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this part of the work, care has been taken to render it simple, intelligible and appropriate. In teaching the elements of grammar, we ought, as in every other science or art, to follow nature. By observing her operations, improvement is facilitated; by acting other. wise, it is retarded. When we teach a child to read, we begin with the letters, then unite them into syllables; syllables into words, and words into sentences. In the same manner ought we to proceed in teaching a child the parts of speech, and their uses in composition.
The first thing necessary, after the learner can spell and read correctly, is to teach him the different sorts of words and their uses; the various kinds of nouns; the different methods of distinguishing the sex; the numbers and cases of nouns with their variations; the comparison of adjectives; the different kinds of pronouns; the moods, tenses, numbers and persons of verbs; the distinction between the active, passive, and neuter verbs; the nature and use of adverbs, conjunctions, prepositions, interjections, and other essential particulars interspersed throughout the Grammar. The next step is synthetical parsing, or applying rules to such words as govern or influence one another, in construction.
That the rules of syntax may be rendered practical and useful, sentences are added to each, and the words marked with figures that refer to the rules which exemplify the words over which they are placed. By these
helps, and the synthetical nuėthod of parsing exJaibited in the key, immediately preceding the rules of syntax, young learners will be materialljailedergåequiring a facility in parsing syn. tactically.
Every teacher will. doubtless perceive the propriety and utility of inserting the Essentidhi j : Englihi Graxımdr in this work, as it supercedes the necessity of puting: other books into the hands of the learner, till he is prepared to enter the Juvenile Expositor, Murray's large Grammar, or any other work which is well adapted to that
purpose. A superabundance of books, dividing the elementary requisites into as many separate books, as there are different grados of learners, is extremely inconvenient, perplexing, and expensive. The author being desirous of obviating these objections, has endeavoured to unite the exercises in spelling and reading, and the Essentials of Grammar into one volume, calculated for the use of schools throughout our extensive country.
That this work may not be liable to incidental or typographical errours, the author has had it cast in stereotype plates, executed at the type-foundery of Messrs. E. & J. White, of New-York. To theve gentlemen and their ingenious workmen, much credit is due for the taste and neatness of the typography, but especially to Mr. Charles Starr, for the beautiful stereotype castings displayed in this book.
MANHATTAN SCHOOL. Neu-York, 1817.
Of the various Sounds of the Vowels.
as heard in Fate, ale, day. a middle,
in far, bar, arm. a broad,
in fall, call, all. a short,
in hat, cat, rat. a like u short,
in cedar, liar. a like i short,
in cabbage, damage. e long,
in mez, bebosee. e short,
as ir met, nei, set. e like u short,
in her, banter. i long,
in pine, vine, line. short,
in pin, tin, him. like é long,
aj in detriment, caprice, o long,
was in nb, só, note. o middle,
in move, do, shoe. o broad,
in nor, for, morn. o short,
in hot, pot, sot. o like u short,
in son, love, dove. u long,
in mute, mule, tube. u shurt,
in tub, but, nut. u middle,
in full, bull. u like o in move,
in rule, cruel y long,
in fly, try, defy. y like e long,
in lily, jolly. th.... The acute or sharp th, as in think, thin.
..The grave or flat Ty, as in this, that. ♡ The letter priated in Illic, use silent, &refts, whick sounds like s.
6 AMERICAN SCHOOL CLASS-BOOK, NO. I.
The principal diphthongs are: ai ay ei
uy ew oi
ui Some of these diphthongs have the sound of two vowels ; some of a single short vowel; some of a single middle rowel; and others of a single long or broad vowel.
The sound of two vowels; as
fou in our; oi
CÓW; The sound of a single short vowel; as ea in head
like e short; ui in build
like i short; ue in guess
like e short; The sound of a single middle vowel; as au in aunt
like middle a; oo in cool
like middle o; oo in good
like middle u; The sound of a single
long or broad vowel; as ai in air
like a long; ay in day
like a long; ey in key
like e long; au in daub
like a broad; aw in paw
like a broad. ::::::::: THE ALPHABET, RENDERED FAMILIAR BY CUTS. А а