calves, were subscribed for the use of of Christ. Surely we may say of him, the schools, and the total contribution of the

day of his death was better for him than the Choctaws to this object exceeds seventy day of his birth! Here he had no rest; but thousand dollars.

now he has entered into peace, and into the “ Here is noble encouragement for active enjoyment of that eternal rest that remainetk benevolence ! and the industry, judgment, for the people of God and piety, of the seven or eight brethren “ The day fortnight before his death, be and sisters at Elliot seem to qualify them, in passed a large portion of it with us, with his a peculiar manner, for their responsible office. wife and child ; and appeared in excellent They have all distinct departments—the spirits. We had much comfort in prayer the reverend Mr. Kingsbury being the super with him, in the evening ; and parted little intendent ; another brother, the physician thinking that we should see his face no more." and steward ; another, the instructer of the

TO CORRESPONDENTS. "Plain Remarks, by a Parish Minister ;" communications from S.; M.; and B.; and a " Hymn for Epiphany;are received, and will be inserted.

THE

GOSPEL ADVOCATE.

“ Knowing that I am set for the defence of the Gospel.” Phil. i. 17.

No. 17)

MAY, 1822.

[No. 5. Vol. II.

THEOLOGICAL.

OF

INQUIRY CONCERNING THE OPHIR

THE SCRIPTURES.

To the Editor of the Gospel Advocate. in Armenia, and that Solomon's fleet

sailed from the Red Sea round the Arabian peninsula, through the Per

sian_gulf, and afterwards ascended Ophir, like Eden, is supposed, by the Euphrates, to Armenia. For furdifferent writers, to have been situated ther details on this part of the subject, in places widely distant from each see Calmet's dict. art. Opbir. other; so much so, that there is scarce Concerning these opinions, it may ly any country, which has not been be observed, that they all suppose considered as the seat of this golden Ophir to be a particular place, famous region. It is believed, however, that for its mines, and that Solomon's peothere are geographical marks, descrip- ple obtained their gold by working its tive of it, by which its situation may mines. This appears to us to be a be identified with some country exist- fundamental mistake, and the cause of ing at the present time.

the great diversity of conjectures conWe shall now give a short account cerning this remarkable place. of the principal places, which have In 1 Kings x. 11. the Hebrew word, been considered as the situations of the translated Ophir, occurs twice. The Ophir of the scriptures.

first time it is noik; in the latter part 1. Josephus says, that Ophir is in of the verse it assumes the form of pn. the Indies, and seems to fix upon Ma. These are both derived from the root lacca as the particular place of its situ- 10N, sign ing dust or ashes. See Buxation. Lucas Holstenius thinks, that torf's lex. These words are both renwe must fix on India in general. dered, in the vulgate, Ophir, as in the

2. Others have placed it in Cey- English translation. The Lxx. render lon

, Pegu, Sumatra, Malabar, Bengal, them by Loupie, of which the corres&c. &c. Columbus thought, that the ponding Latin translation of the polydeep and extensive caverns, which glott, is Suphir. In the targum of abound in Hispaniola, were the places Jonathan, the word occurs under the in which Solomon dug his gold.

form of 10 in both instances. Latin 3. Huëtius and others have fixed translation, Ophir. Latin of the Syriac, upon Africa for its situation ; but they Ophir. Latin of the Arabick, Terra have uniformly assigned some particu- Indica. This last is merely the opinion lar portion of this continent for it. of the translator.

4. Calmet thinks, that Ophir was We think it very evident, that the 13

ADVOCATE, VOL. II,

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words Ophir and Africa are both de- ment at the riches of Solomon will be rived from the Hebrew root 18. In much diminished. And considering the our translation, 3x and its derivations length of the voyage, the extent and are rendered only by Opbir, a word richness of the eastern coast of Africa, corresponding in sound to the original, and the commercial skill of the persons according to the Masoretic pointing ; employed, the profits of the voyage whereas, by the Greek and Latin wri- were not more than might have been ters, a termination is affixed peculiar to expected. For proof that the eastern each language. Thus , rendered coast of Africa abounded in the comin our translation Ophir, is, by Greek modities mentioned, see Calmet's dict. writers, rendered a pixn, n being a vol. ij. art. Ophir ; Edinburgh EncyGreek termination, and, by Latin wri. clopædia, vol. i. pp. 35, 39, 44, 45, 46, ters, Africa, ca being a Latin termina: 136, 194, 195; vol. ii. p. 265 ; vol. tion See Littleton's Lat. dict. upon iv. p. 427; Rees's Cyc. vol. xvii. the word Africa.

art. gold; Montesquieu L'esprit des The conclusion to be drawn from Lois ; l. 21. c. 2. these observations is, that Ophir and Africa was, for many ages, an appelAfrica are really the same word, and lation applied in general to those re. that the continent of Africa is the true mote and southern provinces of the Ophir of the scriptures.

continent, which were scarcely known Solomon sent out his fleet for com- either to the Greeks or Romans, but mercial purposes, as is abundantly evi. by fable, or indistinct report. Édin. dent from the circumstances mentioned Encyc. vol. i. p.

186. in connexion with the history of his Solomon prepared his feet in the voyages. The articles of merchandise Red Sea, and sent it to Ophir about which he procured, by his fleet, were, 996 years before Christ. The nature gold, silver, apes, and peacocks. 1 of the commerce of India induces us to Kings x. 22. Also, almug trees and believe, that Ophir

could not have been precious stones. 1 Kings x. 11. His in any part of the East Indies. Every ships sailed from Ezion-geber, a port nation which has traded to India, has upon the north-east branch of the Red always carried money, and received Sea, which was particularly fitted for this merchandise in return. From the nacommerce. They proceeded through ture of the commerce, therefore, Solothe Red Sea, along the coast of Africa, mon could not have received gold and either trading with the natives, or pro- silver from India, but from Africa. curing, by search, the articles of mer- Montesquieu, L'esprit des Lois, 1. xxi. chandise to which they had been in- c. 1. 6. structed particularly to direct their The invention of the mariner's comattention. Although Solomon's feet pass has produced great influence upon brought him great riches, yet this was commerce, and upon our knowledge of not the only way by which he acquired different countries. Before its invenhis vast treasures. He received large tion, geographers gained their knowsums, by way of presents, from various ledge of Africa principally by traveldescriptions of persons. See 2 Chron. ling into its interiour parts. Hence we ix. 9. 14. and 1 Kings x. 25. As com- must go to the geographies of Strabo merce was in a high state of cultivation, and Ptolemy, for a knowledge of the he received large sums from duties on interiour of Africa, rather than to the various kinds of merchandise. See 2 works of modern geographers. Coasts, Chron. ix. 14. 1 Kings x. 15. When which were much frequented, were these two sources of wealth, together likewise well known, because they with the revenues from his own people, sailed very near, and extremely slow. are taken into account, our astonish- L'esprit des Lois. 1. xxi. c. 6.

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That the coasts of the Red Sea and grace, my duties towards bim, my duAfrica were early known to the an- ties towards my neighbour, and any ducients, will be sufficiently evident from ties towards myself. consulting a good chronological table, My duty towards God, is, to love or the works of the ancient geogra. him, to honour him, and to sear him, as phers. Edinburgh Encyc. vol. i. p. my Creator, my Sovereign, and my 185, 6, and vol. vi. p. 263, 4. The Judge; remembering that he knows Caffres were known to the ancients, all my thoughts, and sees my most se. under the name of Anthro-pophagi

. cret actions. I ought to receive all the idem. vol. i. p. 34. L'esprit des Lois, bounties of his providence with a lively 1. xxi. c. 10.

gratitude. I ought also to keep bis If we inquire into the navigation of commandments, and to pray to him to those early periods, we shall not be pardon me, and bless me, on account surprised at the length of time occupied of the love of Jesus Christ, who died to in a voyage. They probably coasted save all men, on condition that they nearly as far as the cape of Good will sincerely repent, and incline inHope, an extent from Ezion.geber of ternally towards him with faith, and nearly five thousand miles, besides fol- lead a holy and virtuous life. lowing the windings of the coast, which My duty towards my neighbour, is, must render the distance much greater. to love him as myself; to be careful Being occupied in trade with every that all my actions be just and honest, tribe which they met with upon the my words true and sincere ; and that all coast, must have caused them much de, my thoughts be kind and charitable ; so lay. The necessity of following the that, in every respect, I may do to all coast, waiting for favourable winds, &c., others that which I should wish them circumstances which arose out of the to do to myself,

es, must have ren My duty towards myself, is, to be dered them long and tedious. L'esprit sober, chaste, and temperate ; 10 em. 6.

ploy my time with prudence and adIf what has been said is correct, the vantage; to examine, with care, the Hebrew word, rendered Ophir in our intentions of my heart ; and to maintranslation, ought to be rendered Africa, tain my conscience pure and without in

every instance, In the present un. offence before God and men. certainty, Ophir is considered a mys If my heart applies itself sincerely terious country, and no definite idea is to these duties, I may humbly hope, gained from reading those passages in that the Almighty will continue towards which it is contained.

M. mne the assistance of bis grace, and by

it will render me capable of fulfilling

them. Then I shall be happy in this To the Editor of the Gospel Advocate.

life, and shall have the hope of enjoyThe following is a translation of a ing eternal happiness. short French tract, which was published, some time since, in Paris. M.

SERMON.-No. XIV. The object which I ought to desire Psalm li. 9, 10. Hide thy face from with the greatest ardour is, that my

my sins, and blot out all mine iniquibeart may be pure in the sight of God,

ties. Create in me a clean heart, O so that, after my death, my soul may

God; and renew a right spirit within be eternally happy.

But how can I assure myself of this happiness ?-By ReperTANCE is a duty of primary and fulfilling, with the assistance of his essential importance in the Christian

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des Lois. I. xxi. c.

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THE DUTY OF THE TRUE CHRISTIAN.

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me.

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