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"We receive Christ in the sacrament of his flesh and Sixth proposition. blood, if we receive him worthily12

"When an unrepentant sinner receiveth the sacrament, he hath not Christ's body within him"."

"He that eateth verily the flesh of Christ, is by nature

in Christ, and Christ is naturally in him1."

"An evil man in the sacrament receiveth indeed Christ's Contradiction. very body15"


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"Evil men eat verily the flesh of Christ."

"Christ giveth us to be eaten the same flesh that he Seventh protook of the Virgin Mary"."


"We receive not in the sacrament Christ's flesh that was crucified1."

ד 23

"St Augustine's rule in his book, De Doctrina Chris- Eighth protiana, pertaineth not to Christ's Supper 19."


"St Augustine meaneth of the sacrament 20."

"Reason in the place of service (as being inferior to faith) Ninth prowill with the faith of transubstantiation well enough".



99 position. "And as reason received into faith's service doth not strive Contrawith transubstantiation, but agreeth well with it, so men's senses be not such direct adversaries to transubstantiation, as a matter whereof they cannot skill; for the senses cannot skill of substances"."

"Thine eyes say, there is but bread and wine; thy taste saith the same; thy feeling and smelling agree fully with them. Hereunto is added the carnal man's understanding, which, because it taketh the beginning of the senses, proceedeth in reasoning sensually "3"

"The church hath not forborne to preach the truth, to the confusion of man's senses and understanding"."

[12 P. 167, l. 9; p. 174, l. 1, (vol. iii. p. 252, 262.) Confutation.

13 P. 225, l. 43, (vol. iii. p. 328.) Confutation.

15 Ibid.

14 P. 17, 1. 38, (vol. iii. p. 62.) Confutation.

16 P. 225, 1. 47, (vol. iii. p. 328.) Confutation. 17 P. 241, 1. 27, (vol. iii. p. 348.)

18 P. 243, 1. 16, (vol. iii. p. 351.) Confutation. 19 P. 117, 1. 21, (vol. iii. p. 190.)

20 P. 119, l. 24, (vol. iii. p. 194.) Confutation. 21 P. 265, 1. 1, (vol. iii. p. 382.) Confutation. 22P. 271, 1. 24, (vol. iii. p. 391.)

In the Devil's Sophistry, fol. 6.

24 Fol. 15. ED.]

Tenth proposition.


Eleventh proposition.




proposition. Contra



proposition. Contra


Fourteenth proposition.


Fourteenth proposition. Contra


Fifteenth proposition.


Sixteenth proposition. Contradiction.

"It is called bread, because of the outward visible matter'."

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"When it is called bread, it is meant Christ, the spiritual bread"."

"And the catholic faith teacheth, that the fraction is in the outward sign, and not in the body of Christ"."

“That which is broken is the body of Christ'." "The inward nature of the bread is the substance"." "Substance signifieth in Theodoret," he saith, "the outward nature"."

"The substances of bread and wine be visible creatures"." "Accidents be the visible natures, and visible elements." "Christ is our satisfaction wholly and fully, and hath paid our whole debt to God the Father for the appeasing of his wrath against us."

"The act of the priest, done according to God's commandment, must needs be propitiatory, and ought to be trusted on, to have a propitiatory effect10."


"The sacrifice of our Saviour Christ was never reiterate "." "Priests do sacrifice Christ 12."


"And the catholic doctrine teacheth the daily sacrifice to be the same in essence, that was offered on the cross13. "The Nestorians granted both the Godhead and Manhood always to be in Christ continually."

"The Nestorians denied Christ conceived God, or born God, but that he was afterward God; as a man that is not born a bishop, is after made a bishop. So the Nestorians said, that the Godhead was an accession after by merit, and that he was conceived only Man15. "


"Christ useth us as familiarly as he did his apostles 1." "Christ is not said to be conversant in earth"."

[1 P. 392.

2 P. 284, 1. 25, (vol. iii. p. 411.)

3 P. 144, 1. 39; p. 348, 1. 21, (vol. iii. p. 218,) and in the Devil's Sophistry, fol. 17. 4 P. 348, l. 18, (vol. iii. p. 494.)

6 P. 359, 1. 22, (vol. iii. p. 511.)

5 P. 348, 1. 18, (vol. iii. p. 494.)

7 P. 285, 1. 48; p. 286, l. 44, (vol. iii. p. 414.)

8 P. 363, 1. 39, (vol. iii. p. 518.) 10 P. 387, 1. 13, (vol. iii. p. 542.) 12 P. 381, l. 42, (vol. iii. p. 583.) 14 P. 309, 1. 18, (vol. iii. p. 447.) 16 P. 83, l. 54, (vol. iii. p. 152.)

9 P. 81, 1. 39, (vol. iii. p. 150.) 11 P. 368, 1. 46, (vol. iii. p. 529.) 13 P. 436, 1. 11, (vol. iii. p. 541.) 15 P. 309, 1. 12, (vol. iii. p. 449.) 17 P.101, 1.16, (vol.iii. p.173.) ED.].

Certain things that BISHOP GARDINER granted unto.


wherein Winchester

"CHRIST declared eating of himself to signify believing 18." Notes de"Christ must be spiritually in man, before he receive the sacrament; or else he cannot receive the sacrament wor- granted to thily 19"

spiritual use of the sacrament.

"How Christ is present 20."

"By faith we know only the being present of Christ's most precious body; not the manner thereof "."


"When we speak of Christ's body, we must understand a true body, which hath both form and quantity"."

"Although Christ's body have all those truths of form and quantity, yet it is not present after the manner of quantity."

"The demonstrative 'this' may be referred to the invisible substance".

"All the old prayers and ceremonies sound, as though the people did communicate with the priest.

"The manner of Christ's being in the sacrament is not corporal nor carnal; not natural, not sensible, not perceptible, but only spiritual"."


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י 27

23 P. 71, 1. 34, (vol. iii. p. 132.)
24 P. 106, 1. 44, (vol. iii. p. 178.)
25 P. 159, 1. 17; p. 197, 1. 32, (vol.

P. 225, 1. 43, (vol. iii. p. 328.) 29 P. 250, 1. 28, (vol. iii. p. 363.)

"When the unrepentant sinner receiveth the sacrament, he hath not Christ's body within him".



"We eat not Christ as he sitteth in heaven reigning." "The word transubstantiation' was first spoken of in a general council, where the bishop of Rome was present 29. "In the sacrifice of the church Christ's death is not iterated, but a memory daily renewed of that death; so that Christ's offering on the cross, once done and consummate, is now only remembered 30"

[18 P. 27, 1. 7, (vol. iii. p. 72.)


19 P. 48, 1. 46; p. 140, 1. ult.; p. 172, 1. 28, (vol. iii. p. 94.)

P. 61, 1. 10; p. 71, 1. 41; p. 90, 1. 44; p. 57, l. 17; p. 197, 1, 30, (vol. iii. p. 114.)

21 P. 61, 1. 43, (vol. iii. p. 114.) 23 Ibid.

25 P. 145, 1. 90, (vol. iii. p. 219.) iii. pp. 241, 295.)

25 P. 243, 1. 32, (vol. iii. p. 351.) 30 P.391, 1.5, (vol. iii. p. 549.) ED.]

Transubstantiation first spoken







"THIS winter (1548), there was a Committee of selected bishops and divines appointed for examining all the offices of the Church, and for reforming them. Some had been in King Henry's time employed in the same business, in which they had made a good progress, which was now to be brought to a full perfection. Therefore the Archbishops of Canterbury and York, the Bishops of London, Durham, Worcester, Norwich, St Asaph, Salisbury, Coventry and Lichfield, Carlisle, Bristol, St David's, Ely, Lincoln, Chichester, Hereford, Westminster and Rochester, with Doctors Cox, May, Taylor, Heins, Robertson and Redmayne were appointed to examine all the offices of the Church, and to consider how far any of them needed amendment." "The thing they first examined was the sacrament of the Eucharist."-" Cranmer's hand is over every one of them (the answers) marking the name of the bishop to whom they belonged.”

Burnet, Hist. of the Reformation, Ed. 1816,
Ox. vol. ii. part 1. pp. 113, 114, 115.

Question 1.

Whether the sacrament of the Altar was instituted to be received of one man for another, or to be received of every man for himself?

Of every man for himself.

Question 2.

Whether the receiving of the said sacrament of one man, doth avail and profit any other?

No-but as the receipt of wholesome doctrine, the receipt of the fear of God, the receipt of any godly gift, that is profitable to any one member of Christ's mystical body, may be said generally to profit the whole body, because there

[The answers of Ridley have been extracted and are here published with the questions, separately. ED.]



is a mystical communion and a spiritual participation amongst all the members of Christ in all godliness, as there is in the natural body a natural participation of all natural affections both good and evil.

Question 3.


What is the oblation and sacrifice of Christ in the mass? The representation and commemoration of Christ's death Answer. and passion, said and done in the mass, is called the sacrifice, oblation or immolation of Christ: non rei veritate (as learned men do write) sed significandi mysterio.

Question 4.


Wherein consisteth the mass by Christ's institution? I am not able to say that the mass consisteth by Christ's Answer. institution in other things than in those which be set forth by the Evangelists, Matthew, Mark and Luke, in the Acts, and in 1 Cor. x. xi.

Question 5.

What time the accustomed order began in the Church, Question. that the priest alone should receive the sacrament?

Because the Scripture saith, Panis quem frangimus nonne Answer. communicatio corporis est, &c. likewise de chalice cui benedicimus, and also, bibite ex eo omnes: and the Canons said to be of the Apostles, 10 and 11. and of the Antiochian council can. 2. Anacletus in an epistle commandeth the sacrament to be received of more than the priest alone: Dyonise also declareth the same, and long after, Chrysostom: St Ambrose and St Augustine both complain of the slackness of some, and earnestly exhort the people to the receipt thereof: therefore I suppose that custom, that the priest should receive it alone where it was celebrated openly, was not received in the Church of Christ by the space of four or five hundred years at least after Christ.

Question 6.

Whether it be convenient that the same custom continue Question still within this realm?

I suppose it were best that the custom should be re- Answer.

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